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Plant Asia Presentation.

  1. 1. PLANT ASIA Presentation
  2. 2. Introduction  Our services ranges from landscape environment design, plant and material supply to hard and soft landscape construction and maintenance. We have colleagues throughout Southeast Asia with expertise in various aspects including environment design, landscape design, horticulture, project management and strategic business planning. Graduated from prestige local and overseas universities, they process professional and academic qualifications. We tailor make services for all kind of customers, real estate developers, multinational hotel groups, government entities, as well as individual households. Whoever you are, we will endeavoured to provide the product and service that best suit your needs. Working with you the client as a key team member together creating beautiful gardens of your dreams from the smallest projects to the largest landscapes.
  3. 3. Horticulture Aspects  Review of Nursery Principals and Practices  Plant Production Requirements  Selection of Plant Genera and Species  Irrigation Requirements  Nursery Maintenance Requirements
  4. 4. Arboriculture Aspects Trees being Retained or Transplanted on Site  Tree Maintenance in Nursery and Aftercare
  5. 5. Soft Landscaping Aspects  Style 2. Design Influences 3. Proportion 4. Perspective 5. Materials 6. Making a Style of Your Own 7. Keeping the Planting Simple 8. Remembering the Detail  Structure 10. Introducing Different Levels 11. Proportional Plantings 12. Using Structural Plants  Planning 14. Restricting Your Choice of Plants 15. Sitting Your Plants 16. Allowing for Growth  Using Colour 18. Intricacies of Colour Perception 19. Considering the Character of the Site 20. Seasonal Colour Associations 21. Colour Preferences 22. Making Your Personal Mark  Texture
  6. 6. Hard Landscaping Aspects Projects under our hard landscapes range from small paving works on a predominantly soft landscape contract to large scale pedestrianisation surfacing of shopping centres, and public open spaces. Many of our projects involve environmental improvements for conservation purposes, and the sympathetic hard works such as drystone walling, timber bridges, natural rock importation and water features form a large part of our hard landscape operations. With the up turn in quality projects using top quality specialist products specified by professional design practices, our focus has been the corporate market where we provide relaxing, attractive and long lasting facilities for the enjoyment of pressured employees of large based companies. We can provide the concept to completion scheme where our clients deal with one contractor for all the aspects of the project from groundworks to specialized surfacing, elaborate lighting and ongoing maintenance.
  7. 7. Landscape Design  Now that you've got the basics down, you need a plan. Decide what you want and need. What are your priorities? How much maintenance are you willing to do?  Determine what you have to work with. There are some aspects of your landscape that you cannot or do not want to change. (Driveways and large trees for example). Also remember your budget constraints. Remember that the landscape may have to develop in stages. Make a map of your property. Draw a quot;bird's eye viewquot; to scale on graph paper. Be sure to include: 3. The site itself 4. Boundaries, noting the neighboring landscape 5. Existing plants 6. Exposure (which way does it face - north, south, east, or west) 7. Utilities (dryer vents, air conditioner/heat pumps) 8. Service areas (dog kennel, storage building, trash cans) 9. Views you wish to preserve or hide 10. Downspouts and drains 11. Grades/slopes/drainage 12. Any existing irrigation systems 13. Retention of Natural Flora Where Possible
  8. 8.  Step One: Survey the site Irrigation Design Before you can design a system, you need to accurately gather information about what’s on the site, including plants, structures, utilities, etc., and where the water and electricity are coming from. A key word here is accuracy; a mistake will affect everything else!  Get the plans For new developments, blueprints are required. Dig a little further to design a system on older sites. If you can’t get the plans, surveying and measuring the site personally is a must.  Measure the landscape When you can’t get your hands on the plans, you’ll need to measure the area to be landscaped to plot it on a plan. You will measure the perimeter of the site, any buildings, lawn areas, tree locations, planters, walkways, driveways, roads and any other items present in the area.  Draw a plan to scale After you’ve got your measurements, translate them onto a plan to scale; such as 1..200 scale. Using a drafting program like AutoCad will make the job easier and more accurate, but a hand-drawn plan is still okay. Locate a water and power source. You’ll be gathering several pieces of information at this source: the size and type of the water meter and service line, and the available pressure and flow. The service line is the water pipe running from the main source nearest to development.  Step Two: Determine static pressure While you’re still hanging out at the supply line, you’re going to measure the static pressure and flow. Why? Because before you can choose sprinklers, you need to know how much pressure at what flow will be available to operate them. Different sprinklers require different pressures to operate.  Simply put, water pressure is the energy that powers your sprinkler system. If there isn’t enough pressure (if the pressure is too low) there won’t be enough energy to make the water come up and out of the sprinklers. If there is too much pressure, the sprinklers will mist, coverage will be poor and you’ll likely need to reduce it with a pressure regulator.  Step Three: Determine maximum available flow While pressure is the energy that moves the water through the irrigation piping, flow is the measurement of how much water can be moved (via pressure) in a given amount of time. Flow is measured in liters per minute or (lpm).  You need to determine this measurement because of a very important rule of hydraulics: the higher the flow, the greater the pressure loss. Too much flow and the resulting pressure loss means that the sprinklers won’t have the necessary energy to operate. In order to increase the flow without increasing the pressure loss, the size of the pipe needs to be increased.  