Why where these years turning
points in American History?
 1898 – Spanish American War
 1914-1918 - WWI
 1929 – The Gre...
Cause and Effect of Migration
 Westward migration to California in the 1800’s?
 The Gold Rush

 Migration from rural (c...
Unit 2 – Westward Expansion
Ways RR changed America’s
Economy

 Transcontinental RR made it possible to travel to

California and tied the country to...
Homestead Act
 The Homestead Act became law in 1862 when it was

signed by President Abraham Lincoln. Under the new
law a...
Great Plains Challenges
 When they purchased the land they were told it well-

watered and wooded land – what they found ...
Alaska Gold Rush
 Miners attracted to Far West because of discoveries of

precious metals in California and Alaska.
 A l...
Indian Policies
 Due to precious metal discoveries many Indians were

moved off of their own lands to new locations –
res...
Indian Policies
 Many policies were supposed to help, however most

times they made issues worse.
 Dawes Act (1887)
 Wa...
Immigration
Problems faced by immigrants in
the Gilded Age
 Crowed tenements – one room apartments that

lacked daylight, adequate pl...
Nativists
 the policy of protecting the interests of native

inhabitants against those of immigrants.
 Love of the US an...
Immigrants Came because?
 Push Factors
 OPPRESSION
 POVERTY
 WAR
 RELIGIOUS/ETHNIC PERSECUTION
 Pull Factors
 FREED...
Americanized Immigrants
 Immigrants were working, so many times becoming

more American was left to the children. They le...
Immigration Quotas
 Many people felt that the

reason that
unemployment was so
high – because Chinese
workers were taking...
INDUSTRIALIZATION
Political Machines
 City Government was

sometimes run by bad
(corrupt) leaders.
 Boss would tell the
workers what to do...
Industrialization
Effects
 Because of inventions and new









technology – there was great economic expansion.
...
Technology
 Telephone – Alexander Graham Bell

 Electric Light Bulb – Thomas Edison
 Elevator – Elisha Otis
 Airplane ...
Robber Baron or Captain of
Industry?
 Robber Baron – was a businessman that sometimes

used ruthless tactics to destroy c...
Big Business Owners
- Carnegie
 Andrew Carnegie
 Grew up poor
 Invested in iron works and built a steel mill in
Pittsbu...
Big Business - Rockefeller
 Controlled the refining of oil (Monopoly).
 Forced to dissolve his company because it was un...
Labor Unions
 Worker Problems:
 Long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, child
labor, no benefits, no job securit...
Government Attitude toward Labor
Unions
 Government had anti-union bias
 Many in government saw unions as driving up the...
Gilded Age for…
 Women
 Minorities
 Children
Laissez Fair Policies
 a policy that allows businesses to operate with very

little interference from the government.
Progressive Era
Populist
 A new national party that supported the “common

man”.
 Farmer gave their support to this party.
 Populist pa...
Farmers Problems
 New Farm machinery and the opening of the Great

Plains led to OVERproduction.
 Food prices fell and e...
Progressives
 Took name from the belief of “progress”.
 Most progressives were middle class and reflected

those ideas.
Muckrakers of the Time
 Upton Sinclair – wrote “The Jungle” – and exposed the

meat packing industry for unsafe practices...
 Jacob Riis – photographer of Child Labor.
 Ida Tarbell – writer, wrote about Rockfeller’s Standard

Oil business and hi...
Social Gospel Movement
 Protestant ministers called for reform.
 Organized to help people less fortunate.
 Christians w...
Progressive Laws & Reforms
 16th Amendment – gave Congress the power to tax

personal income.
 17th Amendment – 2 senato...
Reforms
 National Park Service
 Protected public parks and monuments.

 Anti-Trust Legislation (Clayton Antitrust Act)
...
Reforms
 Pure Food and Drug Act – 1906
 Meat Inspection Act – 1906
 Both passed to protect the consumer

 Federal Rese...
Teddy Roosevelt – Square Deal
 Helped break up bad trusts

 Square Deal:
 Meat Inspection Act & Pure
Food and Drug Act
...
Sanford Dole
 In Hawaii there was unrest – and the Queen tried to

get power back from American settlers that had
plantat...
Alfred Thayer Manhan
 Wrote “The Influence of Sea Power upon History”
 Argued for making US into a world power.

