Our services ranges from landscape environment design, plant and material supply to hard and
soft landscape construction and maintenance. We have colleagues throughout Southeast Asia
with expertise in various aspects including environment design, landscape design, horticulture,
project management and strategic business planning. Graduated from prestige local and
overseas universities, they process professional and academic qualifications. We tailor make
services for all kind of customers, real estate developers, multinational hotel groups,
government entities, as well as individual households. Whoever you are, we will endeavoured
to provide the product and service that best suit your needs. Working with you the client as a
key team member together creating beautiful gardens of your dreams from the smallest
projects to the largest landscapes.
Review of Nursery Principals and Practices
Plant Production Requirements
Selection of Plant Genera and Species
Nursery Maintenance Requirements
Trees being Retained or Transplanted on Site
Tree Maintenance in Nursery and Aftercare
Soft Landscaping Aspects
2. Design Influences
6. Making a Style of Your Own
7. Keeping the Planting Simple
8. Remembering the Detail
10. Introducing Different Levels
11. Proportional Plantings
12. Using Structural Plants
14. Restricting Your Choice of Plants
15. Sitting Your Plants
16. Allowing for Growth
18. Intricacies of Colour Perception
19. Considering the Character of the Site
20. Seasonal Colour Associations
21. Colour Preferences
22. Making Your Personal Mark
Hard Landscaping Aspects
Projects under our hard landscapes range from small
paving works on a predominantly soft landscape
contract to large scale pedestrianisation surfacing of
shopping centres, and public open spaces.
Many of our projects involve environmental
improvements for conservation purposes, and the
sympathetic hard works such as drystone walling,
timber bridges, natural rock importation and water
features form a large part of our hard landscape
With the up turn in quality projects using top quality
specialist products specified by professional design
practices, our focus has been the corporate market
where we provide relaxing, attractive and long lasting
facilities for the enjoyment of pressured employees of
large based companies.
We can provide the concept to completion scheme
where our clients deal with one contractor for all the
aspects of the project from groundworks to
specialized surfacing, elaborate lighting and ongoing
Now that you've got the basics down, you need a plan. Decide what you want and need. What are your priorities?
How much maintenance are you willing to do?
Determine what you have to work with. There are some aspects of your landscape that you cannot or do not want to
change. (Driveways and large trees for example). Also remember your budget constraints. Remember that the
landscape may have to develop in stages. Make a map of your property. Draw a quot;bird's eye viewquot; to scale on graph
paper. Be sure to include:
3. The site itself
4. Boundaries, noting the neighboring landscape
5. Existing plants
6. Exposure (which way does it face - north, south, east, or west)
7. Utilities (dryer vents, air conditioner/heat pumps)
8. Service areas (dog kennel, storage building, trash cans)
9. Views you wish to preserve or hide
10. Downspouts and drains
12. Any existing irrigation systems
13. Retention of Natural Flora Where Possible
Step One: Survey the site
Before you can design a system, you need to accurately gather information about what’s on the site,
including plants, structures, utilities, etc., and where the water and electricity are coming from. A
key word here is accuracy; a mistake will affect everything else!
Get the plans
For new developments, blueprints are required. Dig a little further to design a system on older sites.
If you can’t get the plans, surveying and measuring the site personally is a must.
Measure the landscape
When you can’t get your hands on the plans, you’ll need to measure the area to be landscaped to
plot it on a plan. You will measure the perimeter of the site, any buildings, lawn areas, tree
locations, planters, walkways, driveways, roads and any other items present in the area.
Draw a plan to scale
After you’ve got your measurements, translate them onto a plan to scale; such as 1..200 scale. Using
a drafting program like AutoCad will make the job easier and more accurate, but a hand-drawn plan
is still okay.
Locate a water and power source. You’ll be gathering several pieces of information at this source:
the size and type of the water meter and service line, and the available pressure and flow. The
service line is the water pipe running from the main source nearest to development.
Step Two: Determine static pressure
While you’re still hanging out at the supply line, you’re going to measure the static pressure and
flow. Why? Because before you can choose sprinklers, you need to know how much pressure at
what flow will be available to operate them. Different sprinklers require different pressures to
Simply put, water pressure is the energy that powers your sprinkler system. If there isn’t enough
pressure (if the pressure is too low) there won’t be enough energy to make the water come up and
out of the sprinklers. If there is too much pressure, the sprinklers will mist, coverage will be poor
and you’ll likely need to reduce it with a pressure regulator.
