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Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914
 

Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914

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canada, louis riel, red river rebellion

canada, louis riel, red river rebellion

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    Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914 Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914 Presentation Transcript

    • Canada’s Economy & Society From 1867-1914
    • Canada’s Westward Movement
      • Nat’l government led by John Macdonald (Conservative Party)
      • Eager to incorporate new western lands into the country
        • Wanted to treat western Canada as colonies of Canada
        • sent road surveying crew in 1869 into the region
    • Métis
      • Descendants of Indians and French Trappers
      • Happily separate from the rest of Canada
        • Lived in present-day Manitoba along the Red River Valley
      • Buffalo hunting and farming the river valley
      • Roman Catholics
      • Suspicious of government (with good reason)
    • Métis Response:
      • Band of Métis
        • Led by Louis Riel
      • stopped crew and ordered them out of the area
      • Formed National Committee
        • Notified Ottawa that it would not recognize its control over area
        • Would not allow lieutenant-governor to enter territory
          • would use force if necessary
    • The Red River Rebellion
      • Nov 1869 Riel seized prisoners
      • Captured Upper Fort Garry
      • Issued a “Declaration of the People”
      • Announced provisional Red River Valley government
      • Used prisoners and Ft. Garry for negotiations with Macdonald
    • Martyr Thomas Scott
      • One prisoner: Thomas Scott was court martialed
      • Found guilty without being given the right to speak
      • Scott’s execution led to further anti-Métis and anti-Catholic feelings
      • Also led to sympathy from French Québecois
    • Manitoba Act of 1870
      • Created Province of Manitoba
      • Gave federal representation, provincial assembly, bilingualism, and the right to maintain French and English speaking schools
      • Remainder of nw became territory of Canada
      • Resented by Ontario citizens
      • August 1870, Canadian troops moved into Manitoba
        • Riel fled to US
    • The National Policy & Industrialization
      • Introduced March 1879
      • Encouraged the development of Canadian industry
      • Increased industrialization led to child labor abuses
      • Transition from agrarian to industrial families
      • Growth of cities
      • Introduction of labor unions
        • The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor
      • Boom in Canadian economy 1900-1912
        • Large scale foreign investments
        • wheat
      • Population growth
    • Immigration & Reform
      • US farmers attracted to region
        • The 1872 Dominion Lands Act
        • US farmers could sell land and buy cheap Canadian land
      • Large number of Eastern European immigrants
      • Immigration peaked 1905-1914
      • Native Americans segregated on reservations
      • Blacks community miniscule
        • Descendants of pre-Civil War slaves that had escaped using the Underground Railroad
      • Asian immigration limited by laws and head tax
      • 1905 Eastern & Southern European immigration
      • Nativist organizations developed
        • “ Canadian way of life”
    • Reform of Manitoba Act of 1870
      • 1890 Manitoba government stopped funding separate schools
      • “ We French Canadians belong to one country, Canada; Canada is for us the whole world, but the English Canadians have two countries, one here and one across the sea.”
      • Demanded immigration restrictions, prohibition, end of prostitution; campaigned for social purity, Asiatic exclusion
        • Linked vice, crime, and poverty
    • Education
      • Reformers pushed for improved schooling
        • Schooling would help end societal ills:
          • Responsible for children of slum and ghetto dwellers
          • More suitable than factories, or roaming the streets
          • Learn skills to lift them from poverty
          • Assimilate immigrant children into Canadian society
      • Gained compulsory school attendance legislation in all provinces by 1914
    • Prohibition
      • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
        • Founded in 1874, 10,000 members by 1900
          • Helped grow women’s suffrage movement
        • Goal of prohibition
        • Believed this would rid Canada of its social problems:
          • Crime
          • Domestic violence
          • Political corruption
          • Immorality
      • P.M. Laurier allowed national referendum on prohibition in 1898
      • WWI ended reform efforts