The US ...
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Causes of the Spanish American War
 HUMANITARIAN: Americans sympathized with the








Cuban Revolution because th...
Effects of the Spanish-American War
 United States defeats Spain in less than four months
 2,446 Americans died (400 in ...
M.A.I.N
Long Term Causes
Militarism Glorifying Military Power
 Keeping a large standing army

prepared for war
 Arms race for ...
Long Term Causes
Alliance System Designed to keep peace in Europe,

instead pushed continent towards
war
 Many Alliance...
Long Term Causes
Imperialism European competition for colonies
 Quest for colonies often almost led to

war
 Imperiali...
Long Term Causes
Nationalism-

 Deep Devotion to One’s

Nation
 Competition and Rivalry
developed between European
nati...
Leaders
Triple Alliance

Triple Entente

Kaiser Wilhelm II

David Lloyd George

(Germany)

(England)

Franz Joseph I

Raym...
1. The Alliance System
Triple Entente:

England
(Great Britian)

Triple Alliance:

Germany

France

AustriaHungry

Russia
...
Two Armed Camps!
Allied Powers:

Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17
Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II
[Rus]
Kaiser Wilhelm II

George V [Br]

(Germany)
...
Results of WWI
Wilson’s 14 Points
 Proposed by Wilson as a
basis for Peace treaty.
 Create new nation-states:
Poland
 Break up Austria...
Treat of Versailles





Ended WWI.
Dealt harshly with Germany
Germany lost colonies
Austria-Hungry and
Ottoman Turkey...
1920’s
*Flappers wore short skirts
“bobbed” their hair
listened to jazz music
flaunted their dislike for the “old”
views about wo...
THE RED SCARE &
LABOR UNREST
Twenties Tensions Vocabulary:
Write these words at the top of the page that says A: Red Scare

 Capitalism: Economic syst...
Causes of the Red Scare
1.

Communism was considered a threat to American
values (capitalism, individualism, civil liberti...
Effects of the Red Scare
1. Renewed nativism:
 laws restricting
immigration
 rebirth of KKK
2. Attack on civil liberties...
Early Twenties Labor Unrest
 After WWI, competition for jobs increased as soldiers

returned from the war.

 Competition...
Strikes and Labor Riots
 1919

14 million people go on strike

 Seattle Central Strike – 35,000 ships builders walked

o...
Government sides against Labor Unions.
 “There is no right to
strike against the public
safety by anybody,
anywhere, anyt...
The Red Scare and Nativism
 Labor unrest and

riots get linked to
anti-communist
fears
 New immigrants
get blamed
 1921...
Palmerbombs sent
Raids
 In 1919 mail
by radicals to rich
industrialists and
government leaders
exploded in many cities.
...
Restrictions on Immigration &
The Rise of the KKK
Quota Act

 The objective of this act was to temporarily limit the

numbers of immigrants to the United States by
imposin...
Rising Intolerance/ the New KKK
 The Ku Klux Klan

attracted more than four
million members.
 The KKK terrorized a
long ...
Prohibition
Causes of the 18th Amendment (Prohibition)
 Temperance

movement: arguing to
eliminate drunkenness
 Reduce family abuse
...
Effects of the 18th Amendment: Prohibition
1.

Bootleggers emerge:
suppliers of illegal alcohol.

2.

Speakeasies: illegal...
Prohibition1933 with the
Ends
 Prohibition ends in
21st amendment.
 Prohibition is remembered as one

of the worst socia...
The Science vs. Religion Debate
Twenties Tensions Vocabulary:
 Fundamentalism: Belief that the Bible

was inspired by God and does not
contain mistakes. ...
Scopes ‘Monkey’ Trial
 Tennessee law outlawed the

teaching of evolution.

 The ACLU, (American Civil

Liberties Union) ...
Prosecutor and Defense talk during the
Scopes Trial
 William Jennings

Bryan
 assisted the prosecution.

• Clarence Darr...
1920’s Presidents
 Decade of Republican Presidents.
 All three Presidents would support Laissez Faire

economies.
Return to Normalcy
 As a candidate for

president, Warren G.
Harding promised to
return America to
normal after WWI .
 H...
Teapot Dome Scandal
 The worst scandal of the

Harding Administration.
 Secretary of the Interior
Albert B. Fall secretl...
Calvin Coolidge
1923-1929

 Coolidge became president

following the death of
Harding in 1923.
 “The chief business of t...
Herbert Hoover
1929 - 1933
 The last Republican

President of the 1920s.
 The stock market crashed
six months after he t...
Republican Economic Policies
Trickle Down Economics


