Nelson Sabogal, UNEP


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  • A new report by IFC and the World Bank finds that of the 50 economies making the most improvement in business regulation for domestic firms since 2005, 17 are in Sub-Saharan Africa. This year ’ s report marks the 10th edition of the global Doing Business report series and over the life of the report, Africa has consistently recorded a high number of reforms. Rwanda particularly stands out as having consistently improved since 2005. A case study in this year ’ s report features Rwanda, which since 2005 has implemented 26 regulatory reforms as recorded by Doing Business . The report, Doing Business 2013: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises , finds that from June 2011 to June 2012, 28 of 46 governments in Sub-Saharan Africa implemented at least one regulatory reform making it easier to do business—a total of 44 reforms. Burundi, with four reforms, ranks among the 10 economies worldwide that improved the most in the past year across three or more areas measured by Doing Business —the only low-income economy on the list.   Yet despite those achievements, much more can be done to enable African economies to build a strong and competitive private sector. The region ’ s average ranking on the ease of doing business is 140 out of 185. Mauritius and South Africa are the only African economies among the top 40 in the global ranking. “ Doing Business is about smart business regulations, not necessarily fewer regulations, ” said Augusto Lopez-Claros, Director, Global Indicators and Analysis, World Bank Group. “ We are very encouraged that so many economies in Africa are among the 50 that have made the most improvement since 2005 as captured by the Doing Business indicators. ” African economies that have improved the most since then include Rwanda, Burkina Faso, Mali, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Angola, Mauritius, Madagascar, Mozambique, Côte d ’ Ivoire, Togo, Niger, Nigeria, and São Tomé and Príncipe.
  • "Many developing countries still rely on raw material exports and are vulnerable to increasing volatility in raw material prices." From the report of the Report of the Secretary-General on "International challenges for sustainable development: global policy coherence and the role of the United Nations", United Nations (A/67/274), 9 August 2012, page 4.   26. In developing countries, innovation is not a matter of pushing back the frontier of global knowledge. Rather, innovation consists of facilitating the use of existing knowledge and new technology in a domestic context. Research and development activities thus consist of the creation of knowledge, but also, and perhaps more importantly, of acquisition, adaptation, dissemination and use in local settings.(Footnote 11: Carl Dahlmann, “ Technology, globalization, and international competitiveness: challenges for developing countries ” , in David O ’ Connor and Monica Kjöllerström, eds., Industrial Development for the 21st Century: Sustainable Development Perspectives (New York: United Nations, 2007). From page 7   45. There are limited precedents for publicly guided international mechanisms of technological diffusion, but the international public policymaking capability can draw upon existing international scientific networks such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research provides a successful example of rapidly diffusing new agricultural technologies through a publicly supported global and regional network of research institutions. The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer16 successfully provided a global framework for sovereign States to move away from polluting technologies. Critically, it contained special support for developing countries in adapting new technologies, including the creation of a financing pool funded by developed countries, but governed jointly by contributing and beneficiary countries.17 From page 11
  • Stigter CJ (2005). Building stones of agrometeorological services: adaption strategies based on farmers innovations, functionality selected contemporary science and understanding of prevailing policy environments Opening key note lecture at the FPEC Symposium Fukuoka, Japan, J. Agric. Meteorol. (Japan) 60:525-528. Stigter K (2006). Scientific research in Africa in the 21 st century, in need of a change of approach, African Journal of Agricultural Reserach Vol.1, pp-005-009, August 2006 (Available online at http://www.academic
  • Guardian article: "West Africa's technological revolution driven by mobile phones", by Monica Mark, 24 September 2012. ( Research Africa is the only publication to comprehensively track research policy across Africa ’ s capital cities and universities, providing detailed coverage of research-related issues. Compiled by our experienced editorial staff in Cape Town, South Africa, Research Africa is published online with a thorough, weekly digest of research policy news from all over the continent.
  • The Montreal Protocol under the Vienna Convention in Article 6, "Assessment and Review of Control Measures", defines the assessment process. One important issue is that the assessment process is separated of the political process . Tolba also observed:”that the environment can be a bridge between the worlds of East and West, and of North and South…. As a scientist, I salute you: for which this agreement the worlds of science and public affairs have taken a step closer together… a union which must guide the affairs of the world into the next century….This Protocol is a point of departure… the beginning of real work to come.”
  • Lessons from the Assessments for the Montreal Protocol: Wide membership : the members of the Panels ensured that the research and knowledge from all areas of the world are taken into account. As equitable as possible. Parties wanted real advice. Low cost : no consultants or consulting firm could have done this job at such low cost to the Trust Funds. Excellency : the best scientists and experts of the world. Source and transfer of knowledge : the experts in the Panels from more than 80 countries were the reference points for technical, scientific and environmental knowledge for those governments. Allowed and encouraged the transfer of knowledge from developed to developing countries. Independenc e: The members of the Panels and TOCs had a security of tenure and were not afraid to give their opinion freely. Long term process : it has involved scientists and experts since the 1970’s. Cooperation and contribution : International Agencies (FAO, UNEP, WHO, WMO, EC), National Agencies (NASA, NOAA, FAA, BMFT), Governments, Industry (AFEAS), Universities, Research Institutions, International and National Non-Governmental Organizations, among others. Respect by the Parties : No MOP or OEWG has the facts or the options with the results, or the implications for policy formulations disputed. What was left was only political bargaining.
  • Assessments for the Montreal Protocol Composition in 1989 Scientific Assessment Panel : From 9 developing (11 experts) and 9 developed (24 experts) and 2 international organizations.. Environmental Effects Panel : From 9 developing (14 experts) and 9 developed countries (21 experts) and 1 UNEP. Panel for Economic Assessment : 15 experts from developed countries, UNEP, World Bank and EC. Panel for Technical Assessments : Two Co-Chairs from developed countries, 5 Chapter Chairs from developed countries and, as participants and advisors, 89 from developed countries and 2 from developing countries. Composition in 1998 Scientific Assessment Panel : 305 285 developed country contributors and 20 from developing countries. Environmental Effects Panel : 100 75 and 25 Technology and Economics Assessment Panel: 748 676 and 72
  • Nelson Sabogal, UNEP

    1. 1. Nelson Sabogal Senior Programme OfficerSecretariat of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions Planet Earth Institute Roundtable "Empowering Scientific Leadership in Africa“
    2. 2. "Empowering Scientific Leadership in Africa““Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning” Albert Einstein
    3. 3. African Economies Make Consistent ProgressAccording to a World Bank report released this month, more than 20 sub-Saharan African countries, totaling more than 400 million people, have gained middle-income status.This year, the World Bank said:one-third of the economies of the 49 sub-Saharan African countries will grow at a clip of 6 percent or morethe number of people living in poverty has fallen roughly 10 percentage points over the past decade
    4. 4. From the report of the Report of the Secretary-General on"International challenges for sustainable development:global policy coherence and the role of the United Nations",United Nations (A/67/274), 9 August 2012 In developing countries, innovation is not a matter of pushing back the frontier of global knowledge. Rather, innovation consists of facilitating the use of existing knowledge and new technology in a domestic context. Research and development activities thus consist of the creation of knowledge, but also, and perhaps more importantly, of acquisition, adaptation, dissemination and use in local settings.
    5. 5. New approach in scientific research Scientific research in Africa should evaluate the current context and contribute to change this context “Science and technology are just one corner stone to fight poverty, empower people and enhance people’s dignity through life long education” (Stigter, 2005) “The second corner stone therefore is an understanding of local adaptive strategies and innovations” (Stigter, 2005) “New scientific research policies. Indeed “policies” are forming the third corner stone” (Stigter, 2005) “The fourth corner stone are the people themselves, the producers and workers” (Stigter, 2006)
    6. 6. Africas technological revolution" From the Guardian article: "West Africas technological revolution driven by mobile phones", by Monica Mark, 24 September 2012. "If you look at our history and development, the focus has always been to find something that worked successfully somewhere else and bring it here. That model hasnt worked," Longe said, in a buzzing room in downtown Lagos, where dozens of aspiring "techpreneurs" are huddled over laptops. "For solutions to work here, they need to be created with an understanding of the Nigerian context and culture.”
    7. 7. Assessments for the Montreal Protocol Panels of the Montreal ProtocolThe Parties at its First Meeting, held in Helsinki in May 1989 established four review panels: (a) Panel for Scientific Assessment; (b) Panel for Environmental Assessment; (c) Panel for Technical Assessment; (d) Panel for Economic Assessment, (c) and (d) merged later as Technology and Economic Assessment Panel.
    8. 8. Assessments for the Montreal ProtocolTheir relation to the international policy process 1989- Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone: 1989 1991- Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1991 1992 Methyl Bromide: Its Atmospheric, Science, Technology and Economics (Assessment Supplement) 1994 Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994 1998 Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion 2002 and 2006 Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion Each scientific assessment, in 1989, in 1991, in 1994, in 1998 and 2002 and 2006 has served as a basis for the Amendments and Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol adopted in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997), Beijing (1999) and Montreal (2007)
    9. 9. Two Co-Chairs of the Scientific Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol from AfricaMr. Piet Aucamp, from South Africa, Co-Chair of the Scientific Assessment Panel from 1992 to 2000 andProf. Ayite-Lo Nohende Ajavon Head Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory FDS/Universite de Lome, Togo, Co-Chair of the Scientific Assessment Panel from 2001
    10. 10. Thank You!!Nelson Sabogal (Mr.)Senior Programme OfficerTechnical Assistance BranchSecretariat of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm ConventionsUnited Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)Tel: +41(0) 22 917 8212Email: