Why where these years turning
points in American History?
1898 – Spanish American War
1914-1918 - WWI
1929 – The Great Depression
Cause and Effect of Migration
Westward migration to California in the 1800’s?
The Gold Rush
Migration from rural (country) to urban (city) parts in
the late 1800’s?
Industrial Revolution and the creation of factories. Even
women were allowed to work in them and earn money
for the family.
The Great Migration of African Americans to the
North (c. 1910-1930)
Ways RR changed America’s
Transcontinental RR made it possible to travel to
California and tied the country together.
RR construction created demand for steel. (Bessemer
Steel process used.)
Created national market from coast to coast.
The Homestead Act became law in 1862 when it was
signed by President Abraham Lincoln. Under the new
law a U.S. Citizen could get 160 acres of unoccupied
land west of the Mississippi River and east of the
Rocky Mountains. They could keep the land if they
lived on the land for five years and made
improvements to the land.
Great Plains Challenges
When they purchased the land they were told it well-
watered and wooded land – what they found was very
Plagues of Grasshoppers
Isolationism (no neighbors close by).
Alaska Gold Rush
Miners attracted to Far West because of discoveries of
precious metals in California and Alaska.
A large number of people went West in hopes of
striking it rich!
Due to precious metal discoveries many Indians were
moved off of their own lands to new locations –
Reservations – Federal Government set aside land
which the government felt was undesirable (no one
Indian Wars during this time were put down by
Federal Troops and forced onto reservations in the
Many policies were supposed to help, however most
times they made issues worse.
Dawes Act (1887)
Wanted to Americanize Native Americans
Abolished Native American Tribes and alloted Indians
Tribal lands to individuals who then sold them.
American Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
Granted US Citizenship to all Native Americans born in
Problems faced by immigrants in
the Gilded Age
Crowed tenements – one room apartments that
lacked daylight, adequate plumbing.
Pollution, sewage contamination of water.
Low pay, long hours
Cannot speak English
the policy of protecting the interests of native
inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Love of the US and it’s people – Opposed immigration
Immigrants Came because?
Immigrants were working, so many times becoming
more American was left to the children. They learned
to speak, act, dress and behave like Americans.
Negative effect: immigrant parents may want an
arranged marriage because that was their custom in
their country – however once Americanized, many
immigrant children would not agree to this.
Many people felt that the
unemployment was so
high – because Chinese
workers were taking the
jobs and accepting lower
Chinese Exclusion Act –
first federal law restricting
Chinese immigration for
City Government was
sometimes run by bad
Boss would tell the
workers what to do and
who to vote for.
The political machine
would often provide jobs
for immigrants but stole
from the city government
Because of inventions and new
technology – there was great economic expansion.
Steam and electricity replaced
human and animal strength.
Iron replaced wood. The Bessemer process made steel
Steam powered machines
Coal to power the steam machines.
Pollution of air and waterways.
Telephone – Alexander Graham Bell
Electric Light Bulb – Thomas Edison
Elevator – Elisha Otis
Airplane – Orville and Wilbur Wright
Sewing Machine – Elias Howe
Robber Baron or Captain of
Robber Baron – was a businessman that sometimes
used ruthless tactics to destroy competition and to
keep workers wages low.
Big Business Owners
Grew up poor
Invested in iron works and built a steel mill in
Pittsburgh. He made money by selling steel to the
Bought iron and coal mines.
Paid his workers low wages and forced them to work 12
Later in life he wanted to give back and donated over
$350 million dollars to build libraries and give money to
Big Business - Rockefeller
Controlled the refining of oil (Monopoly).
Forced to dissolve his company because it was unfair to
the market place.
Later in life became a philanthropist and gave large
amounts of money away.
Long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, child
labor, no benefits, no job security.
Rise of Labor Unions – organized to help protect
Knights of Labor
American Federal of Labor begun by Samuel Gompers
Government Attitude toward Labor
Government had anti-union bias
Many in government saw unions as driving up the cost
Gilded Age for…
Laissez Fair Policies
a policy that allows businesses to operate with very
little interference from the government.
A new national party that supported the “common
Farmer gave their support to this party.
Populist party felt that the government needed to take
a larger role to end:
New Farm machinery and the opening of the Great
Plains led to OVERproduction.
Food prices fell and expenses of the farmer stayed the
Farmers lost money and many lost their homes.
Took name from the belief of “progress”.
Most progressives were middle class and reflected
Muckrakers of the Time
Upton Sinclair – wrote “The Jungle” – and exposed the
meat packing industry for unsafe practices.
Janne Addams – started Hull House – to help
immigrants in their neighborhoods assimilate to
American Life with classes in child care, English and
nursing (to name a few).
Jacob Riis – photographer of Child Labor.