 Raised Taxes for middle and






lower classes
Loaned Europe...
Overproduction of Goods
 Industrial Goods –
Production
increased but
demand decreased.
 Farm Products –
Production
incre...
Unchecked Stock Speculation
 Investors believed that the

stock market would go up
indefinitely and that
companies profit...
Unregulated Banking System
 Margin Buying allowed

investors to put 10 or 20% cash
down and borrow the rest
from a bank.
...
Unequal Distribution of Wealth
 Large gap between
rich and poor.
 1% of America
owned over 59% of

the wealth.
 60% of ...
Effects of The Great Depression
 Nine million savings accounts wiped out.
 60% of Americans are at the poverty level.
 ...
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
Us history fall final review 2013
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Us history fall final review 2013

  1. 1. Why where these years turning points in American History?  1898 – Spanish American War  1914-1918 - WWI  1929 – The Great Depression
  2. 2. Cause and Effect of Migration  Westward migration to California in the 1800’s?  The Gold Rush  Migration from rural (country) to urban (city) parts in the late 1800’s?  Industrial Revolution and the creation of factories. Even women were allowed to work in them and earn money for the family.  The Great Migration of African Americans to the North (c. 1910-1930)
  3. 3. Unit 2 – Westward Expansion
  4. 4. Ways RR changed America’s Economy  Transcontinental RR made it possible to travel to California and tied the country together.  RR construction created demand for steel. (Bessemer Steel process used.)  Created national market from coast to coast.
  5. 5. Homestead Act  The Homestead Act became law in 1862 when it was signed by President Abraham Lincoln. Under the new law a U.S. Citizen could get 160 acres of unoccupied land west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains. They could keep the land if they lived on the land for five years and made improvements to the land.
  6. 6. Great Plains Challenges  When they purchased the land they were told it well- watered and wooded land – what they found was very different.  Little rainfall  Few trees  Tough soil  Extreme temps  Plagues of Grasshoppers  Isolationism (no neighbors close by).
  7. 7. Alaska Gold Rush  Miners attracted to Far West because of discoveries of precious metals in California and Alaska.  A large number of people went West in hopes of striking it rich!
  8. 8. Indian Policies  Due to precious metal discoveries many Indians were moved off of their own lands to new locations – reservations.  Reservations – Federal Government set aside land which the government felt was undesirable (no one wanted).  Indian Wars during this time were put down by Federal Troops and forced onto reservations in the Great Plains.
  9. 9. Indian Policies  Many policies were supposed to help, however most times they made issues worse.  Dawes Act (1887)  Wanted to Americanize Native Americans  Abolished Native American Tribes and alloted Indians Tribal lands to individuals who then sold them.  American Indian Citizenship Act (1924)  Granted US Citizenship to all Native Americans born in US.
  10. 10. Immigration
  11. 11. Problems faced by immigrants in the Gilded Age  Crowed tenements – one room apartments that lacked daylight, adequate plumbing.  Pollution, sewage contamination of water.  Low pay, long hours  Cannot speak English
  12. 12. Nativists  the policy of protecting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.  Love of the US and it’s people – Opposed immigration
  13. 13. Immigrants Came because?  Push Factors  OPPRESSION  POVERTY  WAR  RELIGIOUS/ETHNIC PERSECUTION  Pull Factors  FREEDOM  ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY  CULTURAL TIES
  14. 14. Americanized Immigrants  Immigrants were working, so many times becoming more American was left to the children. They learned to speak, act, dress and behave like Americans.  Negative effect: immigrant parents may want an arranged marriage because that was their custom in their country – however once Americanized, many immigrant children would not agree to this.
  15. 15. Immigration Quotas  Many people felt that the reason that unemployment was so high – because Chinese workers were taking the jobs and accepting lower wages.  Chinese Exclusion Act – first federal law restricting immigration. Prohibited Chinese immigration for 10 years.
  16. 16. INDUSTRIALIZATION
  17. 17. Political Machines  City Government was sometimes run by bad (corrupt) leaders.  Boss would tell the workers what to do and who to vote for.  The political machine would often provide jobs for immigrants but stole from the city government through overpriced contracts.
  18. 18. Industrialization Effects  Because of inventions and new       technology – there was great economic expansion. Steam and electricity replaced human and animal strength. Iron replaced wood. The Bessemer process made steel more economical. Assembly line. Steam powered machines Coal to power the steam machines. Pollution of air and waterways.
