Units 3 4 and 5-6 review

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Units 3 4 and 5-6 review

  1. 1. Units 3-4 and 5-6 review Biology Jamie Smith
  2. 2. Ecosystems <ul><li>Collection of abiotic (nonlivng) and biotic (living) factors in an area </li></ul><ul><li>Together they influence growth, survival, and productivity of an organism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Symbiotic Relationships <ul><li>Relationship between two organisms in which one benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism (+,+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism (+,-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism (+, o) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Predation <ul><li>Predator eats prey </li></ul><ul><li>Evolve in response to one another </li></ul>
  5. 5. Carrying Capacity <ul><li>Maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Disasters </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Carbon Cycle
  7. 7. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Steps in a food chain/web </li></ul><ul><li>Energy passes from one organism to another </li></ul><ul><li>About 10% of the energy at one level passes to the next </li></ul>
  8. 8. Human Population <ul><li>Growth= birth rate-death rate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Impacts <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Cover Cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable practice </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Rain </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone depletion from the release of CFCs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Global Warming <ul><li>Increase in the average temperature of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the release of too much CO 2 into the atmosphere which amplifies the greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bioaccumulation <ul><li>An increase in environmental toxins at higher tropic levels </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. DDT and birds of prey </li></ul>
  12. 12. Innate Behavior <ul><li>Behaviors an animal is born with </li></ul><ul><li>Includes suckling, migration, hibernation </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. weaving of spider webs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learned Behavior <ul><li>Behavior an animal acquires during its lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial and error </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Social Behavior <ul><li>Communication between individuals of the same species </li></ul><ul><li>Can be courtship, territorial or chemical (pheromones) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organic Compounds <ul><li>All living things are made of organic compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain the element Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids </li></ul>
  16. 16. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monomer- monosaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>Function- energy source and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Tests: glucose-Benedicts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>starch- Iodine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>fructose <ul><li>Ex. Cellulose, glycogen, starch </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lipids <ul><li>Made of fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Function- energy storage and insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Tests: brown paper test </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: fats and steroids </li></ul>Lipid vs. water
  18. 18. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Monomer- nucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>Function- carry genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. DNA and RNA </li></ul>
  19. 19. Proteins <ul><li>Monomer- amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Function- building and repairing cells, communication, transport, and regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Tests- Biurets </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: enzymes, </li></ul><ul><li>hemoglobin </li></ul>
  20. 20. Enzymes <ul><li>Catalysts in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to a particular substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by temperature and pH </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, no membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria only </li></ul><ul><li>One circular chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: chromosome, ribosomes, and plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Plants and Animals </li></ul><ul><li>True nucleus containing chromosomes </li></ul>
  22. 22. Nucleus <ul><li>“ Control Center” </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chromosomes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Mitochondria Singular: Mitochondrion <ul><li>“ Powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produces energy in the form of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Site of Aerobic respiration </li></ul>
  24. 24. Chloroplast <ul><li>Site of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the pigment chlorophyll </li></ul>
  25. 25. Vacuole <ul><li>Storage of excess materials </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells usually contain one large vacuole </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ribosomes <ul><li>Proteins are synthesized </li></ul><ul><li>Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes </li></ul>
  27. 27. Plasma Membrane aka: Cell Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates what enters/leaves the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Made of phospholipids with embedded proteins </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cell Wall <ul><li>Plant cells ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds cell and provides support and protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose </li></ul>
  29. 29. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Large central vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cell Organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Organ </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System </li></ul><ul><li>Individual organism </li></ul>
  31. 31. Cell Specialization <ul><li>cells develop to perform different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by genes </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cell to Cell Communication <ul><li>Chemical Signals (hormones) can be sent from one cell to another </li></ul><ul><li>Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane receive the signal </li></ul>

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