Fire Pump Engines Overview


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Key Characteristics and Requirements of Diesel Fire Pump Engines

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Fire Pump Engines Overview

  1. 1. Diesel Fire Pump Engines - for - F.M. Approvals - by - James S. Nasby Columbia Engineering
  2. 2. Topics to be Covered <ul><li>Constant (Variable) Speed Engines </li></ul><ul><li>PLD Variable Speed Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic ECM (ECU) Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Components </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Design Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Testing & Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Installation Considerations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Constant (Variable) Speed Engines <ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Clarke </li></ul><ul><li>Cummins </li></ul><ul><li>Also U.L. Listed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deutz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although designed to run at a Fixed Speed, NFPA-20 considers all engines to be variable speed devices by nature of the speed governor and also for overspeed (overpressure) considerations. </li></ul>Note: Propane engines have been proposed for NFPA-20 2010 Edition.
  4. 4. 15201 Cummins NT & VT Series, Historic
  5. 5. 15030 Caterpillar External Diagram
  6. 6. 15034 Cummins ECM Engine
  7. 7. PLD Variable Speed Engines <ul><li>Clarke PLD Pressure Limiting Driver. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a hydraulic closed loop (feedback) system which compares the pump output pressure to a spring force by was of a hdraulic cylinder. The cylinder operates to vary the speed governor set point. This mechanical system will become obsolete when mechanical governors become obsolete. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Clarke PLD Engine
  9. 9. Electrical Components <ul><li>Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Gages </li></ul><ul><li>Contactors (Two) </li></ul><ul><li>Valves – Not all are Manual Operable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Coil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual Coil (Energized During Cranking) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor (Mechanical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic – ECM (ECU) Not all have means for simulating an Overspeed Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed Switch – Critical Item </li></ul><ul><li>Starter Motor (One or Two)* </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The dual starter motor Clarke engine does not manually operable contactors. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electronic ECM (ECU) Engines <ul><li>Cummins (U.L. & F.M.) </li></ul><ul><li>Clarke (U.L. & F.M.) (High current draw in the Alternate ECM position) </li></ul><ul><li>Notes : </li></ul><ul><li>1) Some designs keep the ECM powered up continuously, others only when needed. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Changing to single ECM design was proposed to NFPA-20 and passed . However, this was changed in the ROC meeting to keeping Dual ECMs and adding requirement for Automatic Switchover with Manual Over-ride Switch. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Electronic Control Modules <ul><li>Some ECUs won’t initialize if Crank Signal (Terminals 9 or 10) Precedes the Fuel Signal (Terminal 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement ECUs for Fire Pumps are Non-Standard. They have to be programmed by the dealer before they can be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are Always Energized, others Boot Up at Run Time. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Alternate ECM Draws Significant Current in the Alternate ECM Mode (Due to Relay Currents) </li></ul><ul><li>ECMs May Not Operate at Voltages Below 10.0 Vdc (Single Battery Cranking) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Upcoming Change to ECM’s ?? (Not Balloted A/O 2008.10.21) <ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>20-?? Log #29 </li></ul><ul><li>( </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on Proposal: 20-106 </li></ul><ul><li>Reccomendation: Add additional text, such as: </li></ul><ul><li> When used on electronic engines (ECM/ECU equipped engines), the speed switch shall include provisions </li></ul><ul><li>for testing it's overspeed circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>Exception: Engines equipped with other means for testing overspeed shutdown operation with either EMC/ECU. </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>20-?? Log #30 </li></ul><ul><li>( </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on Proposal: 20-107 </li></ul><ul><li>Reccomendation: I disagree with Committee Action accepting the Proposal to eliminate the redundant ECM/ECU </li></ul><ul><li>module on electronic engines. E.g.: Reject the proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>20-?? Log #79 </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on Proposal: 20-107 </li></ul><ul><li>[Summary: Keep dual ECM’s and change manual change manual switch to automatic and add a manual over-ride switch.] </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Starting Contactor Manually Operable Versions are, or should be, U.L. Listed under U.L. Standard UL-218A
  14. 14. U.L. Listees for Contactos
  15. 15. Diesel Driver & Fuel Switch & Engine Gage Panel Caterpillar Fire Pump Engine MCS 4817 Low Fuel Switch Typical Engine Gage Panel
  16. 16. 18105 Clarke Dual Fuel Coils
  17. 17. 15042 Clarke Dual Starter
