Fire Pumps, Controllers & Associated Electrical Distribution Aspects
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Fire Pumps, Controllers & Associated Electrical Distribution Aspects

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Electric Motor Driven Fire Pump Considerations ...

Electric Motor Driven Fire Pump Considerations
- Power Supply requirements of NFPA-20 - 2007
- NFPA-70 (NEC®) Article 695
- Changes to Articles 700 & 701 in the NEC
- Selective Coordination
- New §708 - Critical Operations Power Systems
- Junction boxes and wiring protective systems.

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Fire Pumps, Controllers & Associated Electrical Distribution Aspects Fire Pumps, Controllers & Associated Electrical Distribution Aspects Presentation Transcript

  • FIRE PUMPS, CONTROLLERS & ASSOCIATED ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS IEEE - IAS/IES DINNER PRESENTATION APRIL 15, 2009 - by - James S. Nasby Columbia Engineering File: IEEE-IAS_2009_Fire_Pumps-d.ppt
  • Main Topics Covered:
    • A) Rewritten Power Supply requirements of NFPA-20 - 2007
    • B) Differences between new requirements and NFPA-20 - 2003
    • C) Define which sections of NFPA-70 (NEC®) Article 695 are "extract text" from NFPA-20.
    • D) An overview of §695 from the 2005 & 2008 Edition of the NEC.
    • E) Proposed changes to §695 for the 2010 Edition of the NEC
    • F) Changes to Articles 700 & 701 in the NEC
    • G) Selective Coordination
    • H) Brief introduction to new §708 - Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS)
    • I) New requirements for junction boxes and wiring protective systems.
    • J) Summary of Power Supply Requirements
  • Fire Pump Power Supplies
  • NFPA 20 – Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
    • Many requirements of Article 695, including power sources, are extracted from NFPA 20
    * * Note: The NEC TCC rejected updating extract text from NFPA-20-2007. Thus the 2008 NEC retained the wording from NFPA-20-2003. An NFPA task group missed the proposal date.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps
    • 9.1 General.
    • 9.1.1 This chapter covers the minimum performance and testing requirements of the sources and transmission of electrical power to motors driving fire pumps.
    • 9.1.2 This chapter also covers the minimum performance requirements of all intermediate equipment between the source(s) and the pump, including the motor(s) but excepting the electric fire pump controller, transfer switch, and accessories (see Chapter 10 Electric-Drive Controllers) .
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.1.3 All electrical equipment and installation methods shall comply with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, Article 695, and other applicable articles.
    • 9.1.4* All power supplies shall be located and arranged to protect against damage by fire from within the premises and exposing hazards.
      • A.9.1.4 Where the power supply involves an on-site power production facility, the protection is required for the facility in addition to the wiring and equipment.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.1.5 All power supplies shall have the capacity to run the fire pump on a continuous basis.
    • No intermittent sources or equipment, except as specifically dictated in NFPA-20 and Article 695.
    • The fire pump may be called upon to run for hours fighting a fire.
    • 9.1.6 All power supplies shall comply with the voltage drop requirements of Section 9.4.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.2 Normal Power.
    • 9.2.1 An electric motor driven fire pump shall be provided with a normal source of power as a continually available source.
    • 9.2.2* The normal source of power required in 9.2.1 and its routing shall be arranged in accordance with one of the following:
      • [Next Slide]
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • (1) Service connection dedicated to the fire pump installation
    • (2) On-site power production facility connection dedicated to the fire pump installation
    • (3) Dedicated feeder connection derived directly from the dedicated service to the fire pump installation
    • (4) As a feeder connection where all of the following conditions are met:
      • (a) The protected facility is part of a multi-building campus style arrangement.
      • (b) A back-up source of power is provided from a source independent of the normal source of power.
      • (c) It is impractical to supply the normal source of power through arrangement 9.2.2(1), 9.2.2(2), or 9.2.2(3).
      • (d) The arrangement is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
      • (e) The overcurrent protection device(s) in each disconnecting means shall be selectively coordinated with any other supply side overcurrent protective device(s).
    • (5) Dedicated transformer connection directly from the service meeting the requirements of Article 695 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • A.9.2.2 Phase converters that take single phase power and convert it to three phase power for the use of fire pump motors are not recommended because of the imbalance in the voltage between the phases when there is no load on the equipment. If the power utility installs phase converters in its own power transmission lines, such phase converters are outside the scope of this standard and need to be evaluated by the authority having jurisdiction to determine the reliability of the electric supply.
    • Note: This prohibition becomes mandatory in the 2010 Edition.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.2.3 For fire pump installations using the arrangement of 9.2.2(1), 9.2.2(2), 9.2.2(3), or 9.2.2(5) for the normal source of power, no more than one disconnecting means and associated overcurrent protection device shall be installed in the power supply to the fire pump controller.
    • 9.2.3.1 Where the disconnecting means permitted by 9.2.3 is installed, the disconnecting means shall meet all of the following:
      • (1) They shall be identified as being suitable for use as service equipment.
      • (2) They shall be lockable in the closed position.
      • (3)*They shall be located remote from other building disconnecting means.
      • (4)*They shall be located remote from other fire pump source disconnecting means.
      • (5) They shall be marked Fire Pump Disconnecting Means in letters that are no less than 1 in. (25 mm) in height and that can be seen without opening enclosure doors or covers.
    • A.9.2.3.1(3) The disconnecting means should be located such that inadvertent simultaneous operation is not likely.
    • A.9.2.3.1(4) -- Ditto --
      • More conditions . . .
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.2.3.2 Where the disconnecting means permitted by 9.2.3 is installed, a placard shall be placed adjacent to the fire pump controller stating the location of this disconnection means and the location of any key needed to unlock the disconnect.
    • 9.2.3.3 Where the disconnecting means permitted by 9.2.3 is installed, the disconnect shall be supervised in the closed position by one of the following methods:
      • (1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signal device
      • (2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location
      • (3) Locking the disconnecting means in the closed position
      • (4) Sealing of disconnecting means and approved weekly recorded inspections where the disconnecting means are located within fenced enclosures or in buildings under the control of the owner
      • More conditions . . .
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.2.3.4 Where the overcurrent protection permitted by 9.2.3 is installed, the overcurrent protection device shall be selected or set to carry indefinitely the sum of the locked-rotor current of the fire pump motor(s) and the pressure maintenance pump motor(s) and the full-load current of the associated fire pump accessory equipment.
    • E.g.: Any OCP must be set to and carry LRA (typically 600% of FLA) of the Fire Pump, or Pumps, plus any other connected loads.
    • Note that the Fire Pump Controller will hold at least 300% of FLA continuously, or until the Motor, Controller, or Conductors are destroyed. Its Locked rotor tripping time set between 8 seconds and 20 seconds.
    • Therefore Coordination is assured if the rules are followed.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.3 Alternate Power.
    • 9.3.1 Except for an arrangement described in 9.3.3 * , at least one alternate source of power shall be provided when the height of the structure is beyond the pumping capacity of the fire department apparatus.
    • * Note: "9.3.6" in the text is in error.
    • 9.3.2* Other Sources. Except for an arrangement described in 9.3.3, at least one alternate source of power shall be provided where the normal source is not reliable. [Annex A.9.3.2 - next slide.]