Regarding flow and the resulting pressure loss, you should also know that pressure is lost through each part of the irrigation system — from the water meter on out to the lateral lines — due to friction. But, it is possible, and indeed necessary, to calculate what the pressure loss will be so that you can determine the maximum available flow, as well as what kinds of sprinklers and how many can be used on one zone.  The following examples use a simple calculation to illustrate the importance of knowing the maximum available flow. Let me caution that it may feel like we’ve taken a leap further into the design process without building up to it. But, please bear with me.  The two most widely used irrigation systems are overhead and drip (or trickle). Overhead irrigation is designed to cover a large area, and these systems are the least expensive to install. However, this method produces uneven water distribution, which can slow plant growth, encourage disease, and contribute to runoff. Also, a container nursery using overhead irrigation can use from 15,000 to 40,000 gallons of water per acre per day in the summer, a reminder that sufficient water is a prerequisite to nursery production.
  9. 9. Lighting Design  Design Basics Before deciding what and how to light, we must first ask quot;why light?quot; Our design decisions are dependent on proposed uses for landscape lighting...for safety, security, property value, or enhancement of the beauty of the garden and structures. Most likely, the answer will be a combination of two or more of these uses. A specific technique can be employed to satisfy more than one requirement...for example, up-lighting a prominent tree near the house entrance will provide safety, security and aesthetic enhancement. Landscape lighting design is very similar to the design of the landscape itself: we must determine focal points, use areas, traffic patterns, outdoor quot;rooms,quot; style, mood, etc. We need to consider how the proposed lighting will enhance the form, color and texture of the soft and hard landscape elements. Lighting should serve to unify both interior and exterior design themes, conceal what may be unattractive and shape the view of the landscape at night. The design process should begin with a site map, drawn to scale, showing all landscape features and areas that need lighting. Fixtures and lamps are chosen for each area based on the desired effects ...path lights for safe passage along walks and stairs, wash fixtures for silhouette effects against a wall, etc. One common mistake is to overnight; low levels of light create subtle beauty, and are often also sufficient for safety and security. Use brighter lighting effects for focal points, and consider the effects that different light intensities will have on the overall design.  Electrical System After deciding on the size and placement of lighting fixtures, the electrical system is designed. The heart of the system is the transformer, which converts the household 120 volts into safe, efficient 12 volts, and delivers this voltage to several circuits. Using appropriately sized cables and approved connectors, fixtures are connected to the transformer. Group fixtures in zones determined by the distance to the transformer. The number of fixtures on each circuit will be limited by the wattage of individual lamps, distance to the transformer and associated voltage drop in the circuit. Voltage drop calculations are critical; excess voltage results in hot lamps with greatly shortened life - insufficient voltage results in weak, ineffective lighting. The design challenge is to match cable size, total lamp wattage and circuit length to produce voltage within the range of 10.5 to 12 volts. A new generation of transformers uses a multi- tap configuration to provide voltages in excess of 12 volts for those zones at a sufficient distance from the transformer. (The excess voltage is reduced by the length of run to the first fixture). This allows greater design freedom and efficiency A common practice among lighting designers and installers is to allow for plenty of movement of the fixture locations. By leaving extra cable at each fixture, changes can be made to the system after installation, and after several years of plant growth. This has been a very brief introduction to the world of landscape lighting. There's a vast amount of additional knowledge available for the homeowner to consider, whether he or she wishes to design and/or install a home lighting system, or merely to learn more about the possibilities.  Lighting Uses and Techniques Low voltage landscape lighting systems are safe, economical, energy efficient and provide numerous benefits for modern homeowners. Lighting can be used to provide safe access near paths, drives and entry areas. Outdoor lighting increases security by discouraging potential intruders. And the beauty of garden and home can be dramatically enhanced by showcasing architectural and plant features with dramatic lighting techniques. One common technique is up-lighting, which focuses light and attention on an object from a low fixture location. The object can be a shrub, tree or architectural feature like a gazebo or arbor. Bullet or well type fixtures are specified according to the mature size of the plant or the size of the hardscape area to be illuminated. Pathlighting uses low fixtures which direct illumination down and outward. These fixtures are shielded on top to prevent glare. They are used along walks, stairs and anywhere else that safe night access is required. Another technique is downlighting, or moonlighting. Usually accomplished with bullet type fixtures placed above eye level on a structure (or even in a tree), this technique illuminates general areas for safety, security and aesthetics. Fixtures and lamps are chosen for the required brightness and width of illumination. Backlighting, or silhouette lighting, provides a special effect by illuminating a fairly large surface (like a wall) using a wash light fixture. This causes objects in front of the lighting to appear as silhouettes. The technique of shadowing also uses lights directed toward walls, but they are placed in front of the objects, so shadows play on the wall. Numerous other techniques, and combinations of techniques, are available to increase your home security, safety, enjoyment and value. The practical and aesthetic effects created by landscape lighting are limited only by the existing features of the architecture and landscaping and by the creativity of the designer.
  10. 10. Landscape Maintenance  Our approach to maintenance attempts to work with natural forces to provide the best possible environment for plant health. Excessive insect or disease occurrence is often the result of an imbalance in the soil environment or improper maintenance procedures. Our experience over the years has shown that a common sense approach to plant health involves very few, if any, chemical inputs. By understanding the soil environment and providing the proper fertility, moisture and other cultural inputs, our plants are able to withstand stress; healthy soil grows healthy plants.  Most landscape plants need regular pruning, whether to preserve a loose, natural form, or to create tight, compact shapes. Each individual tree or shrub has its own, unique pruning needs, depending on variety, soil type, exposure and desired result. For instance, we prune a Ficus or Podocarpus for ornamental value, but prune an Citrus or Prunus for fruit production; basic pruning rules apply to both, but final techniques and results are vastly different. Each individual plant will change its pruning requirements from year to year. The quot;artquot; of pruning seeks to create a mature form over the course of several seasons - or several decades - it is an art not to be hurried. The quot;sciencequot; of pruning requires knowledge of plant types, growth habits, flowering or fruiting characteristics and the mastery of a few important skills. Pruning stimulates and directs growth, maintains plant health and creates a form to support the ornamental trees (foliage, flowers or fruit). Two basic techniques, heading back and thinning are used to create form. The desired form for standard size trees and many other ornamentals is a vase shape, single to numerous strong, well-placed quot;leadersquot;. These leaders form the framework which holds future growth. In contrast to the vase shape, dwarf and semi dwarf trees and some ornamentals are pruned to a central leader, or modified central leader form. The early shaping of young trees and shrubs is extremely important for the development of a strong, well balanced framework. Any cut made to a small branch must be made just above a bud. This heading back influences the form of the plant by directing growth according to the position of the bud and by stimulating growth below the cut. Thinning creates form by removing entire branches. On vigorously growing plants (fruits and many other ornamentals) thinning is required for most of the plant's life. With yearly pruning, however, thinning of wood older than one year is seldom required for larger ornamentals, saw cuts are necessary. Although many plants are pruned during dormancy (winter-early spring), several important exceptions exist. Shrubs which bloom in early spring (rhododendron, azalea, forsythia and others) have developed flower buds the previous season and should be pruned shortly after bloom. Maples will quot;bleedquot; excessively if cut in early spring and are best pruned in fall. Evergreens are pruned shortly after the full development of the new season's growth. Pruning maintains plant health by removing dead, diseased and damaged wood. Diseased wood should be removed from the site immediately; in severe cases such as firelight in pears, the cutting tool must be dipped in a weak bleach solution after each cut. The importance of proper cutting technique cannot be overemphasized. Well built tools, with razor sharp edges, must be used; a ragged cut will not heal, leaving the plant susceptible to rots and disease. For the same reason, cuts must be made at precisely correct locations. Do not use tree paint or any other sealants on pruning cuts.
  11. 11. Weed Control  Weed Control Our Weed control program is designed to minimize weeds in your shrub and landscape beds, greatly reducing the need for the back breaking work of handweeding. Our program consists of four applications during the first season of the program.  Early Spring Pre-emergent application For initial treatment we will apply a granular or liquid weed preventer, this forms a barrier on the soil surface to prevent up to 95% of weed seeds from germinating. This application will not control established or perennial weeds.  Late Spring Post-emergent application By this time any weeds that were established prior to our initial treatment, hard to control weeds and grasses are flourishing. Our horticulturist will spot treat these weeds and grasses with post emergent herbicide treatment, again reducing the weeds in your gardens.  Summer Pre-emergent application Similar to the early Spring treatment, but targeting cool season Fall and Winter annuals and perennials, such as annual bluegrass, chickweed, speedwell, and other weeds that germinated in late Fall and early Winter.  Fall Post-emergent application Targets remaining weeds and tough to control weeds with post- emergent spot herbicidal treatment. After the initial season this treatment may be eliminated in subsequent seasons based on the condition of the planting beds. In subsequent seasons the program may be reduced to three applications based on the condition of the planting beds. Again, our Mulch Bed Weed Control Program is intended to greatly reduce the number of weeds in your planting beds. We cannot and Do not guarantee control of ALL weeds, and your good cultural practices such as proper mulching, watering, and pulling the occasional weed is a must to get the most benefits from our program. Our horticulturist is well trained and familiar with most common garden plants as well as many uncommon varieties. If you have wildflower areas or exotic plants these should be brought to our attention. You know what they say quot;One man's weed is another man's flowerquot;.  The above guidelines are meant as a very brief survey of basic maintenance purpose and technique from an experienced landscape professional. Learning this fascinating art and science is well worth the time and energy required.
  12. 12.  Pest Control Pest Control  There are various methods of controlling ornamental and turfgrass insects and other pest. Methods of control have been divided into a number of categories including: 3. Chemical control 4. Physical and mechanical control 5. Cultural control 6. Biological control 7. Legal control. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will depend on a number of factors including pest, cost, and ease of application. Chemical control of insects, mites, and other pest affecting ornamental plants is similar to that used in controlling field crops. However, there are two related application problems that must be considered: phytotoxicity and drift. Both of these factors will be discussed in a later section. The value of an ornamental may be drastically reduced if it exhibits signs of phytotoxicity or burns. Plants grown in enclosed structures are more easily injured by heavy applications of pesticides than the same plants grown in the open. For this reason much greater care must be exercised in the control methods employed.  The best way to prevent damage by insects to plants is to keep the insects out of the enclosures. The following precautions should be taken: 11. Before a plant is put in, or the soil placed in the benches, the houses should be cleaned out as thoroughly as possible. If they have recently been infested with insects, a thorough fumigation may be needed. 12. All soil to be brought into the greenhouse should be thoroughly inspected for cutworms, grubs, etc. If the soil is infested, it should be sterilized with steam. 13. All plants brought into the greenhouse should be inspected to make sure that they are free from insect infestation.  There are several physical or mechanical insect control methods commonly used to protect limited areas. Sticky bands on tree trunks or bench legs may help to control crawling insects. Flying insects can be killed with electric traps or be attracted to light traps. Screens may not only provide a physical barrier to insect invasions, but they may also help regulate light, temperature, and humidity.  Cultural control measures involve the use of ordinary growing practices which prevent the buildup of pest populations. They usually involve the cheapest methods of pest control such as plant rotation, sanitation, and the use of resistant varieties.  Biological control has been effective against many insect pests particularly those attacking ornamental plants. Biological control generally involves the use of parasites, predators, and microbes. Most of our ornamental and turf pests are attacked by other insects many of which are extremely small wasps. Most biological control programs are conducted by governement agencies, however, the use of microbes to control chewing insects is the prerogative of individual applicators.  Phytotoxicity, or pesticide damage to plants, results in such things as abnormal growth, leaf drop, and discolored, curled, and spotted leaves. If phytotoxicity is severe, the plant may die. Phytotoxity often mimics such things as insect damage, plant disease, and response to poor growing conditions such as insufficient moisture, improper fertilization, etc. The following items are especially relevant to the phytotoxicity problem: 18. A wide variety of plant material 19. Pesticide drift 20. Pesticide persistence beyond the intended period of pest control 21. Incompatibility 22. Formulation 23. Application
  13. 13. Environmental Impact Studies  Site Planning  Subdivisions  Land Surveying  Storm Water Management  Storm Water Detention Facilities  Sewer Collector Systems  Water Distribution/Storage Facilities  Pumping Stations  Road Design  Lighting  Recreation Facilities  Wetlands Studies  Permit Applications  Planning Board/Zoning Board Presentations  Contract Administration