Step Three: Determine maximum available flow
While pressure is the energy that moves the water through the irrigation piping, flow is the
measurement of how much water can be moved (via pressure) in a given amount of time. Flow is
measured in liters per minute or (lpm).
You need to determine this measurement because of a very important rule of hydraulics: the higher
the flow, the greater the pressure loss. Too much flow and the resulting pressure loss means that the
sprinklers won’t have the necessary energy to operate. In order to increase the flow without
increasing the pressure loss, the size of the pipe needs to be increased.
Regarding flow and the resulting pressure loss, you should also know that pressure is lost through
each part of the irrigation system — from the water meter on out to the lateral lines — due to
friction. But, it is possible, and indeed necessary, to calculate what the pressure loss will be so that
you can determine the maximum available flow, as well as what kinds of sprinklers and how many
can be used on one zone.
The following examples use a simple calculation to illustrate the importance of knowing the
maximum available flow. Let me caution that it may feel like we’ve taken a leap further into the
design process without building up to it. But, please bear with me.
The two most widely used irrigation systems are overhead and drip (or trickle). Overhead irrigation
is designed to cover a large area, and these systems are the least expensive to install. However, this
method produces uneven water distribution, which can slow plant growth, encourage disease, and
contribute to runoff. Also, a container nursery using overhead irrigation can use from 15,000 to
40,000 gallons of water per acre per day in the summer, a reminder that sufficient water is a
prerequisite to nursery production.
Before deciding what and how to light, we must first ask quot;why light?quot; Our design decisions are dependent on proposed uses for landscape lighting...for safety, security, property value, or
enhancement of the beauty of the garden and structures. Most likely, the answer will be a combination of two or more of these uses. A specific technique can be employed to satisfy more
than one requirement...for example, up-lighting a prominent tree near the house entrance will provide safety, security and aesthetic enhancement. Landscape lighting design is very
similar to the design of the landscape itself: we must determine focal points, use areas, traffic patterns, outdoor quot;rooms,quot; style, mood, etc. We need to consider how the proposed lighting
will enhance the form, color and texture of the soft and hard landscape elements. Lighting should serve to unify both interior and exterior design themes, conceal what may be
unattractive and shape the view of the landscape at night. The design process should begin with a site map, drawn to scale, showing all landscape features and areas that need lighting.
Fixtures and lamps are chosen for each area based on the desired effects ...path lights for safe passage along walks and stairs, wash fixtures for silhouette effects against a wall, etc. One
common mistake is to overnight; low levels of light create subtle beauty, and are often also sufficient for safety and security. Use brighter lighting effects for focal points, and consider
the effects that different light intensities will have on the overall design.
After deciding on the size and placement of lighting fixtures, the electrical system is designed. The heart of the system is the transformer, which converts the household 120 volts into
safe, efficient 12 volts, and delivers this voltage to several circuits. Using appropriately sized cables and approved connectors, fixtures are connected to the transformer. Group fixtures in
zones determined by the distance to the transformer. The number of fixtures on each circuit will be limited by the wattage of individual lamps, distance to the transformer and associated
voltage drop in the circuit. Voltage drop calculations are critical; excess voltage results in hot lamps with greatly shortened life - insufficient voltage results in weak, ineffective lighting.
The design challenge is to match cable size, total lamp wattage and circuit length to produce voltage within the range of 10.5 to 12 volts. A new generation of transformers uses a multi-
tap configuration to provide voltages in excess of 12 volts for those zones at a sufficient distance from the transformer. (The excess voltage is reduced by the length of run to the first
fixture). This allows greater design freedom and efficiency A common practice among lighting designers and installers is to allow for plenty of movement of the fixture locations. By
leaving extra cable at each fixture, changes can be made to the system after installation, and after several years of plant growth. This has been a very brief introduction to the world of
landscape lighting. There's a vast amount of additional knowledge available for the homeowner to consider, whether he or she wishes to design and/or install a home lighting system, or
merely to learn more about the possibilities.
Lighting Uses and Techniques
Low voltage landscape lighting systems are safe, economical, energy efficient and provide numerous benefits for modern homeowners. Lighting can be used to provide safe access near
paths, drives and entry areas. Outdoor lighting increases security by discouraging potential intruders. And the beauty of garden and home can be dramatically enhanced by showcasing
architectural and plant features with dramatic lighting techniques.