    • 9.3.3 An alternate source of power is not required where a back-up engine driven or back-up steam turbine driven fire pump is installed in accordance with this standard.
    • 9.3.4 When provided, the alternate source of power shall be supplied from one of the following sources:
      • (1) A generator installed in accordance with Section 9.6
      • (2) One of the sources identified in 9.2.2(1), 9.2.2(2), 9.2.2(3), or 9.2.2(5) when the power is provided independent of the normal source of power 9.3.5 When provided, the alternate supply shall be arranged so that the power to the fire pump is not disrupted when overhead lines are de-energized for fire department operations.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • A.9.3.2 A reliable power source possesses the following characteristics:
    • 1) The source power plant has not experienced any shutdowns of longer than 4 continuous hours in the year prior to plan submittal. NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, begins to require special undertakings (i.e., fire watches) when a water-based fire protection system is taken out of service for longer than 4 hours. If the normal source power plant has been intentionally shut down for longer than 4 hours in the past, it is reasonable to require a back-up source of power.
    • 2) No power outages have been experienced in the area of the protected facility caused by failures in the power grid that were not due to natural disasters or electric grid management failure. The standard does not require that the normal source of power is infallible. NFPA 20 does not intend to require a back-up source of power for every installation using an electric motor-driven fire pump. Should the normal source of power fail due to a natural disaster (hurricane) or due to a problem with electric grid management (regional blackout), the fire protection system could be supplied through the fire department connection. However, if the power grid is known to have had problems in the past (i.e., switch failures or animals shorting a substation), it is reasonable to require a back-up source of power.
    • 3) The normal source of power is not supplied by overhead conductors outside the protected facility. Fire departments responding to an incident at the protected facility will not operate aerial apparatus near live overhead power lines, without exception. A back-up source of power is required in case this scenario occurs and the normal source of power must be shut off. Additionally, many utility providers will remove power to the protected facility by physically cutting the overhead conductors. If the normal source of power is provided by overhead conductors, which will not be identified, the utility provider could mistakenly cut the overhead conductor supplying the fire pump.
    • 4) Only the disconnect switches and overcurrent protection devices permitted by 9.2.3 are installed in the normal source of power. Power disconnection and activated overcurrent protection should only occur in the fire pump controller. The provisions of 9.2.2 for the disconnect switch and overcurrent protection essentially require disconnection and overcurrent protection to occur in the fire pump controller. If unanticipated unanticipated disconnect switches or overcurrent protection devices are installed in the normal source of power that do not meet the requirements of 9.2.2, the normal source of power must be considered not reliable and a back-up source of power is necessary. Typical methods of routing power from the source to the motor are shown in Figure A.9.3.2. Other configurations are also acceptable. The determination of the reliability of a service is left up to the discretion of the authority having jurisdiction.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.3.6 Junction Boxes. Where fire pump wiring to or from a fire pump controller is routed through a junction box, the following requirements shall be met:
      • (1) The junction box shall be securely mounted.
      • (2)*Mounting and installing of a junction box shall not violate the enclosure type rating of the fire pump controller(s).
      • (3)*Mounting and installing of a junction box shall not violate the integrity of the fire pump controller(s) and shall not affect the short circuit rating of the controller(s).
      • (4) As a minimum, a Type 2, dripproof enclosure (junction box) shall be used. The enclosure shall be listed to match the fire pump controller enclosure type rating.
      • (5) Terminals, junction blocks, and splices, when used, shall be listed.
    • A.9.3.6(2) See also 10.3.3. [Note: 10.3.3 is fire pump controller Enclosures.]
    • A.9.3.6(3) See 10.1.2.1, controller short circuit (withstand) rating.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.3.7 Listed Electrical Circuit Protective System to Controller Wiring.
    • 9.3.7.1* Where single conductors (individual conductors) are used, they shall be terminated in a separate junction box. Single conductors (individual conductors) shall not enter the fire pump enclosure separately.
      • A.9.3.7.1 Cutting slots or rectangular cutouts in a fire pump controller will violate the enclosure type rating and the controller’s short circuit (withstand) rating and will void the manufacturer’s warranty. See also NFPA70, National Electrical Code, Articles 300.20 and 322, for example, for further information.
    • 9.3.7.2* Where required by the manufacturer of a listed electrical circuit protective system or by NFPA70, National Electrical Code, or by the listing, the raceway between a junction box and the fire pump controller shall be sealed at the junction box end as required and in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer.
    • 9.3.7.3 Standard wiring between the junction box and the controller is acceptable.
      • A.9.3.7.2 When so required, this seal is to prevent flammable gases from entering into the fire pump controller.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.3.8 Raceway Terminations.
    • 9.3.8.1 Listed conduit hubs shall be used to terminate raceway (conduit) to the fire pump controller.
    • 9.3.8.2 The type rating * of the conduit hub(s) shall be at least equal to that of the fire pump controller.
    • * - U.L. Listed Type (NEMA rating)
    • 9.3.8.3 The installation instructions of the manufacturer of the fire pump controller shall be followed.
    • 9.3.8.4 Alterations to the fire pump controller, other than conduit entry as allowed by NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, shall be approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
    • Note: Underlines added by me for emphasis, where ever they appear.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.4* Voltage Drop.
    • 9.4.1 Unless the requirements of 9.4.2 are met, the voltage at the controller line terminals shall not drop more than 15 percent below normal (controller-rated voltage) under motor starting conditions.
    • 9.4.2 The requirements of 9.4.1 shall not apply to emergency run mechanical starting. (See 10.5.3.2.)
    • 9.4.3 The voltage at the motor terminals shall not drop more than 5 percent below the voltage rating of the motor when the motor is operating at 115 percent of the full-load current rating of the motor.
      • A.9.4 Normally, conductor sizing is based on appropriate sections of NFPA70, National Electrical Code, Article 430, except larger sizes could be required to meet the requirements of NFPA 70, Section 695.7 (NFPA20, Section 9.4). Transformer sizing is to be in accordance with NFPA 70, Section 695.5(a), except larger minimum sizes could be required to meet the requirements of NFPA 70, Section 695.7 (NFPA 20, Section 9.4).
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.5 Motors. [Typically a Pump Company responsibility.]
    • 9.5.1 General.
    • 9.5.1.1 All motors shall comply with NEMA MG-1, Motors and Generators, shall be marked as complying with NEMA Design B standards, and shall be specifically listed for fire pump service. (See Table 9.5.1.1.)
    • 9.5.1.2 The requirements of 9.5.1.1 shall not apply to direct-current, high-voltage (over 600 V), large-horsepower [over 500 hp (373 kW)], single-phase, universal-type, or wound-rotor motors, which shall be permitted to be used where approved.
    • 9.5.1.3 Motors used with variable speed controllers shall additionally meet the applicable requirements of NEMA MG-1, Motors and Generators, Part 31 and shall be marked for inverter duty.
    • 9.5.1.4* The corresponding values of locked rotor current for motors rated at other voltages shall be determined by multiplying the values shown by the ratio of 460 V to the rated voltage in Table 9.5.1.1.
    • A.9.5.1.4 The locked rotor currents for 460 V motors are approximately six times the full-load current.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.5.1.5 Code letters of motors for all other voltages shall conform with those shown for 460 V in Table 9.5.1.1 * .
