Groups 10 for web
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Groups 10 for web

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A guest session at a partner college. Annotations and links added. Not comprehensive and jumps around a bit following the in-class discussion.

A guest session at a partner college. Annotations and links added. Not comprehensive and jumps around a bit following the in-class discussion.

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    Groups 10 for web Groups 10 for web Presentation Transcript

    • Groups in teaching James Atherton 13 February 2014, Tresham College “Insanity in individuals is something rare—but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule.” Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Beyond Good and Evil: 156 (1886)
    • www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/usingthegroup.htm
    • The material in this presentation (and more) is available on this site: (hyperlinks are inactive) www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/usingthegroup.htm
    • Approaches to Groups  “Reading” groups   Understanding what is going on from a descriptive and analytic perspective Leading groups  Application of above and approaches to structuring groups to serve a particular task
    • Approaches to Groups  “Reading” groups   Understanding what is going on from a descriptive and analytic perspective Leading groups  Application of above and approaches to structuring groups to serve a particular task Of course teachers are primarily interested in how to lead and manage groups (classes), but being able to read them certainly helps. You almost certainly know a lot of this already, but you can use it more effectively when you have a language to discuss it.
    • Approaches to Groups  “Reading” groups   Understanding what is going on from a descriptive and analytic perspective Leading groups  Application of above and approaches to structuring groups to serve a particular task As you ably demonstrated by the kind of comments you were making later on in the session Of course teachers are primarily interested in how to lead and manage groups (classes), but being able to read them certainly helps. You almost certainly know a lot of this already, but you can use it more effectively when you have a language to discuss it.
    • The Group Dimension   Groups have emergent properties, i.e. they are more than the sum of their parts          norms culture cohesiveness trust inclusion/exclusion pressure roles leadership/authority hidden agendas career
    • The Group Dimension   Groups have emergent properties, i.e. they are more than the sum of their parts As teachers, we often like to pretend that these aspects don’t exist; that they are simply hindrances to the real tasks of teaching and learning          norms culture cohesiveness trust inclusion/exclusion pressure roles leadership/authority hidden agendas career
    • But you can’t legislate them out of existence. And managed properly they can really contribute to the process of learning  The Group Dimension Groups have emergent properties, i.e. they are more than the sum of their parts As teachers, we often like to pretend that these aspects don’t exist; that they are simply hindrances to the real tasks of teaching and learning           norms culture cohesiveness trust inclusion/exclusion pressure roles leadership/authority hidden agendas career
    • Formal and Informal Groups Formal Task System Role Individual Informal
    • