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Notes around the theme of student-centred learning: 23 November 2010

Notes around the theme of student-centred learning: 23 November 2010

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Student centred notes Student centred notes Presentation Transcript

  • Some Notes on “Student-Centred” Teaching and Learning James Atherton 23 November 2010
  • Some Notes on “Student-Centred” Teaching and Learning James Atherton 23 November 2010 Just some notes/remarks; not a comprehensive account
  • Some Notes on “Student-Centred” Teaching and Learning James Atherton 23 November 2010 In quotation marks because it is so over-used as to be effectively meaningless
    • Increasing...
    (student)
    • Activity
    • Choice
    • Power
    I'm not offering a definition. If you need one, this presentation is not for you. But in practice, it means getting students to do things first, and working with that, rather than telling them stuff, or what to do, from the outset
  • What's the alternative?
    • “ Direct Instruction”
    • Broadly, the teacher demonstrates or presents, and then the students practise in the approved way, using exercises etc.
    • Much disparaged and misrepresented, it is nonetheless the strategy of choice for many topics.
    • Hattie (2009:205) gives it an effect-size of 0.59; way above the mean of 0.4.
    • Many forms of “student-centred” learning score less than the mean.
    • But read Hattie's commentary (2009: 204-207)
    • Hattie J (2009) Visible Learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement London; Routledge
    Effect-size d =0.59 Pages like this were not in the original presentation
    • Continuum
      Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
    In practical terms there is a continuum, and whereabouts you choose to go on it depends on the topic and how you want the students to learn.
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
    Here are some sample teaching activities and where they sit
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
      Traditional class (Intro, task, “plenary”)
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
      Traditional class (Intro, task, “plenary”)
      Student presentation
    On a topic and terms set by the teacher...
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
      Traditional class (Intro, task, “plenary”)
      Student presentation
      Student-led seminar
    Topic at least negotiated by student(s)
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
      Traditional class (Intro, task, “plenary”)
      Student presentation
      Student-led seminar
      Self-directed groupwork/ independent study
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
      Traditional class (Intro, task, “plenary”)
      Student presentation
      Student-led seminar
      Self-directed groupwork/ independent study
      Students design and manage class
    Note that the teacher is not actually essential. We do most of our learning without needs of that role.
    • Teacher-centred
      Student-centred
      Lecture without interaction
      Lecture with interaction
      Traditional class (Intro, task, “plenary”)
      Student presentation
      Student-led seminar
      Self-directed groupwork/ independent study
      Students design and manage class
  • Variations on the theme
    • Role of teacher...
    • “ Sage on the stage”
    • “ Guide at the side”
    Of all the simplistic rubbish that appears in the educational “literature” these typifications must be the most egregious examples
    • Role of teacher...
    • “ Sage on the stage”
    • “ Guide at the side”
    Any half-way good teacher does both as appropriate. To adopt a strategy based on a preference for a role is to put the cart before the horse Of all the simplistic rubbish that appears in the educational “literature” these typifications must be the most egregious examples
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    Students don't want to learn, but... They will if you crack the whip They will if you make it fun enough Students do want to learn, and they will if you let them
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    Students don't want to learn, but...
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    Students don't want to learn, but... They will if you crack the whip They will if you make it fun enough
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    Students don't want to learn, but... They will if you crack the whip They will if you make it fun enough Students do want to learn, and they will if you let them
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    Students don't want to learn, but... Students do want to learn, and they will if you let them Student-centred learning can work for teachers like these
    • 22 November 2010
      Hargreaves’ teachers
    • Lion-tamers
    • Entertainers
    • New Romantics
    Based on Hargreaves D (1975) Interpersonal Relations and Education London; Routledge (p. 164 ff. )
    • 22 November 2010
      A model
      Dominance : role/nature not negotiable: other components adapt
      Distance between elements and width of connecting lines show strength of identification between elements
    For a proper account of this model with provenance etc. go to: http://www.doceo.co.uk/tools/subtle_1.htm
      Teacher
      Learner
      Subject
  • Teacher Learner Subject Teacher Learner Subject
      22 November 2010
      Traditional model
      Facilitator: more “student-centred” approach
      Dominance
  • Teacher Learner Subject Teacher Learner Subject
      22 November 2010
      “ Governess”/ Guru
      Mentoring
      Dominance
  • Influential contributors
    • “ The theoretical standing of student-centred learning is often surprisingly absent in the literature.” (O'Neill and McMahon, 2005)
    • Broadly fits with humanist approaches to learning (Hargreaves' “new romantics”)
    • Associated with Dewey (1938), the constructivists Piaget and Bruner and the following...
    Dewey J (1938) Experience and Education (various editions)
    • JSA
      Malcolm Knowles: “andragogy” (1978)
    • The need to know — adult learners need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it.
    • Learner self-concept — adults need to be responsible for their own decisions and to be treated as capable of self-direction
    • Role of learners’ experience — adult learners have a variety of experiences of life which represent the richest resource for learning. These experiences are however imbued with bias and presupposition.
    • Readiness to learn — adults are ready to learn those things they need to know in order to cope effectively with life situations.
    • Orientation to learning — adults are motivated to learn to the extent that they perceive that it will help them perform tasks they confront in their life situations .
      based on Knowles 1990:57  
    Knowles claims its application to adult learning, based on these claimed features of adults
    • 22 November 2010
      Paulo Freire
    • 1921 - 1997
    • Brazilian educator: particularly adult literacy
    • Seen as political as well as practical
    • Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1972)
    Very influential in radical adult education; despite his critique of the “banking model” of education (see later) his own practice is not really student-centred.
    • 22 November 2010
      Freire
      “ This book will present some aspects of what the writer has termed the “ pedagogy of the oppressed ”, a pedagogy which must be forged with , not for , the oppressed (be they individuals or whole peoples) in the incessant struggle to regain their humanity. This pedagogy makes oppression and its causes objects of reflection by the oppressed, and from that reflection will come their necessary engagement in the struggle for their liberation . And in the struggle this pedagogy will be made and remade.” From Freire P The Pedagogy of the Oppressed Penguin 1972:25
    • 22 November 2010
      “ Banking” education
    • the teacher teaches and the students are taught ;
    • the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing ;
    • the teacher thinks and the students are thought about ;
    • the teacher talks and the students listen —meekly ;
    • the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined ;
    • the teacher chooses and enforces his choice, and the students comply ;
    • the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher;
    • the teacher chooses the program content , and the students (who were not consulted) adapt to it;
    • the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students;
    • the teacher is the Subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects.
  • Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky) Probably the most influential theorist ( via Bruner in the West) through his ideas of “social constructivism” where learning arises out of interaction between the learner and others, who may be teachers, but not necessarily in a formal sense