    • Table 9.5.1.1 Locked Rotor Current Motor Designation for NEMA Design B Motors
    • Motor Designation (Locked Rotor Indicating Code Letter) " F " to and Including :
    • " J " for 5 Hp, " H " for 7-1/2 & 10 Hp, and " G " for 15 Hp and up.
    • * Note: There is a recurring problem with motors having higher service factors. Controllers are not designed, built, approved, nor tested for higher service factors.
    • 9.5.1.6 All motors shall be rated for continuous duty.
    • 9.5.1.7 Electric motor-induced transients shall be coordinated with the provisions of 10.4.3.3 to prevent nuisance tripping of motor controller protective devices.
    • 9.5.1.8 Motors for Vertical Shaft Turbine-Type Pumps. [Pump Supplier Requirements.]
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.5.2 Current Limits. [Typically a Pump Company responsibility.]
    • 9.5.2.1 The motor capacity in horsepower shall be such that the maximum motor current in any phase under any condition of pump load and voltage unbalance shall not exceed the motor-rated full-load current multiplied by the service factor.
    • 9.5.2.2 The following shall apply to the service factor:
    • (1) The maximum service factor at which a motor shall be used is 1.15.
    • (2) Where the motor is used with a variable speed pressure limiting controller, the service factor shall not be used .
    • 9.5.2.3 These service factors shall be in accordance with NEMA MG-1, Motors and Generators.
    • 9.5.2.4 General-purpose (open and dripproof) motors, totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motors, and totally enclosed nonventilated (TENV) motors shall not have a service factor larger than 1.15.
    • 9.5.2.5 Motors used at altitudes above 3300 ft (1000 m) shall be operated or derated according to NEMA MG-1, Motors and Generators, Part 14.
    • Note: Motors should also be derated for higher ambient temperatures and for any voltage unbalance exceeding 1% per NEMA Standard MG-1.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.5.3 Marking. [Pump & Motor Supplier Requirements.]
    • 9.6 On-Site Standby Generator Systems.
    • 9.6.1 Capacity.
    • 9.6.1.1 Where on-site generator systems are used to supply power to fire pump motors to meet the requirements of 9.3.2, they shall be of sufficient capacity to allow normal starting and running of the motor(s) driving the fire pump(s) while supplying all other simultaneously operated load(s) while meeting the requirements of Section 9.4.
    • 9.6.1.2 A tap ahead of the on-site generator disconnecting means shall not be required.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.6.2* Power Sources.
    • 9.6.2.1 On-site standby generator systems shall comply with Section 6.4 and shall meet the requirements of Level 1, Type 10, Class X * systems of NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.
    • *Sufficient fuel supply so generator can operate for eight hours at 100% capacity of the pump and other demands (Class “8”).
    • 9.6.2.2 The fuel supply capacity shall be sufficient to provide 8 hours of fire pump operation at 100 percent of the rated pump capacity in addition to the supply required for other demands.
    • 9.6.3 Sequencing. Automatic sequencing of the fire pumps shall be permitted in accordance with 10.5.2.5.
    • 9.6.4 Transfer of Power. Transfer of power to the fire pump controller between the normal supply and one alternate supply shall take place within the pump room.
      • A.9.6.2 Where a generator is installed to supply power to loads in addition to one or more fire pump drivers, the fuel supply should be sized to provide adequate fuel for all connected loads for the desired duration. The connected loads can include such loads as emergency lighting, exit signage, and elevators.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • 9.6.5* Protective Devices. Where protective devices are installed in the on-site power source circuits at the generator, such devices shall allow instantaneous pickup * of the full pump room load.
      • A.9.6.5 Generator protective devices, where used, need to be sized to allow the generator to allow instantaneous pickup of the full pump room load. This includes starting any and all connected fire pumps in the across-the-line (direct on line) full voltage starting mode. This is always the case when the fire pump(s) is running by use of the emergency mechanical operator of 10.5.3.2
    • *Assume that any and all pumps are running with the Mechanical Manual Operator latched in. E.g.: Starting will be A-T-L and simultaneous for all fire pumps on the generator.
  • NFPA-20- 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Review
    • 9.1 General.
    • 9.1.1 (Scope) Same as or similar to 2007 text.
    • 9.1.2 - Ditto.
    • 9.1.3 - Ditto.
    • 9.2 Power Source(s).
    • 9.2.1 General.
    • 9.2.1.1 Power shall be supplied to the electric motor driven fire pump by a reliable source or two or more approved independent sources, all of which shall make compliance with Section 9.4 possible.
    • 9.2.1.2 Where electric motors are used and the height of the structure is beyond the pumping capacity of the fire department apparatus, a second source in accordance with 9.2.4 shall be provided.
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.2.2 Service. Where power is supplied by a service, it shall be located and arranged to minimize the possibility of damage by fire from within the premises and exposing hazards.
    • 9.2.3* On-Site Electrical Power Production Facility. Where power is supplied to the fire pump(s) solely by an on-site electrical power production facility, such facility shall be located and protected to minimize the possibility of damage by fire.
    • 9.2.4* Other Sources. For pump(s) driven by electric motor(s) where reliable power cannot be obtained from one of the power sources of 9.2.2 or 9.2.3, one of the following arrangements shall be provided:
      • (1) An approved combination of two or more of the power sources in Section 9.2
      • (2) One of the approved power sources and an on-site standby generator (see 9.2.5.2)
      • (3) An approved combination of feeders constituting two or more power sources, but only as permitted in 9.2.5.3
      • (4) An approved combination of one or more feeders in combination with an on-site standby generator, but only as permitted in 9.2.5.3
      • (5) One of the approved power sources and a redundant fire pump driven by a diesel engine complying with Chapter 11
      • (6) One of the approved power sources and a redundant fire pump driven by a steam turbine complying with Chapter 13
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.2.5 Multiple Power Sources to Electric Motor Driven Fire Pumps.
    • 9.2.5.1 Arrangement of Multiple Power Sources. Where multiple electric power sources are provided, they shall be arranged so that a fire, structural failure, or operational accident that interrupts one source will not cause an interruption of the other source.
    • 9.2.5.2 On-Site Standby Generator. Where alternate power is supplied by an on-site generator, the generator shall be located and protected in accordance with 9.2.2 and Section 9.6.
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.2.5.3 Feeder Sources.
    • 9.2.5.3.1 This requirement shall apply to multibuilding campus-style complexes with fire pumps at one or more buildings.
    • 9.2.5.3.2 Where sources in 9.2.2 and 9.2.3 are not practicable, with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction, two or more feeder sources shall be permitted as one power source or as more than one power source where such feeders are connected to or derived from separate utility services.
    • 9.2.5.3.3 The connection(s), overcurrent protective device(s), and disconnecting means for such feeders shall meet the requirements of 9.3.2.2.3.
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.2.5.4 Supply Conductors. Supply conductors shall directly connect the power sources to either a listed combination fire pump controller and power transfer switch or to a disconnecting means and overcurrent protective device(s) meeting the requirements of 9.3.2.2.3.
    • 9.2.5.5 Two or More Alternate Sources. Where the alternate source consists of two or more sources of power and one of the sources is a dedicated feeder derived from a utility service separate from that used by the normal source, the disconnecting means, overcurrent protective device, and conductors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.
    • Note: OCP of the Emergency (Alternate) Power Supply need not hold LRA indefinitely. It must, however, allow ATL starting of all fire pump loads.
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.3* Power Supply Lines.
    • 9.3.1* Circuit Conductors. Circuits feeding fire pump(s) and their accessories shall be dedicated and protected to resist possible damage by fire, structural failure, or operational accident.
    • 9.3.2* Power Supply Arrangement.
    • 9.3.2.1 Power Supply Connection.
    • 9.3.2.1.1 Unless the requirements of 9.3.2.1.2 are met, the power supply to the fire pump shall not be disconnected when the plant power is disconnected.
    • 9.3.2.1.2 The requirements of 9.3.2.1.1 shall not apply where the installation is approved in accordance with 9.2.5.3; the disconnection of plant power to the fire pumps shall be permitted under circumstances that automatically ensure the continued availability of an alternate power supply.
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.3.2.2 Continuity of Power.
    • 9.3.2.2.1 General. Circuits that supply electric motor driven fire pumps shall be arranged to prevent inadvertent disconnection, as covered in 9.3.2.2.2 or 9.3.2.2.3.
    • 9.3.2.2.2* Direct Connection. The supply conductors shall directly connect the power source to either a listed fire pump controller or listed combination fire pump controller and power transfer switch.
    • 9.3.2.2.3 Supervised Connection.
    • 9.3.2.2.3.1 A single disconnecting means and associated overcurrent protective device(s) shall be permitted to be installed between a power source remote from the pump room and one of the following:
      • (1) A listed fire pump controller
      • (2) A listed fire pump transfer switch
      • (3) A listed combination fire pump controller and power transfer switch
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.3.2.2.3.2 All disconnecting means and overcurrent protective device(s) that are unique to the fire pump loads shall comply with all of the requirements in 9.3.2.2.3.2(A) through 9.3.2.2.3.2(E).
      • (A) Overcurrent Device Selection. The overcurrent protective device(s) shall be selected or set to carry indefinitely the sum of the locked-rotor current of the fire pump motor(s) and the pressure maintenance pump motor(s) and the full-load current of the associated fire pump accessory equipment when connected to this power supply.
      • (B) Disconnecting Means. The disconnecting means shall be as follows:
        • (1) Identified as being suitable for use as service equipment
        • (2) Lockable in the closed position
        • (3) Located sufficiently remote from other building or other fire pump source disconnecting means that inadvertent contemporaneous operation would be unlikely
      • (C) Disconnect Marking. The disconnecting means shall be marked Fire Pump Disconnecting Means. The letters shall be at least 25 mm (1 in.) in height, and they shall be visible without opening enclosure doors or covers.
      • (D) Controller Marking. A placard shall be placed adjacent to the fire pump controller stating the location of this disconnecting means and the location of the key (if the disconnecting means is locked).
      • (E) Supervision. The disconnecting means shall be supervised in the closed position by one of the following methods:
        • (1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signal device
        • (2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location
      • (3) Locking the disconnecting means in the closed position
      • (4) Sealing of disconnecting means and approved weekly recorded inspections where the disconnecting means are located within fenced enclosures or in buildings under the control of the owner
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.3.2.2.3.3 For systems installed under the provisions of 9.2.5.3 only, such additional disconnecting means and associated overcurrent protective device(s) shall be permitted as required to comply with the provisions of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code .
    • 9.3.2.2.4 Short Circuit Coordination. For systems installed under the provisions of 9.2.5.3 only, and where more than one disconnecting means is supplied by a single feeder, the overcurrent protection device(s) in each disconnecting means shall be selectively coordinated with any other supply side overcurrent protective device(s).
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.3.2.2.5 Transformers. Where the supply voltage is different from the utilization voltage of the fire pump motor, a transformer with primary disconnecting means and overcurrent protective devices meeting the requirements of 9.3.2.2.3 and Article 695 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code , shall be installed.
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • 9.4* Voltage Drop. - Same as 2007 text.
    • 9.5 Motors. - Same as 2007 text, except for requiring marking of variable speed motors for inverter duty.
    • 9.5.2 Current Limits. - Same except for limiting duty cycle incursion for variable speed duty motors.
    • 9.6 On-Site Standby Generator Systems. - Same as 2007 text except for minor re-wording of 9.6.1.1 and 9.6.5
  • NFPA-20 2003 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - cont'd
    • Items new to 2007 edition (not in 2003):
      • - Junction Boxes.
      • - Listed Electrical Circuit Protective System to Controller Wiring.
      • - Raceway Terminations.
  • NFPA-70 2008* (NEC) Article 695 Extracted Text from NFPA-20
    • * Note: 2005 & 2008 Editions of §695 differ little.
    • 695.2 Definitions.
    • 695.3 Power Source(s) for Electric Motor- Driven Fire Pumps.
    • 695.4 Continuity of Power [Normal Power]
    • 695.7 Voltage Drop.
    • 695.9 On-Site Standby Generator Systems.
    • 695.10 Listed Equipment.
    • 695.12 Equipment Location.
    • 695.14(A thru D) Control Wiring.
  • NFPA-70 2008 (NEC) Article 695 Non-Extract Text
    • 695.1 Scope.
    • 695.5 Transformers.
    • 695.6 Power Wiring.
    • 695.14(E) and
    • 695.14(F) Control Wiring
  • NFPA-70 2008 (NEC) Article 695 Extract Text Not Yet Added
    • 695.10 Junction Boxes
    • 695.11 Listed Electrical Circuit Protective System to Controller Wiring
    • 695.12 Raceway Terminations
  • What is Covered by NEC Article 695
    • Electrical power sources (Extract Text)
    • Interconnecting circuits
    • Switching and control equipment dedicated to fire fire pump drivers. E.g.: Service Entrance Gear.
    695.1(A) Power Sources Control Circuits Control Equipment Fire Pump
  • What Is Not Covered By Article 695
    • System Performance -- NFPA-20 E.g. Fire Pump Controllers and Transfer Switches.
    • Maintenance -- NFPA-25
    • Acceptance testing -- NFPA-20
    • Routine (Periodic) Testing -- NFPA-25
    • Jockey pumps -- NEC Article 430
    • Alarm Systems -- NFPA-72
    695.1(B)
  • Overview of Article 695 (2005 & 2008) Non-Extract Text
    • To be Covered Power Supply Section :
    • 695.5 Transformers.
    • 695.6 Power Wiring.
    • 695.14(E) & (F) Control Wiring
  • Proposed changes to §695 for the 2010 NEC
    • Coordination with 2007 NFPA-20 still in doubt.
      • Several proposed changes to extract text accepted.
      • Proposals to update extract text rejected as of now.
      • Use of EMT in the pump room accepted.
      • Junction Boxes per NFPA-20 may get added.
  • Salient Changes to Articles 700 & 701
    • 700.6(C) ATS (600 Vac or less) shall be Listed .
    • 700.9(B)(5) Separate wiring and sections for Legally Required circuits (from other Legally Required or Standby circuits).
    • 700.9(D)(1)(4) fire rated ass'y must be Listed 1-hour
    • 700.9(D)(3) Gen-set control wiring separated
    • 700.12(B)(6) Outdoor Gen-Set Disconnect per 225.36
    • 700.23 Dimmer Systems with Emergency Lighting
    • 700.27 (Selective Coord.) Exception : (1) Xfmr. Single Pri. & Sec. OCP , and, (2) Identical Series OCP's.
  • Salient Changes to §700 & 701 - cont'd
    • 701.7 (C) ATS (600 Vac or less) shall be Listed .
    • 701.10(B)(5) Outdoor Gen-Set Disconnect per 225.36
    • 701.18 (Selective Coord.) Exception : (1) Xfmr. Single Pri. & Sec. OCP , and, (2) Identical Series OCP's.
    • And also in Article 702 :
    • 702.11(B)(5) Outdoor Gen-Set Disconnect per 225.36
  • Brief introduction to new §708 - Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS)
    • I. General -- Note: First of five sections.
    • 708.1 Scope. …installation, operation, monitoring, control, and maintenance of the portions of the premises wiring … to designated critical operations areas (DCOA)… Critical operations power systems are … classed by … codes by any gov'al agency having jurisdiction or by facility engineering documentation establishing the necessity for such a system. These systems include but are not limited to power systems, HVAC, fire alarm, security, communications, and signaling for designated critical operations areas.
    • 708.2 708.2 Definitions.
      • Commissioning.
      • Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS).
      • Designated Critical Operations Areas (DCOA).
      • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA).
    • 708.3 Application of Other Articles. Except as modified by this article, all applicable articles of this Code shall apply.
    • 708.4 Risk Assessment.
    • 708.5 Physical Security.
    • 708.6 Testing and Maintenance.
    • 708.8 Commissioning.
  • Brief introduction to new §708 - Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS)
    • II. Circuit Wiring and Equipment
    • III. Power Sources and Connection
    • IV. Overcurrent Protection
    • V. System Performance and Analysis
    • 708.52 Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment.
      • (D) Selectivity. Ground-fault protection for operation of the service and feeder disconnecting means shall be fully selective such that the feeder device, but not the service device, shall open on ground faults on the load side of the feeder device. A six-cycle minimum separation between the service and feeder ground-fault tripping bands shall be provided. Operating time of the disconnecting devices shall be considered in selecting the time spread between these two bands to achieve 100 percent selectivity.
    • 708.54 Coordination. Critical operations power system(s) overcurrent devices shall be selectively coordinated with all supply side overcurrent protective devices.
  • New requirements for junction boxes and wiring protective systems.
    • Requirements for how to install is per NFPA-20 Section 9.3.6.
    • When required is per Per NFPA-20 Section 9.3.7.
    • Note: These junction boxes are ahead of the fire pump controller.
  • Junction Box Required when…
    • 9.3.7.1* Where single conductors (individual conductors) are used, they shall be terminated in a separate junction box. Single conductors (individual conductors) shall not enter the fire pump enclosure separately.
    • These are typically MI cables with solid wire.
    • - Splices to Stranded Wire Required (Breaker Lugs are Rated only for Stranded Wire.
    • - Separate cables will create a magnetically induced (eddy) current in ferrous metal (steel). This can easily heat #14 gage steel to red hot .
    • - A nonferrous (Aluminum) junction box or plate is used since no current is generated.
    • - Controllers were being hacked up, which violates both their NEMA Enclosure Type rating and the WIC rating.
  • Junction Box Required when…
    • 9.3.7.2* Where required by the manufacturer of a listed electrical circuit protective system or by NFPA70, National Electrical Code , or by the listing, the raceway between a junction box and the fire pump controller shall be sealed at the junction box end as required and in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer.
    • This is usually for type Type RHW Listed High Temperature Wire. These give off flammable smoke when routed thru the fire zone. The controller is an arcing (sparking) device (open contactors); and, therefore requires a junction box and seal to keep smoke from entering the controller thru the incoming conduit.
  • Power Supply requirements of NFPA-20-2007
    • 1 - Applicable Standards
    • 2 - Power Source(s) for Fire Pumps
    • 3 - Continuity of Power to a Fire Pump
    • 4 - Transformers in the Fire Pump Circuit
    • 5 - Power Wiring to a Fire Pump
    • 6 - Other Requirements
    • 7 - Rules of Thumb (For Reference Only)
    • 8 - Fault Current Considerations
  • 1 - Applicable Standards
      • NFPA 20 Fire Pump Standard -and-
      • NFPA 70, the NEC ® Article 695
    • NFPA-20 - Chapter 9 - Electric Drive for Pumps
    • NFPA-70 (NEC®) Section 695 - Installation of Electrical Equipment
    • NFPA-25 - Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems
    • - also -
    • Local Codes, E.g.:
      • - Chicago Electrical Code (CEC ) - 2008 (2002 NEC)
      • - Chicago Fire Prevention Code - 1999 (1993 NFPA 20)
    • Insurance Company Requirements (F.M. & etc.)
  • Power Source(s) for Electric Motor Drive Fire Pumps
    • General Philosophy
    • Permitted power source(s)
    • Individual power sources(s)
    • Multiple power sources
    • Power source(s) performance
    • Maximum Voltage Drops
  • General Philosophy . . . of Article 695 -and- NFPA-20
    • Fire Pump sources and components must be Reliable , and
    • Should the Fire Pump Be Called Upon to Function, It Is Considered Sacrificial *
    NFPA 20 and 695.3 Reliable and Sacrificial * Sacrificial is best summed up by the phrase: "Run it to destruction." E.g.: Never stop a running fire pump if it might still deliver fire water.
  • 2 - Power Sources for Electric Motor Driven Fire Pumps
    • Requirements focus on the continuous uninterrupted operation of the fire pump.
    • Electrical safety is considered a secondary objective.
    • Fire pump equipment is considered sacrificial .
    • As such, Equipment and Conductors constitute a fire hazard .
    • Fire Protection of the premise and occupants of paramount importance.
    • Protection of the premise and operators from shock and arc-flash hazard and fire hazard from the installation.
  • Permitted Types of Power Sources for Electric Motor Driven Fire Pumps
    • Individual Power Source
      • Utility Service
      • On-Site Power Production Plant
    • Multiple (other) Power Sources
      • Above two
      • Stand-by Gen-set
      • Feeder Sources
      • (Campus like Complexes)
  • Summary of Power Supply Requirements
    • Power to be supplied by a (one) reliable source
    • Or by at least two approved independent (other) sources.
    • -- however --
    • Where height of building is beyond pumping capacity of the fire department, an emergency or back-up power supply is mandatory .
    • -and- Additional Chicago Requirements
  • Reliable Electric Power Source . . .
    • To consist of Electrical Service or Private Power Station
      • - where -
    • Infrequent disruption from environmental or man-made conditions
    • Contains a separate service connection -or- connection to the supply side of the building’s service entrance disconnect means
    • Determination of reliability up to discretion of the AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction).
  • Individual Power Sources . . .
    • 1. Separate Service, or
    • 2. Tap Ahead of the Premise
    • (Plant or Building) Service Equipment
    • - or -
    • 3. On-Site Power Production Facility
    • (On-Site “24-7” Power Plant)
    695.3(A)
  • Separate Service as an Individual Power Source.
    • Separate utility service dedicated to the fire pump
    • Permitted by Section 230.2
    • Shall comply with all applicable rules of Chapters 1-4, including Article 250.
  • Each Individual Power Source
    • Must be Located –
    • and Arranged to Minimize Possibility of Damage By Fire.