One common technique is up-lighting, which focuses light and attention on an object from a low fixture location. The object can be a shrub, tree or architectural feature like a gazebo or
arbor. Bullet or well type fixtures are specified according to the mature size of the plant or the size of the hardscape area to be illuminated.
Pathlighting uses low fixtures which direct illumination down and outward. These fixtures are shielded on top to prevent glare. They are used along walks, stairs and anywhere else that
safe night access is required.
Another technique is downlighting, or moonlighting. Usually accomplished with bullet type fixtures placed above eye level on a structure (or even in a tree), this technique illuminates
general areas for safety, security and aesthetics. Fixtures and lamps are chosen for the required brightness and width of illumination.
Backlighting, or silhouette lighting, provides a special effect by illuminating a fairly large surface (like a wall) using a wash light fixture. This causes objects in front of the lighting to
appear as silhouettes. The technique of shadowing also uses lights directed toward walls, but they are placed in front of the objects, so shadows play on the wall. Numerous other
techniques, and combinations of techniques, are available to increase your home security, safety, enjoyment and value. The practical and aesthetic effects created by landscape lighting
are limited only by the existing features of the architecture and landscaping and by the creativity of the designer.
Our approach to maintenance attempts to work with natural forces to provide the best
possible environment for plant health. Excessive insect or disease occurrence is often
the result of an imbalance in the soil environment or improper maintenance
procedures. Our experience over the years has shown that a common sense approach to
plant health involves very few, if any, chemical inputs. By understanding the soil
environment and providing the proper fertility, moisture and other cultural inputs, our
plants are able to withstand stress; healthy soil grows healthy plants.
Most landscape plants need regular pruning, whether to preserve a loose, natural form,
or to create tight, compact shapes. Each individual tree or shrub has its own, unique
pruning needs, depending on variety, soil type, exposure and desired result. For
instance, we prune a Ficus or Podocarpus for ornamental value, but prune an Citrus or
Prunus for fruit production; basic pruning rules apply to both, but final techniques and
results are vastly different. Each individual plant will change its pruning requirements
from year to year.
The quot;artquot; of pruning seeks to create a mature form over the course of several seasons -
or several decades - it is an art not to be hurried. The quot;sciencequot; of pruning requires
knowledge of plant types, growth habits, flowering or fruiting characteristics and the
mastery of a few important skills.
Pruning stimulates and directs growth, maintains plant health and creates a form to
support the ornamental trees (foliage, flowers or fruit). Two basic techniques, heading
back and thinning are used to create form. The desired form for standard size trees
and many other ornamentals is a vase shape, single to numerous strong, well-placed
quot;leadersquot;. These leaders form the framework which holds future growth. In contrast to
the vase shape, dwarf and semi dwarf trees and some ornamentals are pruned to a
central leader, or modified central leader form. The early shaping of young trees and
shrubs is extremely important for the development of a strong, well balanced
Any cut made to a small branch must be made just above a bud. This heading back
influences the form of the plant by directing growth according to the position of the
bud and by stimulating growth below the cut. Thinning creates form by removing
entire branches. On vigorously growing plants (fruits and many other ornamentals)
thinning is required for most of the plant's life. With yearly pruning, however, thinning
of wood older than one year is seldom required for larger ornamentals, saw cuts are
Although many plants are pruned during dormancy (winter-early spring), several
important exceptions exist. Shrubs which bloom in early spring (rhododendron, azalea,
forsythia and others) have developed flower buds the previous season and should be
pruned shortly after bloom. Maples will quot;bleedquot; excessively if cut in early spring and
are best pruned in fall. Evergreens are pruned shortly after the full development of the
new season's growth.
Pruning maintains plant health by removing dead, diseased and damaged wood.
Diseased wood should be removed from the site immediately; in severe cases such as
firelight in pears, the cutting tool must be dipped in a weak bleach solution after each
cut. The importance of proper cutting technique cannot be overemphasized. Well built
tools, with razor sharp edges, must be used; a ragged cut will not heal, leaving the
plant susceptible to rots and disease. For the same reason, cuts must be made at
precisely correct locations. Do not use tree paint or any other sealants on pruning cuts.
Our Weed control program is designed to minimize weeds in your
shrub and landscape beds, greatly reducing the need for the back
breaking work of handweeding. Our program
consists of four applications during the first season of the program.
