creative approaches to visual
         narratives
      Visual Studies – Week 5.
creative approaches to narrative
“Within-time-ness ... possesses its own specific features which are not reducible
to the ...
creative approaches to narrative

“Narratives ... represent a person acting, who
orients him – or herself in the circumsta...
creative approaches to visual
            narratives
• The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal
  forms
• Fear and Loathin...
DUKE




       hitchhiker
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                             universal forms
                                 Logic of Narr...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                  universal forms
Amelioration to obtain

                              Obs...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                  universal forms
Exposition – Meir Steinberg
                      ‘It is ...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                          universal forms
                  Fabula                         ...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
       universal forms
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                            universal forms
“... the time-ratio of a narrative time-span or...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                   universal forms
Vladimir Propp – Character Types (Spheres of Action)
   ...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                    universal forms
                    Gerard Genette – Narrative Discours...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                      universal forms
“Is it not structuralism’s constant aim to master the...
The Great Shark Hunt : finding
                 universal forms hidden
“For the traditional critic, the most profound
desi...
Fear and Loathing of
                        Structuralism
“Thought about narrative has traditionally concerned itself wit...
Fear and Loathing of
                  Structuralism
“*A study of narrative+ must concentrate on perturbations and
turbule...
Fear and Loathing of
   Structuralism
Fear and Loathing of
                       Structuralism
“Take... Serres’s account of the metaphors of fire and mist in Z...
Fear and Loathing of
   Structuralism
Fear and Loathing of
   Structuralism
Songs of the Doomed : searching
        for difference
Songs of the Doomed : searching
                    for differenceand Guattari: its
The term multiplicity is associated wi...
Cornelia Parker, Heart of
Darkness (2004) Cold Dark
Matter (2007).
Songs of the Doomed : searching
                  for difference




Anthony Gormley
Martin Creed (2007) Work no. 370 BALLS
• Matrix Reloaded
Generation of Swine : new media,
         new stories?
Generation of Swine : new
                  media, new stories?




Miller, Robin and Rand, Myst (1993 Macintosh)
Cyan Wor...
Miller, Robyn and Wende, Richard.(1997 win/mac) Riven, Cyan Inc.
Demarle, Mary and Saunders, Phil. ( 2001 win) Myst III: Exile, Presto Studios
Creative Approaches To Narrative Theory
Creative Approaches To Narrative Theory
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Creative Approaches To Narrative Theory

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Based on different readings of the fillm 'Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas' (Gilliam 1998), this presentation attempts to offer a clear and easy to understand introduction to the diferences between structuralist and poststructuralist narrative methodologies.

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Creative Approaches To Narrative Theory