  19. 19. Technology  Telephone – Alexander Graham Bell  Electric Light Bulb – Thomas Edison  Elevator – Elisha Otis  Airplane – Orville and Wilbur Wright  Sewing Machine – Elias Howe
  20. 20. Robber Baron or Captain of Industry?  Robber Baron – was a businessman that sometimes used ruthless tactics to destroy competition and to keep workers wages low.
  21. 21. Big Business Owners - Carnegie  Andrew Carnegie  Grew up poor  Invested in iron works and built a steel mill in Pittsburgh. He made money by selling steel to the Railroads.  Bought iron and coal mines.  Paid his workers low wages and forced them to work 12 hour shifts.  Later in life he wanted to give back and donated over $350 million dollars to build libraries and give money to Universities.
  22. 22. Big Business - Rockefeller  Controlled the refining of oil (Monopoly).  Forced to dissolve his company because it was unfair to the market place.  Later in life became a philanthropist and gave large amounts of money away.
  23. 23. Labor Unions  Worker Problems:  Long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, child labor, no benefits, no job security.  Rise of Labor Unions – organized to help protect workers  Knights of Labor  American Federal of Labor begun by Samuel Gompers
  24. 24. Government Attitude toward Labor Unions  Government had anti-union bias  Many in government saw unions as driving up the cost of goods.
  25. 25. Gilded Age for…  Women  Minorities  Children
  26. 26. Laissez Fair Policies  a policy that allows businesses to operate with very little interference from the government.
  27. 27. Progressive Era
  28. 28. Populist  A new national party that supported the “common man”.  Farmer gave their support to this party.  Populist party felt that the government needed to take a larger role to end:  Oppression  Injustice  Poverty.
  29. 29. Farmers Problems  New Farm machinery and the opening of the Great Plains led to OVERproduction.  Food prices fell and expenses of the farmer stayed the same.  Farmers lost money and many lost their homes.
  30. 30. Progressives  Took name from the belief of “progress”.  Most progressives were middle class and reflected those ideas.
  31. 31. Muckrakers of the Time  Upton Sinclair – wrote “The Jungle” – and exposed the meat packing industry for unsafe practices.  Janne Addams – started Hull House – to help immigrants in their neighborhoods assimilate to American Life with classes in child care, English and nursing (to name a few).
  32. 32.  Jacob Riis – photographer of Child Labor.  Ida Tarbell – writer, wrote about Rockfeller’s Standard Oil business and his ruthlessness in the business world.  W.E.B. DuBois – founded the NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.  Ida B. Wells – organized an anti-lynching crusade. Hanging was a tactic used to intimidate African American.  Susan B. Anthony – Women’s Rights and suffrage advocate.
  33. 33. Social Gospel Movement  Protestant ministers called for reform.  Organized to help people less fortunate.  Christians were called upon to perform acts of charity and goodness – this movement strongly influenced PROHIBITION.
  34. 34. Progressive Laws & Reforms  16th Amendment – gave Congress the power to tax personal income.  17th Amendment – 2 senators will be elected from each state.  18th Amendment – prohibited the sale of alcohol  19th Amendment – Women’s right to vote
  35. 35. Reforms  National Park Service  Protected public parks and monuments.  Anti-Trust Legislation (Clayton Antitrust Act)  Increased the federal government’s power to prvent unfair business practices.  Interstate Commerce Commission  Help regulate certain industries.
  36. 36. Reforms  Pure Food and Drug Act – 1906  Meat Inspection Act – 1906  Both passed to protect the consumer  Federal Reserve  Created to regulate the amount of money in circulation.  Its duties today are to conduct the nation’s monetary policy, supervise and regulate banking institutions, maintain the stability of the financial system and provide financial services to depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign official institutions.
  37. 37. Teddy Roosevelt – Square Deal  Helped break up bad trusts  Square Deal:  Meat Inspection Act & Pure Food and Drug Act  Protection of Nations natural resources.  Withheld federal lands from public sale.
  38. 38. Sanford Dole  In Hawaii there was unrest – and the Queen tried to get power back from American settlers that had plantation there. Queen Liliukalani was overthrown.  Attorney Sanford Dole, was the leader of the provisional government of Hawaii while plans were worked out in the US in order to annex Hawaii.  Served as President of Hawaii and then later as Governor of Hawaii after it was annexed by US.  Dole’s cousin developed the Dole Company.
  39. 39. Alfred Thayer Manhan  Wrote “The Influence of Sea Power upon History”  Argued for making US into a world power. The US needed a strong navy, merchant marine to protect its colonial interests.  Lead advocate for imperial expansion.