Early Spring Pre-emergent application
For initial treatment we will apply a granular or liquid weed
preventer, this forms a barrier on the soil surface to prevent up to
95% of weed seeds from germinating. This application will not
control established or perennial weeds.
Late Spring Post-emergent application
By this time any weeds that were established prior to our initial
treatment, hard to control weeds and grasses are flourishing. Our
horticulturist will spot treat these weeds and grasses with post
emergent herbicide treatment, again reducing the weeds in your
Summer Pre-emergent application
Similar to the early Spring treatment, but targeting cool season Fall
and Winter annuals and perennials, such as annual bluegrass,
chickweed, speedwell, and other weeds that germinated in late Fall
and early Winter.
Fall Post-emergent application
Targets remaining weeds and tough to control weeds with post-
emergent spot herbicidal treatment. After the initial season this
treatment may be eliminated in subsequent seasons based on the
condition of the planting beds.
In subsequent seasons the program may be reduced to three
applications based on the condition of the planting beds. Again, our
Mulch Bed Weed Control Program is intended to greatly reduce the
number of weeds in your planting beds. We cannot and Do not
guarantee control of ALL weeds, and your good cultural practices
such as proper mulching, watering, and pulling the occasional weed
is a must to get the most benefits from our program. Our
horticulturist is well trained and familiar with most common garden
plants as well as many uncommon varieties. If you have wildflower
areas or exotic plants these should be brought to our attention. You
know what they say quot;One man's weed is another man's flowerquot;.
The above guidelines are meant as a very brief survey of basic
maintenance purpose and technique from an experienced landscape
professional. Learning this fascinating art and science is well worth
the time and energy required.
There are various methods of controlling ornamental and turfgrass insects and other
pest. Methods of control have been divided into a number of categories including:
3. Chemical control
4. Physical and mechanical control
5. Cultural control
6. Biological control
7. Legal control.
The advantages and disadvantages of each method will depend on a number of
factors including pest, cost, and ease of application.
Chemical control of insects, mites, and other pest affecting ornamental plants is
similar to that used in controlling field crops. However, there are two related
application problems that must be considered: phytotoxicity and drift. Both of these
factors will be discussed in a later section. The value of an ornamental may be
drastically reduced if it exhibits signs of phytotoxicity or burns. Plants grown in
enclosed structures are more easily injured by heavy applications of pesticides than
the same plants grown in the open. For this reason much greater care must be
exercised in the control methods employed.
The best way to prevent damage by insects to plants is to keep the insects out of the
enclosures. The following precautions should be taken:
11. Before a plant is put in, or the soil placed in the benches, the houses should be
cleaned out as thoroughly as possible. If they have recently been infested with
insects, a thorough fumigation may be needed.
12. All soil to be brought into the greenhouse should be thoroughly inspected for
cutworms, grubs, etc. If the soil is infested, it should be sterilized with steam.
13. All plants brought into the greenhouse should be inspected to make sure that they are
free from insect infestation.
There are several physical or mechanical insect control methods commonly used to
protect limited areas. Sticky bands on tree trunks or bench legs may help to control
crawling insects. Flying insects can be killed with electric traps or be attracted to
light traps. Screens may not only provide a physical barrier to insect invasions, but
they may also help regulate light, temperature, and humidity.
Cultural control measures involve the use of ordinary growing practices which
prevent the buildup of pest populations. They usually involve the cheapest methods
of pest control such as plant rotation, sanitation, and the use of resistant varieties.
Biological control has been effective against many insect pests particularly those
attacking ornamental plants. Biological control generally involves the use of
parasites, predators, and microbes. Most of our ornamental and turf pests are
attacked by other insects many of which are extremely small wasps. Most biological
control programs are conducted by governement agencies, however, the use of
microbes to control chewing insects is the prerogative of individual applicators.
Phytotoxicity, or pesticide damage to plants, results in such things as abnormal
growth, leaf drop, and discolored, curled, and spotted leaves. If phytotoxicity is
severe, the plant may die. Phytotoxity often mimics such things as insect damage,
plant disease, and response to poor growing conditions such as insufficient moisture,
improper fertilization, etc. The following items are especially relevant to the
18. A wide variety of plant material
19. Pesticide drift
20. Pesticide persistence beyond the intended period of pest control
Environmental Impact Studies
Storm Water Management
Storm Water Detention Facilities
Sewer Collector Systems
Water Distribution/Storage Facilities
Planning Board/Zoning Board