Ida Tarbell – writer, wrote about Rockfeller’s Standard
Oil business and his ruthlessness in the business
W.E.B. DuBois – founded the NAACP – National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Ida B. Wells – organized an anti-lynching crusade.
Hanging was a tactic used to intimidate African
Susan B. Anthony – Women’s Rights and suffrage
Social Gospel Movement
Protestant ministers called for reform.
Organized to help people less fortunate.
Christians were called upon to perform acts of charity
and goodness – this movement strongly influenced
Progressive Laws & Reforms
16th Amendment – gave Congress the power to tax
17th Amendment – 2 senators will be elected from each
18th Amendment – prohibited the sale of alcohol
19th Amendment – Women’s right to vote
National Park Service
Protected public parks and monuments.
Anti-Trust Legislation (Clayton Antitrust Act)
Increased the federal government’s power to prvent
unfair business practices.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Help regulate certain industries.
Pure Food and Drug Act – 1906
Meat Inspection Act – 1906
Both passed to protect the consumer
Created to regulate the amount of money in circulation.
Its duties today are to conduct the nation’s monetary
policy, supervise and regulate banking institutions,
maintain the stability of the financial system and
provide financial services to depository institutions, the
U.S. government, and foreign official institutions.
Teddy Roosevelt – Square Deal
Helped break up bad trusts
Meat Inspection Act & Pure
Food and Drug Act
Protection of Nations natural
Withheld federal lands from
In Hawaii there was unrest – and the Queen tried to
get power back from American settlers that had
plantation there. Queen Liliukalani was overthrown.
Attorney Sanford Dole, was the leader of the
provisional government of Hawaii while plans were
worked out in the US in order to annex Hawaii.
Served as President of Hawaii and then later as
Governor of Hawaii after it was annexed by US.
Dole’s cousin developed the Dole Company.
Alfred Thayer Manhan
Wrote “The Influence of Sea Power upon History”
Argued for making US into a world power.
The US needed a strong navy, merchant marine to
protect its colonial interests.
Lead advocate for imperial expansion.
Causes of the Spanish American War
HUMANITARIAN: Americans sympathized with the
Cuban Revolution because they felt like it was like their
own. They also had seen pictures of Cubans in military
camps, where 30% of Cubans died from starvation.
EXPANSIONIST: Americans realized they could seize
land from Spain, who was weak. New colonies = new
ECONOMIC: Spain had imposed taxes on Cuba and
Cuba had experienced an economic collapse.
Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
Jingoism = intense patriotism
Effects of the Spanish-American War
United States defeats Spain in less than four months
2,446 Americans died (400 in combat, the rest from
Spain recognizes Cuba’s independence. United States
begins to control Cuban politics and economy.
Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Guam become United
United States is recognized as a world power.
Long Term Causes
Militarism Glorifying Military Power
Keeping a large standing army
prepared for war
Arms race for military technology
Long Term Causes
Alliance System Designed to keep peace in Europe,
instead pushed continent towards
Many Alliances made in secret
By 1907 two major alliances: Triple
Alliance and Triple Entente
Long Term Causes
Imperialism European competition for colonies
Quest for colonies often almost led to
Imperialism led to rivalry and mistrust
amongst European nations
Long Term Causes
Deep Devotion to One’s
Competition and Rivalry
developed between European
nations for territory and
(Example France and
Kaiser Wilhelm II
David Lloyd George
Franz Joseph I
Czar Nicholas II
1. The Alliance System
Two Armed Camps!
The Major Players: 1914-17
Kaiser Wilhelm II
George V [Br]
Pres. Poincare [Fr]
Franz Josef [A-H]
Wilson’s 14 Points
Proposed by Wilson as a
basis for Peace treaty.
Create new nation-states:
Break up Austria –
Freedom of the Seas
No secret treaties, open
League of Nations
Treat of Versailles
Dealt harshly with Germany
Germany lost colonies
Ottoman Turkey were broken
into separate national-states.
League of Nations created.
*Flappers wore short skirts
“bobbed” their hair
listened to jazz music
flaunted their dislike for the “old”
views about women.
* they were open to flaunting
sexuality, smoked cigarettes, drank
booze and drove cars.
Twenties Tensions Vocabulary:
Write these words at the top of the page that says A: Red Scare
Capitalism: Economic system of
Private Ownership. (U.S.)
Communism: “Classless society”
marked by government ownership of
property and industry. (Soviet Union)
Red Scare: Intense fear of
communism and other politically
Causes of the Red Scare
Communism was considered a threat to American
values (capitalism, individualism, civil liberties)
2. Lenin argued that for communism to work it would
have to spread world wide.
