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C. operant learning
 

C. operant learning

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    C. operant learning C. operant learning Presentation Transcript

    • PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING Chapter III: Associative Learning
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      • Operant Learning is a kind of associative learning whereby behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences.
      • Animals have the capacity to reason by presenting logical argument and conclusion to problems.
      • Can animals really think?
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      • A behavior has typically one of the two kinds of consequences or effects:
      • Satisfying state of affairs; and
      • Annoying state of affairs.
      The Law of Effect
      • The term OPERANT LEARNING indicates that the individual operates the environment.
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    • In the attempt of perfecting Thorndike’s study on animal intelligence, Skinner developed what came to be the “Skinner’s box”. He was then regarded as the founding father of operant conditioning.
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      • “ Classical conditioning has the tendency to be passive in terms of learning…”
      CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS)
      • CONSEQUENCES
      INDIVIDUAL (perceiving the situation and ACTING on it) MANIPULATING the ENVIRONMENT for our own BENEFIT ENVIRONMENT (presenting situation ) POSITIVE RESULTS (strengthening behavior) NEGATIVE RESULTS (weakening behavior)
      • A concept referring to an increase in the strength of behaviour due to its consequences.
      • Behaviour must have a consequence;
      • Behaviour must increase in strength; and
      • Increase in strength of behaviour must be the result of the consequence.
      • If I do X, then Y.
      YOU HAVE TO TAKE YOUR MEDS DAD . CAN’T TALK RIGHT NOW. I’M BLOGGING THIS! If the tendency to do X has not been strengthened because of the Y, then, there is no REINFORCEMENT. CAUSE EFFECT
      • Positive Reinforcement
      • Negative Reinforcement
      increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
      • Primary Reinforcers are stimuli that naturally or innately reinforcing behaviour.
      • Secondary Reinforcers are reinforcing stimuli dependently associated with other reinforcers.
      • States that human behaviour is motivated by our needs.
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      • Response Deprivation Theory states that behaviour becomes reinforcing when the organism is prevented from engaging in it at its normal frequency.
    • The natural tendency of an organism to eat.
      • Study the following:
      • Punishment
      • Kinds of punishment
      • Contingency and Contiguity
      • Theories of Punishment
      • Punishment is a kind of stimulus that aims to decrease the strength in behaviour due to its consequence.
      • Behaviour must have a consequence;
      • Behaviour must decrease in strength; and
      • Decrease in strength of behaviour must be the result of the consequence.
      • Positive Punishment
      • Negative Punishment
      decreases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus. decreases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the removal of a pleasant stimulus.
      • Positive Reinforcement
      • Negative Reinforcement
      increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
    • Increases Decreases Stimulus is presented Stimulus is removed POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Strength of Behavior POSITIVE PUNISHMENT NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
    • POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
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    • NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
    • POSITIVE PUNISHMENT
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    • NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT
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      • Contingency
      • Contiguity
      • Intensity of Punishment
      • Introductory Level of Punishment
      • Reinforcement of the Punished Behaviour
      • “ The degree to which punishment weakens a behaviour varies with the degree to which a punishing event is dependent on that behaviour.”
      • “ The interval between a behaviour and a punishing consequence has a powerful effect on learning. The longer the delay, the slower the learning.”
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