Trust your instincts. If that little voice inside you says something is not quite right don't ignore it. Always walk confidently and with purpose
Always try to look as if you know where you are going.
Most Town and City centres now have comprehensive CCTV systems which has been installed for your safety familiarise yourself as to where the cameras are and when walking through the City alone try and stay on streets where the cameras are.
Dark alleys, waste ground, alleyways, short cuts.
Keep to well-lit streets if possible.
Be aware of what is happening around you and remember if you are wearing a personal stereo you won't be able to hear what is going on.
If you see a something you are not happy with or you think you are being followed cross the road. If you feel threatened don't be afraid to ask for help from passers by, or go into a place where there are other people (pubs, restaurants, etc).
If there are no such places about, knock on a house with a light on and ask for help. But don't go inside, just in case.
If you are threatened make as much noise as is possible, shout, scream or set off your personal attack alarm. If you haven't got an alarm they can be purchased from most good hardware or DIY stores and only cost a couple of pounds. This will draw attention to you and again don't be afraid to ask for help.
Remember you can use reasonable force to defend yourself so don’t be afraid to fight back
It may be alright to kick out, punch or bite to effect your escape, but please bear in mind you might have to justify what you have done later later.