    • “…sufficiently remote…” 230.72(B)
    • And, both must have signs at both location. 230.2(E)
  • Power Supply Arrangement
    • Power supply to pump is to be maintained when building normal power is disconnected.
    • Exception for feeder circuit serving as one source - disconnection of plant power to fire pumps permitted if alternate source is continually available
  • Tap Ahead of the Building Service
    • Equipment requirements are the same as for a separate service
    • Installed according to Part D of Article 230, service entrance conductors; e.g.: 230.82(4), 230.2(A)(1), 230.72(B),
    • Be capable of carrying the locked-rotor current (LRC) of the Fire Pump and all connected all equipment loads continuously
    • Be "…from a connection located ahead of and not within the same cabinet, enclosure, or vertical switchboard section as the service disconnecting means…"
    695.3(A)(1) & 695.6(D)
  • On-site Power Production Facility
    • A facility (e.g. a power plant) that produces its own power on a Continuous basis
    • Similar to separate service requirements
    • Located and protected to to minimize the risk of damage by fire
    • Not a standby gen-set
    695.3(A)(2)
  • Multiple Power Sources - When Needed
    • The Term “Reliable” Is a Decision for “The Authority Having Jurisdiction”.
    • “Reliable” Is Defined as “Capable of Being Relied On; Dependable, or Trustworthy”.
    • All Sources Must Be Approved by “The Authority Having Jurisdiction”.
    695.3(B)
  • Multiple Power Sources -- Other Electric Power Sources
    • Where a Reliable Power Source is NOT available, redundant (Multiple) supplies are to be provided as follows:
      • Another Service or Private Power Station
      • On-site standby Generator
      • Combination of Feeders from Two Separate Utility Sources
      • Combination of One or More Feeders and an Onsite Generator
      • Diesel Engine driven Fire Pump
      • Steam Turbine driven Fire Pump
  • Examples of Multiple Power Sources
    • 1) Dual Utility Service
    • 2) Utility Service plus On-Site Gen-Set
    • 3) Combination of Feeders from separate Services **
    • 4) Combination of Feeder and On-site standby generator **
    • ** Only allowed on multi-building, campus style complexes.
  • Examples of Multiple Power Sources NFPA-20 Section 9.2, Power Sources
    • (1) Combination of Services and/or On-site Power Facilities.
    Fire Pump Controller Service #1 Service #2 M Fire Pump Motor
  • Examples of Multiple Power Sources NFPA-20 Section 9.2, Power Sources
    • (2) Combination of Service or OPF and On-site standby generator.
    • Note: Emergency side Circuit Breaker becomes Mandatory in the 2010 Edition.
    M Service On-site standby Generator G Fire Pump Controller
  • Examples of Multiple Power Sources NFPA-20 Section 9.2, Power Sources
    • (3) Combination of Feeders from separate Services.
    • Only allowed on multi-building, campus style complexes.
    Service #2 Service #1 High Voltage Substation Feeders Fire Pump Controller M
  • Examples of Multiple Power Sources NFPA-20 Section 9.2, Power Sources
    • (4) Combination of Feeder and On-site standby generator.
    • Only allowed on multi-building, campus style complexes.
    On-site Standby Generator Service Feeders Fire Pump Controller M High Voltage Substation G
  • Examples of Multiple Power Sources NFPA-20 9.2, Power Sources (Tap Ahead . . .)
    • The fire pump power supply shall not be disconnected when plant power is disconnected.
    • The exception permits this only for multi-building, campus-style complexes that automatically ensure alternate power is still available .
    Service Feeders Fire Pump Controller M Plant Power Disconnect
  • Multiple Power Sources - On-site Generator
    • Generators to be of sufficient capacity to allow normal starting and running of the motor(s) driving the fire pump(s) while supplying all other simultaneously operated load(s).
    • Where protective devices are installed, they must allow instantaneous pickup of full pump room load . E.g. Across-the-Line Starting of all pumps.
    • Transfer of power to take place in the pump room
    • Meet Both Voltage Drop Requirements (15% & 5%)
  • Arrangement I Controller - Xfer. Switch Combination
    • A “Combination Fire Pump Controller and Power Transfer Switch” unit must . . .
    • Be Listed as a coordinated designed and factory assembled and wired complete unit
    • Need have only Normal Side Breaker unless the Emergency Source is a Utility (need to specify Emergency Side Breaker when needed).
    • Will already meet all requirements of NFPA-20, Section 10.8
  • Arrangement II Transfer Switch Ahead of Controller
    • A transfer switch ahead of a fire pump must . . .
    • Be a Listed “Fire Pump Power Transfer Switch”
    • Be Listed and Rated for the Available Fault Current. NFPA 20, 9.1.2.2
    • Be Protected by Listed Service Equipment
    • Meet all requirements of NFPA-20, Sections 10.8.1, 10.8.2.2 & 10.8.3
    • Approximately 31 clauses including interconnections and WIC Short Circuit Coordination. See Nasby Application Notes.
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/EFPXS-2B_WP5.PDF
  • Arrangements I & II Note: “Alternate Source” may be a “Hot Emergency Bus” as often employed in hospitals. In these systems, multiple MVA size gen-sets are used along w/ additional upstream Transfer Switches with a path to one or more Utility Connections. This often results in very high fault currents on the Alternate Source Side. Also note that two C/Bs will be required in all Arrangement I units per 2010 Edition of NFPA-20.
  • Multiple Power Sources - Summary
    • Where Reliable Power Cannot Be Obtained from a Single Source,
    • Two or More Sources Shall Be Required.
    • The Sources to Select from are Limited to Those Covered in Section 695.3.
    • Multiple Sources are Required Where Building Height Exceeds Fire Department Pumping Capacity.
    695.3(B)
  • Maximum Allowed Voltages Drops – Motor Starting
    • NEC Chapter 9 Table 9 Note 2 must be used for motor starting cable voltage drops. To wit:
    • 2. Effective Z is defined as R cos(θ) + X sin(θ), …effective impedance (Ze) can be calculated from R and XL values given in this table as follows: Ze = R × PF + XL sin[arccos(PF)].
    • Note: Typical Motor Locked Rotor Impedance is 0.30 to 0.40. Use 0.30 for worse case, especially for larger motors.
    • Voltage Drop Calculations must include:
      • Transformer, if used
      • Cables: Normal, Emergency (gen-set) & Transformer Primary
      • Utility Source (Utility transformer)
    9.4 & 695.7
  • Maximum Allowed Voltages Drops – Motor Running
    • During Motor Running at 115% of Motor FLA, a 5% Maximum Voltage Drop at the Motor Terminals.
    • Note: This is to Prevent Motor Overheating.
    • See NEC Chapter 9, Table 9 for cable A.C. Impedances (Resistance & Reactance).
    • Note: The 0.85 PF column may be used for the 115% running voltage
    • drop; but, NOT for the starting voltage drop.
    • See NEMA ICS-14 for example of voltage drop calculations.
    • Available at : mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Standards/ICS-14.PDF
    • -or- www.nema.org/stds/ics14.cfm [Requires log-in]
    • Note: The Starting drop is often worse than the Running drop but not always.
    9.4 & 695.7
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • NEMA ICS-14 - Table of Contents
    • Application Guide for Electric Fire Pump Controllers
    • 1. GENERAL
    • 2. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    • 2.1 Power Conductors Connected To The Fire Pump Controller And Motor
    • Note: 2.1.1 is a suggested procedure for properly sizing power supply conductors to the fire pump controller and motor to meet the 5% & 15% Voltage Drop requirements.
    • 2.2 Environmental Considerations For Enclosures
    • 2.3 Transformer Sizing
    • 2.4 Transfer Switch Considerations [Note "Arrangement IV]
    • See: mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/EFPXS-2B_WP5.PDF
    • 2.5 Considerations For Specifying Short Circuit Rating (RMS Sym)
    • Note: Includes tables for conductor lengths -versus- Short Circuit Circuits. Important since 100 KAmp controller Short Circuit Rating (WIC) is no longer standard.
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • NEMA ICS-14 Table of Contents -- Continued.
    • 2.6 Reduced Voltage Starting Methods
    • 2.7 Limited Service Controller Limitations
    • 2.8 Listed Fire Pump Motor Applications
    • 2.9 Pressure Recorders
    • 2.10 Controlling Engine Dampers
    • 2.11 Stand-by Generator Sizing for Fire Pumps
    • 2.12 Medium Voltage Fire Pump Controllers
    • 3. INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS
    • 3.1 Phase Sequence
    • 3.2 Normal Starting with On-site Generators
    • 3.3 Induced Voltages on Alarm Contacts
    • 4. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
    • 4.1 Listed and Approved Equipment
    • 4.2 Testing and Maintenance
  • 3 - Continuity of Power
    • Goal – Minimize risk of inadvertent disconnection from supply.
    • Connect fire pump directly to electric supply (Controller used as Service Entrance) *
    • -or-
    • Limit number of disconnecting means
    • Supervision - Monitor Fire Pump Power circuit disconnecting means status
    • * Most or all Electric Motor Drive Fire Pump Controllers are Listed as Suitable for Use as Service Entrance (SUSE).
    695.4
  • Physical Protection of Electric Power Supplies
    • Power sources to be located and arranged to minimize the possibility of damage by fire from within the premises and exposing hazards.
    • Private Power Station may be given consideration as an acceptable supply where located in a separate power house or cut off from main buildings
    • Multiple power sources to be arranged so a fire at one source will not cause an interruption at the other source.
    • Supply conductors to be dedicated and protected to resist possible damage by fire, structural failure, or operational accident especially overhead lines. See 9.4.3(2).
  • Methods of Achieving Continuity
    • Direct Connection
    • Supervised Connection (Upstream OCP)
    695.4
  • The Overcurrent Protection . . .
    • The Overcurrent Protection Is Set to carry indefinitely the sum of the locked rotor current of the fire pump, jockey pump motors and full-load current of associated fire pump equipment
    • Exception: Additional devices for campus style feeder sources - to comply with NFPA 70 §695
    • Note: The F.P.C. Internal overcurrent protection (except for Limited Service units) is set to:
      • - Never trip below 300% of motor FLA -and-
      • - Locked rotor tripping time set between
      • 8 seconds and 20 seconds
  • Typical Fire Pump Controller Breaker Curve 8 to 20 Seconds at LRA
  • Fire Pump Controller Circuit Breaker
    • The Circuit Breaker within a Fire Pump Controller :
    • Won't trip below 300% of motor FLA
    • LRA trip time between 8 seconds and 20 seconds
    • Rated at a minimum of 115% of FLA
    • E.g.: FLA can be up to 87% of breaker frame rating. Ditto for the I/S (Isolating Switch)
    • Most or all EFPC C/B's are molded case switches with external CT's and trip circuitry.
    • Series devises (I/S & C/B) often result in controller Short Circuit Ratings (WIC) well above the I.C. (Interrupt Capacity) of the molded case device (switch).
    • Note: One EFPC Mfr. has been using jacks in lieu of an I/S.
  • Additional Disconnect Requirements
    • A Key Is Placed at the Fire Pump Controller, if the Disconnecting Means Is Locked, and
    • A Placard is Installed on the Disconnecting Means, and
    • An Additional Placard Is Installed at the Fire Pump Controller, and
    • The Disconnecting Means Is Supervised in the Closed (“ON”) Position
    695.4(B)
  • 4 - Transformers for Fire Pump Circuits
    • A Transformer is Permitted Where the Supply Voltage Is Different from the Fire Pump and Controller Requirements
    • It is Dedicated to Fire Pump and Associated Equipment or
    • Except that Transformers on Multi-Building Complexes are Permitted to Supply Other Loads
    695.5
  • Transformers for Fire Pump Circuits
    • Service at Other than Utilization Voltage
    • Where “Service” is Above 600 Volts either a:
    • Listed Medium Voltage Fire Pump Controller(s) and Motor(s) if below 7.2 kV -or-
    • A Transformer(s) is allowed per NFPA-20
    • 9.3.2.2(5) if it complies with 9.2.3 (Supervised Connection) and with
    • NEC Article 695.5 (Transformers).
  • Power Supply Arrangement 'A' & 'B' for Normal Source Note : Figure number should be A.9.2.2(5).
  • Transformer Dedicated to Fire Pump 695.5
  • Transformer Sizing
    • Minimum Sizing Shall Be at Least 125%* of the Sum of:
    • The Full Load of the Fire Pump Motor(s), Plus
    • The Full Load of the Jockey Pump Motor(s)
    • (if applicable), Plus
    • The Full Load of Any Associated Equipment
    • (if applicable).
    • Secondary Side Overcurrent Protection (OCP) is Not Permitted . E.g.: Line side protection only.
    695.5(A) Note: *125% is almost always too small to meet both voltage drop requirements.
  • Transformer Overcurrent Protection
    • The Minimum Selection and Setting of the Primary OCP Shall Be Large Enough to Carry Indefinitely the Equivalent Secondary Currents of the Following:
    • The Locked-Rotor (600%) Current of the Fire Pump Motor(s), Plus
    • The Locked-Rotor (600%) Current of the Jockey Pump Motor(s) (if applicable), Plus
    • The Full Load (100%) Current(s) of Any Associated Equipment (if applicable).
    695.5(B)
  • 5 - Power Wiring
    • Service Conductors (Electric Utility)
    • Supply Conductors (On-site Power Production)
    • Feeder Conductors connected to:
    • 1. On-site standby generator
    • 2. Supervised disconnecting means
    • Feeder Conductors for multi-building
    • (campus style) complexes
    695.6
  • Power Wiring (The Supply Conductors) Shall Be . . .
    • Installed As Service Entrance Conductors, and
    • Physically Routed Outside the Building, or where not possible . . .
    • Permitted to Be Routed Through Building if Installed Under, Or Enclosed Within, Not Less Than 2 Inches of Concrete (See Section 230.6 ).
    695.6
  • Power Wiring - Circuit Conductors on Load Side of Disconnect and Overcurrent Protection-Within the Building
    • Shall be protected to resist damage from fire, structural damage or operational failure and
    • Encased in not less than 2 inches of concrete, or
    • Installed within 2-hour* fire resistance rated enclosed construction dedicated to the fire pump circuit(s), or
    • Installed within listed electrical circuit protective systems having a minimum 2-hour (was 1-hour) fire resistance rating.
    • Remember that these conductors are sacrificial and also are a Fire Hazard * .
