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Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914
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Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914


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canada, louis riel, red river rebellion

canada, louis riel, red river rebellion

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  • 1. Canada’s Economy & Society From 1867-1914
  • 2. Canada’s Westward Movement
    • Nat’l government led by John Macdonald (Conservative Party)
    • Eager to incorporate new western lands into the country
      • Wanted to treat western Canada as colonies of Canada
      • sent road surveying crew in 1869 into the region
  • 3. Métis
    • Descendants of Indians and French Trappers
    • Happily separate from the rest of Canada
      • Lived in present-day Manitoba along the Red River Valley
    • Buffalo hunting and farming the river valley
    • Roman Catholics
    • Suspicious of government (with good reason)
  • 4. Métis Response:
    • Band of Métis
      • Led by Louis Riel
    • stopped crew and ordered them out of the area
    • Formed National Committee
      • Notified Ottawa that it would not recognize its control over area
      • Would not allow lieutenant-governor to enter territory
        • would use force if necessary
  • 5. The Red River Rebellion
    • Nov 1869 Riel seized prisoners
    • Captured Upper Fort Garry
    • Issued a “Declaration of the People”
    • Announced provisional Red River Valley government
    • Used prisoners and Ft. Garry for negotiations with Macdonald
  • 6. Martyr Thomas Scott
    • One prisoner: Thomas Scott was court martialed
    • Found guilty without being given the right to speak
    • Scott’s execution led to further anti-Métis and anti-Catholic feelings
    • Also led to sympathy from French Québecois
  • 7. Manitoba Act of 1870
    • Created Province of Manitoba
    • Gave federal representation, provincial assembly, bilingualism, and the right to maintain French and English speaking schools
    • Remainder of nw became territory of Canada
    • Resented by Ontario citizens
    • August 1870, Canadian troops moved into Manitoba
      • Riel fled to US
  • 8. The National Policy & Industrialization
    • Introduced March 1879
    • Encouraged the development of Canadian industry
    • Increased industrialization led to child labor abuses
    • Transition from agrarian to industrial families
    • Growth of cities
  • 9.
    • Introduction of labor unions
      • The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor
    • Boom in Canadian economy 1900-1912
      • Large scale foreign investments
      • wheat
    • Population growth
  • 10. Immigration & Reform
    • US farmers attracted to region
      • The 1872 Dominion Lands Act
      • US farmers could sell land and buy cheap Canadian land
    • Large number of Eastern European immigrants
    • Immigration peaked 1905-1914
  • 11.
    • Native Americans segregated on reservations
    • Blacks community miniscule
      • Descendants of pre-Civil War slaves that had escaped using the Underground Railroad
    • Asian immigration limited by laws and head tax
    • 1905 Eastern & Southern European immigration
    • Nativist organizations developed
      • “ Canadian way of life”
  • 12. Reform of Manitoba Act of 1870
    • 1890 Manitoba government stopped funding separate schools
    • “ We French Canadians belong to one country, Canada; Canada is for us the whole world, but the English Canadians have two countries, one here and one across the sea.”
    • Demanded immigration restrictions, prohibition, end of prostitution; campaigned for social purity, Asiatic exclusion
      • Linked vice, crime, and poverty
  • 13. Education
    • Reformers pushed for improved schooling
      • Schooling would help end societal ills:
        • Responsible for children of slum and ghetto dwellers
        • More suitable than factories, or roaming the streets
        • Learn skills to lift them from poverty
        • Assimilate immigrant children into Canadian society
    • Gained compulsory school attendance legislation in all provinces by 1914
  • 14. Prohibition
    • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
      • Founded in 1874, 10,000 members by 1900
        • Helped grow women’s suffrage movement
      • Goal of prohibition
      • Believed this would rid Canada of its social problems:
        • Crime
        • Domestic violence
        • Political corruption
        • Immorality
    • P.M. Laurier allowed national referendum on prohibition in 1898
    • WWI ended reform efforts