  40. 40. SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
  41. 41. Causes of the Spanish American War  HUMANITARIAN: Americans sympathized with the      Cuban Revolution because they felt like it was like their own. They also had seen pictures of Cubans in military camps, where 30% of Cubans died from starvation. EXPANSIONIST: Americans realized they could seize land from Spain, who was weak. New colonies = new naval bases. ECONOMIC: Spain had imposed taxes on Cuba and Cuba had experienced an economic collapse. Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine Yellow Journalism Jingoism = intense patriotism
  42. 42. Effects of the Spanish-American War  United States defeats Spain in less than four months  2,446 Americans died (400 in combat, the rest from disease)  Spain recognizes Cuba’s independence. United States begins to control Cuban politics and economy.  Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Guam become United States territories.  United States is recognized as a world power.
  43. 43. M.A.I.N
  44. 44. Long Term Causes Militarism Glorifying Military Power  Keeping a large standing army prepared for war  Arms race for military technology
  45. 45. Long Term Causes Alliance System Designed to keep peace in Europe, instead pushed continent towards war  Many Alliances made in secret  By 1907 two major alliances: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
  46. 46. Long Term Causes Imperialism European competition for colonies  Quest for colonies often almost led to war  Imperialism led to rivalry and mistrust amongst European nations
  47. 47. Long Term Causes Nationalism-  Deep Devotion to One’s Nation  Competition and Rivalry developed between European nations for territory and markets  (Example France and Germany- Alsace-Lorraine)
  48. 48. Leaders Triple Alliance Triple Entente Kaiser Wilhelm II David Lloyd George (Germany) (England) Franz Joseph I Raymond Poincare (Austria-Hungary) (France) Vittorio Orlando Czar Nicholas II (Italy) (Russia)
  49. 49. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: England (Great Britian) Triple Alliance: Germany France AustriaHungry Russia Italy
  50. 50. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
  51. 51. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Kaiser Wilhelm II George V [Br] (Germany) Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
  52. 52. Results of WWI
  53. 53. Wilson’s 14 Points  Proposed by Wilson as a basis for Peace treaty.  Create new nation-states: Poland  Break up Austria – Hungry  Freedom of the Seas  No secret treaties, open diplomacy  League of Nations
  54. 54. Treat of Versailles     Ended WWI. Dealt harshly with Germany Germany lost colonies Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey were broken into separate national-states.  League of Nations created.
  55. 55. 1920’s
  56. 56. *Flappers wore short skirts “bobbed” their hair listened to jazz music flaunted their dislike for the “old” views about women. * they were open to flaunting sexuality, smoked cigarettes, drank booze and drove cars.
  57. 57. THE RED SCARE & LABOR UNREST
  58. 58. Twenties Tensions Vocabulary: Write these words at the top of the page that says A: Red Scare  Capitalism: Economic system of Private Ownership. (U.S.)  Communism: “Classless society” marked by government ownership of property and industry. (Soviet Union)  Red Scare: Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas.
  59. 59. Causes of the Red Scare 1. Communism was considered a threat to American values (capitalism, individualism, civil liberties) 2. Lenin argued that for communism to work it would have to spread world wide. 3. Americans feared the spread of Communism.
  60. 60. Effects of the Red Scare 1. Renewed nativism:  laws restricting immigration  rebirth of KKK 2. Attack on civil liberties:  Supreme Court rules the government can silence free speech when it creates a “clear and present danger.”  Many states banned antiAmerican writings, red flags, etc.
  61. 61. Early Twenties Labor Unrest  After WWI, competition for jobs increased as soldiers returned from the war.  Competition created: - Class struggles (Rich V. Poor) - Racial tensions (White V. Black, White V. Immigrants)  Political unrest (Capitalists V. Communists)
  62. 62. Strikes and Labor Riots  1919 14 million people go on strike  Seattle Central Strike – 35,000 ships builders walked off the job. Then Union asked all CITY workers to walk off. ALL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CAME TO A HAULT.  Boston Police Strike  Steel workers and coal miners (organized by the AFL)
  63. 63. Government sides against Labor Unions.  “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” (Pres. Calvin Coolidge) Do you agree?
  64. 64. The Red Scare and Nativism  Labor unrest and riots get linked to anti-communist fears  New immigrants get blamed  1921- Quotas are established
