Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914

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canada, louis riel, red river rebellion

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Canada Economy & Society Mid 19th 1914

  1. 1. Canada’s Economy & Society From 1867-1914
  2. 2. Canada’s Westward Movement <ul><li>Nat’l government led by John Macdonald (Conservative Party) </li></ul><ul><li>Eager to incorporate new western lands into the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to treat western Canada as colonies of Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sent road surveying crew in 1869 into the region </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Métis <ul><li>Descendants of Indians and French Trappers </li></ul><ul><li>Happily separate from the rest of Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in present-day Manitoba along the Red River Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buffalo hunting and farming the river valley </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious of government (with good reason) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Métis Response: <ul><li>Band of Métis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Louis Riel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>stopped crew and ordered them out of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Formed National Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notified Ottawa that it would not recognize its control over area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would not allow lieutenant-governor to enter territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>would use force if necessary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Red River Rebellion <ul><li>Nov 1869 Riel seized prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Captured Upper Fort Garry </li></ul><ul><li>Issued a “Declaration of the People” </li></ul><ul><li>Announced provisional Red River Valley government </li></ul><ul><li>Used prisoners and Ft. Garry for negotiations with Macdonald </li></ul>
  6. 6. Martyr Thomas Scott <ul><li>One prisoner: Thomas Scott was court martialed </li></ul><ul><li>Found guilty without being given the right to speak </li></ul><ul><li>Scott’s execution led to further anti-Métis and anti-Catholic feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Also led to sympathy from French Québecois </li></ul>
  7. 7. Manitoba Act of 1870 <ul><li>Created Province of Manitoba </li></ul><ul><li>Gave federal representation, provincial assembly, bilingualism, and the right to maintain French and English speaking schools </li></ul><ul><li>Remainder of nw became territory of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Resented by Ontario citizens </li></ul><ul><li>August 1870, Canadian troops moved into Manitoba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riel fled to US </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The National Policy & Industrialization <ul><li>Introduced March 1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the development of Canadian industry </li></ul><ul><li>Increased industrialization led to child labor abuses </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from agrarian to industrial families </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of cities </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Introduction of labor unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boom in Canadian economy 1900-1912 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale foreign investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul>
  10. 10. Immigration & Reform <ul><li>US farmers attracted to region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1872 Dominion Lands Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US farmers could sell land and buy cheap Canadian land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large number of Eastern European immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration peaked 1905-1914 </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Native Americans segregated on reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks community miniscule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendants of pre-Civil War slaves that had escaped using the Underground Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asian immigration limited by laws and head tax </li></ul><ul><li>1905 Eastern & Southern European immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Nativist organizations developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Canadian way of life” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Reform of Manitoba Act of 1870 <ul><li>1890 Manitoba government stopped funding separate schools </li></ul><ul><li>“ We French Canadians belong to one country, Canada; Canada is for us the whole world, but the English Canadians have two countries, one here and one across the sea.” </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded immigration restrictions, prohibition, end of prostitution; campaigned for social purity, Asiatic exclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked vice, crime, and poverty </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Education <ul><li>Reformers pushed for improved schooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schooling would help end societal ills: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for children of slum and ghetto dwellers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More suitable than factories, or roaming the streets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn skills to lift them from poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilate immigrant children into Canadian society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gained compulsory school attendance legislation in all provinces by 1914 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prohibition <ul><li>Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1874, 10,000 members by 1900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped grow women’s suffrage movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed this would rid Canada of its social problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political corruption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immorality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>P.M. Laurier allowed national referendum on prohibition in 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>WWI ended reform efforts </li></ul>
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