  18. 18. Operating Environment <ul><li>Environmental Conditions: Indoor, Outdoor, Temperature (High & Low) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion Air </li></ul><ul><li>Horsepower Derated for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Ambinet Temperature </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Diesel Battery Requirements Dual Battery Operation <ul><li>- Two banks of batteries are required. </li></ul><ul><li>Each must have capacity to crank </li></ul><ul><li>the engine for 180 Seconds </li></ul><ul><li>(Twelve 15 Sec. Cranks). </li></ul><ul><li>Typically: </li></ul><ul><li>- the batteries are SAE 4D or 8D types; </li></ul><ul><li>- Two 12 Vdc Batteries on 12 Volt Engines </li></ul><ul><li>- Four 12 Vdc Batteries on 24 Volt Engines </li></ul><ul><li>- Eight 12 Vdc Batteries on Large Engines* </li></ul>12 V 24 V * Requires 20 Amp chargers to meet the 24 Hour Re-Charge time requirement.
  20. 20. Engine Drive Combustion Air -and- Room Cooling Most Engines Water Cooled
  21. 21. Alternate Method for Combustion Air <ul><li>_______________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>20-147 Log #46 Final Action: Accept in Principle </li></ul><ul><li>(A. </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Submitter: James S. Nasby, Skokie, IL </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation: Add new paragraph at end of A. to read: </li></ul><ul><li>Another method of supplying combustion air is to a vent pipe, with rain cap, extending thru the roof, or outside wall, of a pump house which extends to within six inches of the floor of the pump house. This passive method prevents heat loss in the winter. Successful installations use a 4”, 67” or 8” vent pipe depending on the size and number of engines involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Substantiation: Suggest method has long been used; but, is little known. It avoids the inherent problems with A.C or D.C. power operated louvers. It also results in very little pressure drop. In frigid weather, only the floor directly under the vent pipe becomes a little cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Meeting Action: Accept in Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Revise proposed language to read: A. Another method of designing the air supply ventilator in lieu of dampers is to use a vent duct, with rain cap, extending thru the roof, or outside wall, of a pump house which extends to approximately six inches of the floor of the pump house. This passive method reduces heat loss in the winter. Sizing of this duct must meet the requirements of </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Statement: Meets the intent of the submitter. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: this method can sometimes eliminate louvers altogether. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Design Parameters <ul><li>Battery Voltage Variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Engine and Controller must function reliably over a 250% voltage range. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery Banks Sized for 12 @ 15 Sec Cranks (180 Seconds per bank) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FM-1321/23 Hold-up Time Requirement (Note NFPA Proposal 21-112 and Comment #100) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currents: Engine Wiring (Cabling) and Components Must Accommodate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranking Currents (500 Adc or more) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakaway Currents (1,200 Adc or more) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contiuous Charging Current with a typical RMS ratio of 1.8 times the rated D.C. Current.* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* E.G.: 18 A rms current flow for a 10 amp charger due to ripple current. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Design Parameters <ul><li>Battery Sizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery Banks Sized for 12 @ 15 Sec Cranks (180 Seconds per Bank ) This is to allow one Automatic Six Crank Cycle plus Six more Manual Cranks with one inoperative or missing battery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FM-1321/23 Hold-up Time Requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>48 Hours -or- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>72 Hours -or- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 Hours -or- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>96 Hours ?? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note NFPA Proposal 21-112 and Comment #100 stands at 72 Hours, but not Balloted yet. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Testing & Evaluation <ul><li>F.M. Standard FM-1333 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Temperature Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With or Without Heaters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.L. Standard UL-1247 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Temperature Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With or Without Heaters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voltage Margin Testing (Future?) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Engine Installation Considerations Environmental <ul><li>Sprinklered Pump Room </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Locations, Explosion Proof: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor, Controller, Wiring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Filter Protection from Getting Wet </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Blown Sand or Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Questions ?