    • * 125% conductors; but, no less than 300% OCP in FPC.
  • Listed Electrical Circuit Protective Systems
    • Permitted to Be Routed Through Building if Installed in Listed Electrical Circuit Protective Systems With A Minimum of 2-Hour Fire Resistance.
    • Note: Not approved in all jurisdictions for Service.
    695.6(B)
  • Electrical Circuit Protective System May Consist of a . . .
    • 2-inch Rigid Conduit with 250 kcmil XHHW, Copper Conductors Installed with a U.L. Listed (Classified) Overall Covering of a 2-Hour* Fire Resistance Blanket System, or
    • * Was 1-Hour
    • Listed (Classified) Fire-Resistive Mineral Insulated (MI) Cable Systems,
    • - and -
  • Electrical Circuit Protective System May Consist of a . . .
    • Other Systems and Configurations Are also Listed (Classified).
    • See “Fire Tests for Electrical Circuit Protective Systems” , UL Subject 1724-1991 for Exact Information.
    • See U.L. CCN (Guide) FHIT. Details at:
    • www.ul.com Online Certifications Directory
  • Section 695.6(B) Exception - Electric and Fire Pump Rooms
    • Supply Conductors Are Exempt from Fire-Resistance Ratings Only:
    • In the Electrical Switchgear Room, and
    • In the Fire Pump Room.
    695.6(B) Exc.
  • Wiring Methods for Power Circuits – Within the Pump Room
    • Rigid Metal Conduit
    • Intermediate Metal Conduit
    • Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit *
    • Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit (LFNC-B) *
    • * 6 ft. max. per 430.223 Conductor Enclosures Adjacent to Motors.
    • Listed MC Cable (w/ Impervious Covering)
    • Mineral Insulated Cable (MI)
    • Wiring Method for Control Circuits Are Essentially the Same.
    • Note: Most common violation is use of BX for motor whip.
    695.6(E)
  • Fire Pump Controller
    • Controller May Not Be Used As a Junction Box for Other Circuits.
    • Jockey Pump Connections Not Allowed to Be Made in Fire Pump Controller.
    • Note: Either Fire Pump Circuit or Local Branch Power may be used for the Jockey Pump.
    695.6(F)
  • Fire Pump Controller Jockey Pump Controller and Separate Junction Box 695.6(F)
  • Fine Stranded Wire (Cable) Warning
    • Some Wire and Cable Mfr’s are Making Multiple Rated Cable, Such as: AWM, MTW & TEW, among other ratings. TEW is a fine stranded type of cable and AWM may be.
    • Circuit Breakers (Isolating Switch) Incoming Lugs are Not Tested nor Rated for Fine Strand Wire
    • Ditto for Contactor (Outgoing) Lugs
    • This applies to both Field and Factory Wiring
  • 6 - Other Requirements
    • External Control Circuits
    • No Sensors or Remote-Control Devices
    • Control Wiring
    • Multiple Pumps - Sequential Starting
    695.14
  • External Fire Pump Control Circuits (Remote Start, Deluge Valve Start, etc.)
    • Arranged So That Failure of Any External Control Circuit Shall Not Prevent the Operation of The Pump(s) by Other Means.
    • Circuit Failures Such As Opens, Shorts, Grounds, or Loss of Power Are Permitted to Cause the Pump to Run, but
    • These Failures Cannot Prevent the Fire Pump from Running.
    • Note: These are mainly controller responsibilities.
    10.5.2.6, 1205.2.5 & 695.14(A)
  • Prohibited Sensors & Control Devices
    • Undervoltage, Phase Loss, Frequency Sensitive, or Other Sensors Are Not Permitted, Except…
    • Motor Single Phase Start Attempt Protection is permitted as part of the fire pump controller.
    • Remote Devices in the Control Circuit Are Not Permitted if they prevent the automatic operation of the Transfer Switch.
    10.4.5.6 & 695.14(b) & (c)
  • Wiring Methods for Control Circuits
    • Rigid Metal Conduit (Threaded)
    • Intermediate Metal Conduit (also Threaded)
    • Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit
    • Listed MC Cable (w/ Impervious Covering)
    • Mineral Insulated Cable (MI)
    • There Are No Exceptions to These Wiring Methods
    • Not Allowed:
      • Flexible Metal Conduit (BX & etc.)
      • Thin Wall Conduit
      • Romex or Any Other Bare Cable
    695.14(E)
  • Specify Sequencing of Multiple Pumps when . . .
    • Automatic sequencing of pumps required in accordance with 9.6.3 (and required by 10.5.2.5).
    • Note: This eases the starting electrical load.
    • Automatic sequencing of fire pumps needed for pumps in parallel or in series
    • Any pump supplying suction to another pump starts before it (High Zone Delayed Start)
    • -or-
    • i f water requirements call for more than one pumping unit to operate (pumps in parallel).
    • Pumps to start at intervals of 5 to 10 seconds. Failure of any one pump not allowed to prevent others from starting.
  • 7 - Rough Rules of Thumb
    • Transformer or Gen-Set Sizing – 125% almost never enough
    • Full Voltage (A-T-L) Starting
      • Often needs 300% to 500% Sizing
    • Reduced Inrush Starting
      • Often needs 250% to 400% Sizing
    • Depending on:
      • Device Impedance and Voltage Drops of: Transformer Source and Primary
      • Wiring Run and Wiring Run to Controller
    • Sizing for Variable Speed depends on Bypass Start method.
    • For More info. see :
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/Motor-Starting-Parameters_WP0.pdf
    • From: mastercontrols.com/AboutFPC/MCSldA00.htm
    • And: mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/MCEngInf.htm#TechArts
    • Why not to specify Wye-Delta Starting:
      • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/Wye-Delta_Starting_White_Paper.pdf
  • Induction Motor Locked Rotor Codes
  • Starting Methods -vs- Motor Types
  • Motor Starting Characteristics Parameter Chart
  • Motor Starting Characteristics Parameter Notes to Chart
  • Variable Speed Motor Drive Controller Model ECVRTZ-125-46-*
  • 8 - Fault Current Considerations
    • Controller Short Circuit (WIC) Rating Must exceed the “Available Short Circuit Current”
    • Ditto for Arrangement II Upstream Xfer Switch
      • This almost always requires upsizing the Xfer Switch to coordinate with the 600% (Minimum) upstream OCP (Over Current Protection)
    • Controller and Xfer Switch must be marked with the Short Circuit Rating and be “Suitable” for same.
    10.1.2.2
  • NFPA-20 2007 Chapter 9 Electric Drive for Pumps - Cont'd
    • Motor Starting Slide Show Link:
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/Slide_Shows/
    • IFPA_Motors_20050111b.pps
    • From: mastercontrols.com/AboutFPC/MCSldA00.htm
    • Other cited links:
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Standards/ICS-14.PDF
    • www.nema.org/stds/ics14.cfm [Requires log-in]
    • Also available at: www.nema.org/standards
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/EFPXS-2B_WP5.PDF
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/Motor-Starting-Parameters_WP0.pdf
    • mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/Articles/Nasby/Wye-Delta_Starting_White_Paper.pdf
    • From: mastercontrols.com/EngInfo/MCEngInf.htm#TechArts
    • www.ul.com Online Certifications Directory
  • Questions ? [email_address] 847-677-3468