3. Americans feared the spread of Communism.
Effects of the Red Scare
1. Renewed nativism:
rebirth of KKK
2. Attack on civil liberties:
Supreme Court rules the
government can silence free
speech when it creates a
“clear and present danger.”
Many states banned antiAmerican writings, red flags,
Early Twenties Labor Unrest
After WWI, competition for jobs increased as soldiers
returned from the war.
- Class struggles (Rich V. Poor)
- Racial tensions
(White V. Black, White V. Immigrants)
Political unrest (Capitalists V.
Strikes and Labor Riots
14 million people go on strike
Seattle Central Strike – 35,000 ships builders walked
off the job. Then Union asked all CITY workers to
walk off. ALL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CAME TO A
Boston Police Strike
Steel workers and coal miners (organized by the AFL)
Government sides against Labor Unions.
“There is no right to
strike against the public
safety by anybody,
(Pres. Calvin Coolidge)
Do you agree?
The Red Scare and Nativism
Labor unrest and
riots get linked to
1921- Quotas are
In 1919 mail
by radicals to rich
exploded in many cities.
Attorney General A.
Mitchell Palmer conducted
raids to arrested
and anarchists. Without
Restrictions on Immigration &
The Rise of the KKK
The objective of this act was to temporarily limit the
numbers of immigrants to the United States by
imposing quotas based on country of birth.
Rising Intolerance/ the New KKK
The Ku Klux Klan
attracted more than four
The KKK terrorized a
long list of people:
Catholics, Blacks, Jews,
Asians, immigrants, and
Causes of the 18th Amendment (Prohibition)
movement: arguing to
Reduce family abuse
on the job amd
Effects of the 18th Amendment: Prohibition
suppliers of illegal alcohol.
Speakeasies: illegal bars
Rise of organized crime:
supplying illegal alcohol
became big business and
very profitable, resulting
in the rise of “gangsters”
like Al Capone.
Prohibition1933 with the
Prohibition ends in
Prohibition is remembered as one
of the worst social experiments in
“You cannot legislate Morality” –
Twenties Tensions Vocabulary:
Fundamentalism: Belief that the Bible
was inspired by God and does not
contain mistakes. Literal Interpretation
(Scopes Monkey Trial)
Scopes ‘Monkey’ Trial
Tennessee law outlawed the
teaching of evolution.
The ACLU, (American Civil
Liberties Union) asked a
science teacher to break the
law and test it in court.
The case became known as
the “monkey trial” and
fueled the debate between
science and religious
Prosecutor and Defense talk during the
assisted the prosecution.
• Clarence Darrow
Decade of Republican Presidents.
All three Presidents would support Laissez Faire
Return to Normalcy
As a candidate for
president, Warren G.
Harding promised to
return America to
normal after WWI .
however (1921-1923) is
known as one of the
most corrupt in
Teapot Dome Scandal
The worst scandal of the
Secretary of the Interior
Albert B. Fall secretly gave
private oil companies the
right to drill for oil on
government land in Teapot
Fall received more than
$300,000 in illegal
payments and gifts
disguised as loans.
Coolidge became president
following the death of
Harding in 1923.
“The chief business of the
American people is business.”
“Silent Cal” believed that the
government should leave
business alone and allow it to
grow (laissez fair).
1929 - 1933
The last Republican
President of the 1920s.
The stock market crashed
six months after he took
Hoover becomes vilified in
history because of his stance
on how to fix the
Republican Economic Policies
Trickle Down Economics
Raised Taxes for middle and
Loaned European countries
more $ to help pay back the $11
billion war debt
Increased gap between rich
United States politics to refer to the idea that tax breaks or
other economic benefits provided by government to
businesses and upper income levels will benefit poorer
members of society by improving the economy as a whole.[
Overproduction of Goods
Industrial Goods –
Farm Products –
Unchecked Stock Speculation
Investors believed that the
stock market would go up
indefinitely and that
companies profits would
continue to increase.
The value of many
companies’ stock became
artificially inflated and did
not represent the companies
Some economists predicted
that the market was headed
for a fall – investors did not
Unregulated Banking System
Margin Buying allowed
investors to put 10 or 20% cash
down and borrow the rest
from a bank.
October 29, 1929 – Black
Tuesday- orders to sell at any
Fortunes were lost within
hours as the Stock Market
The Great Crash caused the
collapse of the banking
system- by 1932 6,000 banks
Unequal Distribution of Wealth
Large gap between
rich and poor.
1% of America
owned over 59% of
60% of American
families lived on
$2,000 per year or
Effects of The Great Depression
Nine million savings accounts wiped out.
60% of Americans are at the poverty level.
Two million homeless people.
Long bread lines were seen in most major cities.
People lived in “Hoovervilles” – shacks made out of
plywood, cardboard metal, etc..
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.