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  • Students should say the cracker went from being salty to sweet. The reason is that the cracker is composed of starches (polysaccharides). However, your spit contains amylase (a digestive enzyme) that breaks the polysaccharide down into monosaccharides (sugar).
  • Structure of starches. Something in your spit goes in there and breaks the bonds in between each of the sugar (glucose) units.
  • How would we test if this is what actually happened? Before putting in your mouth, cracker would test positive for Iodine test (indicating presence of starch). After, however, it would test negative for the iodine and positive for the Benedict’s test.
  • Emphasize importance of 3D structure and how the folds are what hold the active site together.
  • Alcohol dehydrogenase converts alcohol into a less harmful substance once it is in your system to rid your body of its poisonous effects. If you would like to expand upon this, you could ask them who is lacking in this enzyme (on average, women and Asians—Asian glow!).
  • Enzymes can carry out synthesis/addition reactions where 2 substrates are combined.
  • Enzymes can also carry out degradation reactions where a substrate composed of many monomers (a macromolecule or polymer) is broken down into individual parts.
  • Enzymes

    1. 1. DO NOW! (be ready to discuss) <ul><li>You will find a cracker on your desk. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the cracker on your tongue for 5 minutes (NO CHEWING). </li></ul><ul><li>Record your observations in your journal. </li></ul>
    2. 2. What happened?
    3. 3. <ul><li>Carbon ring </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul>Chemical Tests? Benedict’s reagent is used to test for simple sugar like glucose and fructose (mono-saccharides). When heated , Benedict’s reagent changes color from light blue to red/orange if a simple sugar is present. + -- + Iodine solution is used to test for the presence of polysaccharides (starch). If starch is present, a color change from amber to purple/black occurs. Starch No starch
    4. 4. Enzymes (what was in your spit!) <ul><li>Enzymes are proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Think back to the 4 types of macromolecules ! </li></ul><ul><li>Who remembers the monomer and polymer for proteins? </li></ul><ul><li>What do proteins do? </li></ul><ul><li>Naming enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>ALL enzymes end in –ase ! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: peptid ase , amyl ase (the one in your spit), sucr ase … </li></ul>
    5. 5. Proteins (function: structure of all living things) Monomer Amino Acid ( monomer for proteins)
    6. 6. Proteins Polymer Protein ( polymer for proteins) — many amino acids connected to each other—“amino acid chain” Ex. Enzyme (catalyzes reactions) Monomer
    7. 8. Biological Role of Enzymes “What do enzymes do?” <ul><li>Enzymes catalyze reactions in your body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Alcohol Dehydrogen ase </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Enzyme Vocab
    9. 10. Enzyme Vocab <ul><li>Enzyme —protein that catalyzes reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate —reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Site — the part of an enzyme where the substrate binds and where the chemical reaction occurs. </li></ul>
    10. 11. Enzyme Reactions
    11. 12. Enzyme Reactions
    12. 13. What happens when this 3D structure is disrupted? Coming soon…
    13. 14. Pop Quiz! ( LOOK at your notes!). <ul><li>Nuclease is a special enzyme that cuts DNA strands. You add nuclease to a beaker of DNA and observe what happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the 4 types of macromolecules are DNA? Is that a monomer or a polymer ? </li></ul><ul><li>Substrates bind to enzymes at a special place called the __________ site . </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, the enzyme is ________ and the substrate is __________. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think will happen to the DNA when add the nuclease ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the products of this reaction? </li></ul><ul><li>(Hint: think DNA monomer and polymer!) </li></ul>
    14. 15. Specificity <ul><li>Enzymes are specific for the substrate they are designed for. </li></ul><ul><li>Why couldn’t an enzyme work with different substrates? </li></ul>
    15. 16. Non-consumption/Reusability <ul><li>Reactions do not consume enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are reusable. </li></ul>
    16. 17. Protein Denaturation (Denature) <ul><li>An enzyme can unfold and lose its special 3D shape. </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot function if it is denatured. </li></ul><ul><li>Can anyone remember the example we used yesterday? </li></ul>
    17. 18. Reaction Rate <ul><li>The rate or speed at which a reaction occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think enzymes affect this number? </li></ul>
    18. 19. Reaction Time <ul><li>The time it takes for a reaction to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think enzymes affect this number? </li></ul>
    19. 20. Activation Energy <ul><li>Every reaction has an activation energy . </li></ul><ul><li>It is the amount of energy it takes for a reaction to start . </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think enzymes affect this number? </li></ul>
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