  1. 1. creative approaches to visual narratives Visual Studies – Week 5.
  2. 2. creative approaches to narrative “Within-time-ness ... possesses its own specific features which are not reducible to the representation of linear time, a neutral series of abstract instants [...] “Let us say that that a story describes a series of actions and experiences made by a number of characters, whether real or imaginary. These characters are represented either in situations that change or as they relate to changes to which they then react. These changes, in turn, reveal hidden aspects of the situation and of the characters and engender a new predicament that call for thinking action, or both [...] Following a story, correlatively, is understanding the successive actions, thoughts, and feelings in question insofar as they present a certain directedness. By this I mean that we are pushed ahead by this development and that we reply to its impetus with expectations concerning the outcome” ...
  3. 3. creative approaches to narrative “Narratives ... represent a person acting, who orients him – or herself in the circumstances he or she has not created, and who produces consequences he or she has not intended. This is indeed the time of ‘now that... ,’ wherein a person is both abandoned and responsible at the same time.” Ricoeur, P (1980) Narrative Time, in Mcquillan, M (ed) (2000) the Narrative Reader. London, Routledge. p 255.
  4. 4. creative approaches to visual narratives • The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms • Fear and Loathing of Structuralism • Songs of the Doomed : searching for difference • Generation of Swine : new media, new “When the going gets stories? weird the weird turn pro” – Rauol Duke
  5. 5. DUKE hitchhiker
  6. 6. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms Logic of Narrative Possibilities – Claude Bremond Goal attained (e.g. Act Successful) Actualisation (e.g. Act required to obtain goal) Virtuality Goal not attained (e.g. Goal to be obtained) Absence of actualisation (Inertia, impediment)
  7. 7. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms Amelioration to obtain Obstacle to eliminate Possible means Amelioration process Elimination process Means to be taken Means successful Amelioration obtained Obstacle eliminated Logic of Narrative Possibilities – Claude Bremond
  8. 8. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms Exposition – Meir Steinberg ‘It is the function of the exposition to introduce the reader into an unfamiliar world, the fictive world of the story, by providing him with the general and specific antecedents indispensible to the understanding of what happens in it ... of the canons of probability operating in it; of the history, appearance, traits and habitual behaviour of the dramatis personae [actants]; and of the relations between them.’ Steinberg, M (1996 [1978]) What is Exposition? An essay in Temporal Delimitation, in Onega, S and Landa, G (eds) Narratology. Harlow, Longman Group Ltd. P. 104
  9. 9. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms Fabula Sjuzhet Story Narrative Plot Steinberg sees the exposition as always being at the beginning of the Fabula or Story.
  10. 10. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms
  11. 11. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms “... the time-ratio of a narrative time-span or event generally stands in direct proportion to it’s contextual relevance: one whose representational time approximates its represented time is implied to be more central to the work in question...” Steinberg, M (1996 [1978]) What is Exposition? An essay in Temporal Delimitation, in Onega, S and Landa, G (eds) Narratology. Harlow, Longman Group Ltd. P. 111 Our trip was different. It was going to be a classic affirmation of everything right and true in the national character; a gross, physical salute to the fantastic possibilities of life in this country. But only for those with true grit.
  12. 12. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms Vladimir Propp – Character Types (Spheres of Action) 1. The Villain 2. The donor (provider) 3. The helper 4. The sought for person (and her father) 5. The dispatcher 6. The hero 7. The false hero A. J. Greimas – Actantial Models sender object receiver helper subject opponent
  13. 13. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms Gerard Genette – Narrative Discourse The narrator can operate inside or outside of the story world. The narrator can therefore be visible or invisible. The narrator is NOT necessarily synonymous with the author/director– think duke (not Thompson), think Robinson Crusoe (not Daniel Defoe). I remember saying something like: “I feel a bit lightheaded. Maybe you should drive.” Subsequent – past tense Prior – predictive, generally future tense Simultaneous – present, contemporaneous with action Interpolated – between moments of action (“What in broadcasting language is called the live and the pre-recorded account after the event.”)
  14. 14. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms “Is it not structuralism’s constant aim to master the infinity of utterances by describing the language of which they are products and from which they can be generated?” Barthes, R (1966) Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives in Ibid. “A narrating situation is, like any other, a complex whole within which analysis, or simply description, cannot differentiate except by ripping apart a tight web of cennections among the narrating act, its protagonists, its spatio-temporal determination, its relationship to the other narrating situations involved in the same narrative...” Genette, G (1972) Voice, in Ibid p.174.
  15. 15. The Great Shark Hunt : finding universal forms hidden “For the traditional critic, the most profound design in a narrative was its unity”, writes Mark Currie, and “in the critical quest for unity there was a desire to present a narrative as a coherent and stable project. In the view of the poststructuralist critic, this was just a way of reducing the complexity … of a narrative”. (Currie 1998, p. 3)
  16. 16. Fear and Loathing of Structuralism “Thought about narrative has traditionally concerned itself with two distinct kinds of space. The connection between them is profoundly ideological. On the one hand, there is the space of representation. This is understood as the space of the real, the homogenous space of the world. On the other hand, there is the space pf the model or describable form. In this second dimension, the narratological imaginary has been haunted by something like the reverse of poetic intuition, by dreams of the geometric.” Gibson, A p. 3 “Narrative theory ... Has repeatedly constructed the space of the text a unitary, homogenous space, determined by and organised within a given set of constraints. Narratological space has seldom been disturbed by blurrings, troubling ambivalences or multiplications. In it, boundaries are clearly defined and categories clearly distinguished. Proportions and regularities establish and maintain certain harmonious and orderly relations. The most recent developments in narratology have hardly disturbed those relations at all.” Ibid. P.7
  17. 17. Fear and Loathing of Structuralism “*A study of narrative+ must concentrate on perturbations and turbulences, multiple forms, uneven structures and fluctuating organisations. The ‘site’ such an aesthetics indicates for the knower, thinker of observer is not the apparently stable site of the narratologist.” Ibid,p. 13
  18. 18. Fear and Loathing of Structuralism
  19. 19. Fear and Loathing of Structuralism “Take... Serres’s account of the metaphors of fire and mist in Zola, of clouds, flows, turbulences, motors and so on ... Narratives are conceptualised in terms of a reservoir of metaphors internal to them.” Ibid.
  20. 20. Fear and Loathing of Structuralism
  21. 21. Fear and Loathing of Structuralism
  22. 22. Songs of the Doomed : searching for difference
  23. 23. Songs of the Doomed : searching for differenceand Guattari: its The term multiplicity is associated with Deleuze basic definition is ‘a large number or variety’. On one hand we can make sense of a multiplicity, it can be organized, it can be divided up - like the specific players of a football team. But on the other hand it is much more sensual, unconscious, about feelings - like the action and interaction of football players during a game. (Deleuze and Guattari 1987, p.36) In this way it forms a tension between what we can understand and what we can’t. Another philosopher who used the term multiplicity was Michel Serres, he writes: “We are fascinated by the unit; only a unity seems rational to us. We scorn the senses, because their information reaches us in bursts. We scorn the groupings of the world… For us they seem to enjoy a of the status of Being only when they are subsumed beneath a unity… A cartload of bricks isn’t a house.” (Serres 1995, p. 2)
  24. 24. Cornelia Parker, Heart of Darkness (2004) Cold Dark Matter (2007).
  25. 25. Songs of the Doomed : searching for difference Anthony Gormley
  26. 26. Martin Creed (2007) Work no. 370 BALLS
  27. 27. • Matrix Reloaded
  28. 28. Generation of Swine : new media, new stories?
  29. 29. Generation of Swine : new media, new stories? Miller, Robin and Rand, Myst (1993 Macintosh) Cyan Worlds
  30. 30. Miller, Robyn and Wende, Richard.(1997 win/mac) Riven, Cyan Inc.
  31. 31. Demarle, Mary and Saunders, Phil. ( 2001 win) Myst III: Exile, Presto Studios

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