Chap 2   earth's interior
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Chap 2 earth's interior Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior
  • 2. Facts About the Earth
    • Atmospheric pressure of the earth is 1 atm.
    • For every 100 meters depth, the temperature rises by 3 0 C
    • For every 3 km depth, pressure rises by 1000 atm.
    • So far only 10 km of the crust have been drilled and mined.
  • 3. Internal structure
    • The Earth is made of many different and distinct layers. The deeper layers are composed of heavier materials; they are hotter, denser and under much greater pressure than the outer layers.
  • 4. The Layers of the Earth’s Interior
    • The Crust
    • The lithosphere is defined as the crust and the upper mantle, a rigid layer about 100-200 km thick.
    • The Earth's surface is composed mostly of water, basalt and granite.
    • Oceans cover about 70% of Earth's surface. These oceans are up to 3.7 km deep.
    • The Earth's thin, rocky crust is composed of silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium and potassium.
  • 5. Crust
    • The crust is divided into
    • 1 . Continental crust is about 30-80 km thick. Mostly granite, which is rich with silicon & aluminum (SIAL)
    • 2. Oceanic crust is about 7.5 km thick.Mostly basalt, which is rich in (SIMA)
  • 6. Mojo Discontinuity
    • Andrija Mohorovicic a Yugoslav seismologist discovered the manner by w/c seismic waves travel. It travels slowly in the crust and much faster upon reaching a depth of 32 to 48 km.
    • The Mohorovicic discontinuity is the separation between the crust and the upper mantle.
  • 7. Mantle
    • Under the crust is the rocky mantle , which is composed of silicon, oxygen, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and calcium.
    • The upper mantle is rigid and is part of the lithosphere (together with the crust). The lower mantle flows slowly, at a rate of a few centimeters per year.
    • The asthenosphere is a part of the upper mantle that exhibits plastic properties. It is located below the lithosphere (the crust and upper mantle), between about 100 and 250 kilometers deep.
  • 8. Gutenberg Discontinuity
    • The mantle contains most of the mass of the Earth. The Gutenberg discontinuity separates the outer core and the mantle.
    • Beno Gutenberg
  • 9.  
  • 10. Core
    • The Earth has a iron-nickel core that is about 2,100 miles in radius.
    • The inner core may have a temperature up to about 13,000°F (7,200°C = 7,500 K), which is hotter than the surface of the Sun .
    • The inner core (which has a radius of about 750 miles (1,228 km) is solid.
    • The outer core is in a liquid state and is about 1,400 miles (2,260 km) thick.
    • Conrad Discontiniuty separates the inner from the outer core.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Magnetic Field
  • 13. Magnetic Field
    • Scientist deduced that the rotation of the earth contributes to the formation of the earth’s magnetic field.
    • That the large , heavier materials that have migrated from above together with molten iron are swirling in the core.
    • And this movement results to the generation of electricity that acts somewhat like an electromagnet and has created the earth’s magnetic field.
  • 14.
    • Magnetic field lines radiate between Earth's north and south magnetic poles just as they do between the poles of a bar magnet. Charged particles become trapped on these field lines (just as the iron filings are trapped), forming the magnetosphere .
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    • END of PRESENTATION
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