  65. 65. Palmerbombs sent Raids  In 1919 mail by radicals to rich industrialists and government leaders exploded in many cities.  Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted raids to arrested thousands of Communists, Socialists, and anarchists. Without formal charges
  66. 66. Restrictions on Immigration & The Rise of the KKK
  67. 67. Quota Act  The objective of this act was to temporarily limit the numbers of immigrants to the United States by imposing quotas based on country of birth.
  68. 68. Rising Intolerance/ the New KKK  The Ku Klux Klan attracted more than four million members.  The KKK terrorized a long list of people: Catholics, Blacks, Jews, Asians, immigrants, and homosexuals.
  69. 69. Prohibition
  70. 70. Causes of the 18th Amendment (Prohibition)  Temperance movement: arguing to eliminate drunkenness  Reduce family abuse  Prevent absenteeism on the job amd promote worker production
  71. 71. Effects of the 18th Amendment: Prohibition 1. Bootleggers emerge: suppliers of illegal alcohol. 2. Speakeasies: illegal bars 3. Rise of organized crime: supplying illegal alcohol became big business and very profitable, resulting in the rise of “gangsters” like Al Capone.
  72. 72. Prohibition1933 with the Ends  Prohibition ends in 21st amendment.  Prohibition is remembered as one of the worst social experiments in U.S. history.  “You cannot legislate Morality” – Bill Maher
  73. 73. The Science vs. Religion Debate
  74. 74. Twenties Tensions Vocabulary:  Fundamentalism: Belief that the Bible was inspired by God and does not contain mistakes. Literal Interpretation (Scopes Monkey Trial)
  75. 75. Scopes ‘Monkey’ Trial  Tennessee law outlawed the teaching of evolution.  The ACLU, (American Civil Liberties Union) asked a science teacher to break the law and test it in court.  The case became known as the “monkey trial” and fueled the debate between science and religious fundamentalism.
  76. 76. Prosecutor and Defense talk during the Scopes Trial  William Jennings Bryan  assisted the prosecution. • Clarence Darrow represented John Scopes.
  77. 77. 1920’s Presidents  Decade of Republican Presidents.  All three Presidents would support Laissez Faire economies.
  78. 78. Return to Normalcy  As a candidate for president, Warren G. Harding promised to return America to normal after WWI .  His presidency however (1921-1923) is known as one of the most corrupt in American history.
  79. 79. Teapot Dome Scandal  The worst scandal of the Harding Administration.  Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall secretly gave private oil companies the right to drill for oil on government land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming.  Fall received more than $300,000 in illegal payments and gifts disguised as loans.
  80. 80. Calvin Coolidge 1923-1929  Coolidge became president following the death of Harding in 1923.  “The chief business of the American people is business.”  “Silent Cal” believed that the government should leave business alone and allow it to grow (laissez fair).
  81. 81. Herbert Hoover 1929 - 1933  The last Republican President of the 1920s.  The stock market crashed six months after he took office.  Hoover becomes vilified in history because of his stance on how to fix the Depression.
  82. 82. Republican Economic Policies Trickle Down Economics   Raised Taxes for middle and     lower classes Loaned European countries more $ to help pay back the $11 billion war debt High Tariffs Increased gap between rich and poor. Autarky United States politics to refer to the idea that tax breaks or other economic benefits provided by government to businesses and upper income levels will benefit poorer members of society by improving the economy as a whole.[
  83. 83. Overproduction of Goods  Industrial Goods – Production increased but demand decreased.  Farm Products – Production increased- demand decreased.
  84. 84. Unchecked Stock Speculation  Investors believed that the stock market would go up indefinitely and that companies profits would continue to increase.  The value of many companies’ stock became artificially inflated and did not represent the companies true worth.  Some economists predicted that the market was headed for a fall – investors did not listen.
  85. 85. Unregulated Banking System  Margin Buying allowed investors to put 10 or 20% cash down and borrow the rest from a bank.  October 29, 1929 – Black Tuesday- orders to sell at any price.  Fortunes were lost within hours as the Stock Market crashed.  The Great Crash caused the collapse of the banking system- by 1932 6,000 banks had closed.
  86. 86. Unequal Distribution of Wealth  Large gap between rich and poor.  1% of America owned over 59% of the wealth.  60% of American families lived on $2,000 per year or less.
  87. 87. Effects of The Great Depression  Nine million savings accounts wiped out.  60% of Americans are at the poverty level.  Two million homeless people.  Long bread lines were seen in most major cities.  People lived in “Hoovervilles” – shacks made out of plywood, cardboard metal, etc..
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