1. HISTORY OFHISTORY OF
ELECTRONIC AGEELECTRONIC AGE
SECOND GENERATIONSECOND GENERATION
COMPUTERS (1959-1963)COMPUTERS (1959-1963)
What is the first programmable computerWhat is the first programmable computer
invented by Konrad Zuse?invented by Konrad Zuse?
The first stored program computerThe first stored program computer
invented by Aiken?invented by Aiken?
The first electronic computer invented byThe first electronic computer invented by
Atanasoff and Berry?Atanasoff and Berry?
The electronic devices used during the 1The electronic devices used during the 1stst
Gen computers?Gen computers?
The 2 computing devices designed byThe 2 computing devices designed by
Ekert and Mauchly during the 1Ekert and Mauchly during the 1stst
4. VACUUM TUBES REPLACED BYVACUUM TUBES REPLACED BY
TRANSISTORS AS MAIN LOGICTRANSISTORS AS MAIN LOGIC
MAGNETIC TAPE AND DISK BEGAN TOMAGNETIC TAPE AND DISK BEGAN TO
REPLACE PUNCHED CARD ASREPLACE PUNCHED CARD AS
EXTERNAL STORAGE DEVICES.EXTERNAL STORAGE DEVICES.
MAGNETIC CORES BECAME THEMAGNETIC CORES BECAME THE
PRIMARY INTERNAL STORAGEPRIMARY INTERNAL STORAGE
HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING WEREHIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING WERE
USED LIKE FORTRAN, AND COBOL.USED LIKE FORTRAN, AND COBOL.
A SEMI CONDUCTOR DEVICEA SEMI CONDUCTOR DEVICE
COMMONLY USE TO AMPLIFY ORCOMMONLY USE TO AMPLIFY OR
SWITCH ELECTRONIC SIGNALS.SWITCH ELECTRONIC SIGNALS.
THE GREATEST INVENTION OF THETHE GREATEST INVENTION OF THE
2OTH CENTURY.2OTH CENTURY.
WERE SMALLER, FASTER, CHEAPER,WERE SMALLER, FASTER, CHEAPER,
REQUIRED LESS POWER ANDREQUIRED LESS POWER AND
PRODUCED LESS HEAT THANPRODUCED LESS HEAT THAN
VACUUM TUBES.VACUUM TUBES.
MADE 2MADE 2NDND
GEN. COMPUTER MOREGEN. COMPUTER MORE
FASTER MORE RELIABLE THAN 1FASTER MORE RELIABLE THAN 1STST
GEN COMPUTERS.GEN COMPUTERS.
6. BESIDES INCREASING SPEED, ITBESIDES INCREASING SPEED, IT
CAN AMPLIFY A SIGNAL, OR OPENCAN AMPLIFY A SIGNAL, OR OPEN
AND CLOSE A CIRCUIT, SERVE ASAND CLOSE A CIRCUIT, SERVE AS
ELECTRONIC SWITCH OR BRIDGEELECTRONIC SWITCH OR BRIDGE
TO COMPUTERS.TO COMPUTERS.
ALLOWED COMPUTERS TOALLOWED COMPUTERS TO
COMMUNICATE OVERCOMMUNICATE OVER
TELEPHONE LINES.TELEPHONE LINES.
IT GAVE WAY TO THE CONCEPTSIT GAVE WAY TO THE CONCEPTS
OF PARALLEL PROCESSOR ANDOF PARALLEL PROCESSOR AND
7. JOHN BARDEN, WALTER BRATTAIN and WILLIANJOHN BARDEN, WALTER BRATTAIN and WILLIAN
SHOCKLEYSHOCKLEY OFOF BELL TELEPHONEBELL TELEPHONE
LABORATORIESLABORATORIES INVENTED THE TRANSISTOR.INVENTED THE TRANSISTOR.
8. GRACE MURRAY HOPPERGRACE MURRAY HOPPER
THE WOMANTHE WOMAN
THAT FOUNDTHAT FOUND
THE FIRSTTHE FIRST
BUG, FINISHESBUG, FINISHES
CO - CommonCO - Common
B - BusinessB - Business
O - OrientedO - Oriented
L - LanguagesL - Languages
9. COMPUTER BUGCOMPUTER BUG
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure,
or fault in a computer program
or system that causes it to produce an
incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave
in unintended ways. Most bugs arise from
mistakes and errors made by people in
either a program's source code or its design,
or in frameworks and operating systems
used by such programs, and a few are
caused by compilers producing incorrect
10. The term "bug" was used in an account by computer
pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of
a malfunction in an early electromechanical
11. 1964: KEN OLSEN1964: KEN OLSEN
FOUNDED THEFOUNDED THE
DEC- DIGITALDEC- DIGITAL
, RELEASED, RELEASED
THE FIRSTTHE FIRST
THE PDP-8THE PDP-8
12. The 12-bit PDP-8 was the first successful commercial
minicomputer, produced by Digital Equipment
Corporation (DEC) in the 1960s. DEC introduced it on
22 March 1965, and sold more than 50,000 systems,
the most of any computer up to that date. It was
the first widely sold computer in the DEC PDP series
of computers (the PDP-5 was not originally intended
to be a general-purpose computer). The chief
engineer who designed the initial version of the PDP-
8 was Edson de Castro, who later founded Data
The earliest PDP-8 model (informally known as a
"Straight-8") used diode-transistor logic, packaged on
flip chip cards, and was about the size of a small
13. 1965: THOMAS KURTZ and JOHN1965: THOMAS KURTZ and JOHN
THETHE BASICBASIC- A- A
TO HELPTO HELP
PEOPLE HOWPEOPLE HOW
TO PROGRAMTO PROGRAM
B- BeginnersB- Beginners
A-A- All PurposeAll Purpose
Who was the first man that walks over the water?
