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  • 1. Human Nature:
    • believed humans were characterized by fear, violence and dangerous self interest
    • 2. Every person is an extreme individualist
    • 3. If everyone is free, then everyone is in danger
    • 4. We all need security more then we need freedom
    • 5. Believed humans are physical objects, sophisticated machines all of whose function and activities can be described by mechanistic terms
    • 6. Like animal nature, we live independently from everyone else
    Beliefs About How Society Should be Structured:
    • Everyone in society should give up his or her freedom to a monarch/dictator who is responsible for everyone's security
    • 7. Believed if everyone was free, everyone is in danger
    • 8. Hobbes believed it was not possible to have freedom and responsibility
    Thomas Hobbes
    Interpretations of Human History:
    • Events such as the beheading of King Charles I and the forming of a Puritan republic whose government tyrannized the people and influenced the way Hobbes interrelated human history.
    • 9. This event also affected the way he viewed society
    • 10. Security is more important than freedom
    • 11. Horrors of civil war, he saw humans as selfish
    Visions for the Future:
    • Hobbes wanted to avoid chaos and harm by having all people give up their sovereignty and by handing power over to the ruler everyone would be secure
    • 12. He believed individual security could be achieved if individual sovereignty was sacrificed
  • Human Nature:
    • People are rational, intelligent and responsible
    • 13. people themselves were the source of power
    • 14. Individuals have the ability to make rational decisions
    Beliefs About How Society Should be Structured:
    • Believed in democracy
    • 15. Believed the government should be accountable to the people
    • 16. He also put great emphasizes on the idea of private property/ the right of individuals to protect what they owned
    • 17. Any government action needs to be justified by popular consent
    John Locke (1632-1704)
    Interpretations of Human History:
    • believed the only reason for the government was to protect life, liberty and property
    • 18. People give up freedom to enter a civil society
    • 19. Opposed authoritarianism of the church and state
    • 20. Believed individuals had the right to use logic to make their own decisions
    Visions for the Future:
    • Believed in the social contract, people give up natural rights and freedoms to government to receive security for themselves
  • Beliefs About How Society Should be Structured:
    • Believed if the characteristics that made humans good could be reestablished most effective forms of government could be determined
    • 21. He believed the general will of people was the absolute authority
    Jean- Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
    Interpretations of Human History:
    • He wanted to strip humans of the rigid class structure, great extremes of wealth and poverty that he thought to be the results of the influence of society
    • 22. Wanted humans to go back to characteristics that were universal and unchanging (made humans good and equal)
    • 23. He was opposed to the idea of representative democracy
    Visions for the Future:
    • Citizens themselves should make laws directly and if this were achieved people could enjoy their freedom like they use to
    Human Nature:
    • People are inherently good but are corrupted by civilization and society
    • 24. Humans are naturally free and equal in principle
    • 25. Humans have lost their compassion for one another because they have become selfish