Who was the second man that walks over the water?
Who was the third man that walks over the water?
Do you wish that you can walks over the water
15. ELECTRONIC AGEELECTRONIC AGE
THE THIRD GENERATIONTHE THIRD GENERATION
16. INDIVIDUAL TRANSISTOR WEREINDIVIDUAL TRANSISTOR WERE
REPLACED BY INTEGRATEDREPLACED BY INTEGRATED
MAGNETIC TAPE and DISKMAGNETIC TAPE and DISK
COMPLETELY REPLACECOMPLETELY REPLACE
PUNCHED CARDS AS EXTERNALPUNCHED CARDS AS EXTERNAL
STORAGE DEVICES.STORAGE DEVICES.
A NEW FORM OF MAGNETICA NEW FORM OF MAGNETIC
CORE, MOS (metal oxideCORE, MOS (metal oxide
17. 1958: JACK KILBY1958: JACK KILBY
Responsible forResponsible for
the developmentthe development
and applicationand application
of a monolithicof a monolithic
circuits, whichcircuits, which
still widely usedstill widely used
in electronicin electronic
18. INTEGRATED CIRCUITSINTEGRATED CIRCUITS
IS A SINGLE WAFER OR CHIP THATIS A SINGLE WAFER OR CHIP THAT
CAN HOLD MANY TRANSISTORS ANDCAN HOLD MANY TRANSISTORS AND
ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS.ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS.
ELIMINATED THE NEED FORELIMINATED THE NEED FOR
UNRELIABLE HAND WIRE CIRCUITS.UNRELIABLE HAND WIRE CIRCUITS.
ALLOWED HUNDREDS OF CIRCUITSALLOWED HUNDREDS OF CIRCUITS
TO BE EASILY CONNECTED.TO BE EASILY CONNECTED.
WERE FASTER, IMPROVED MEMORY,WERE FASTER, IMPROVED MEMORY,
AND REDUCED THE PRICE OFAND REDUCED THE PRICE OF
19. 1968- ROBERT
NOYCE- one of
the inventors of
20. The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC)
was a digital computer produced for the
Apollo program that was installed on
board each Apollo Command Module
(CM) and Lunar Module (LM). The AGC
provided computation and electronic
interfaces for guidance, navigation, and
control of the spacecraft
The AGC is notable for
being one of the first
21. 1969- ARPANET is set up later becomes1969- ARPANET is set up later becomes
1972-THE C programming language is1972-THE C programming language is
developed at AT&T Bell Labs by Briandeveloped at AT&T Bell Labs by Brian
Kerningham and Dennis Ritchie.Kerningham and Dennis Ritchie.
UNIX is written at Bell Labs and becomeUNIX is written at Bell Labs and become
the most portable operating system.the most portable operating system.
22. ELECTRONIC AGEELECTRONIC AGE
THE FOURTH GENERATIONTHE FOURTH GENERATION
23. INTEL CORPORATIONINTEL CORPORATION
designed the first tinydesigned the first tiny
computer on a chip, called acomputer on a chip, called a
MADE THE COMPUTER OFMADE THE COMPUTER OF
THE FOURTH GENERATIONTHE FOURTH GENERATION
THE FASTEST AND THETHE FASTEST AND THE
MOST POWERFUL THEYMOST POWERFUL THEY
HAVE EVER BEEN.HAVE EVER BEEN.
IS AN INTEGRATED CIRCUITSIS AN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
BUILT ON A TINY PIECE OFBUILT ON A TINY PIECE OF
IT CONTAINS THOUSANDS, ORIT CONTAINS THOUSANDS, OR
EVEN MILLIONS OF TRANSISTORS,EVEN MILLIONS OF TRANSISTORS,
WHICH ARE INTERCONNECTED VIAWHICH ARE INTERCONNECTED VIA
SUPERFINE TRACES OFSUPERFINE TRACES OF
ALUMINUM, WORK TOGETHER TOALUMINUM, WORK TOGETHER TO
STORE AND MANIPULATE DATA.STORE AND MANIPULATE DATA.
25. ALTAIR 8800- a
because it made
everyone, it has
256 bytes of
memory, and ran
26. WILLIAM HENRY “BILL” GATES III PAUL ALLEN
27. Apple II- the first PC
to come in plastic
case and include
introduced by the
by Steve Jobs and
The graphic users
VISICALC- the first spreadsheetVISICALC- the first spreadsheet
WORDSTAR- the first wordWORDSTAR- the first word
MS-DOS- operating systemMS-DOS- operating system
introduced by IBM.introduced by IBM.
29. IBM PC- IBM
in the market, and it
came with a DOS,
licensed by the
in 1984, a simple
GUI with 8-MHz,
32 bit Motorola
68000 CPU, and
has a built in 9-
inch B/W screen.
31. AMIGA- the first multimedia computer,
introduced games, advanced graphics,
and multitasking operating system with
33. What about the 5What about the 5thth
generation ofgeneration of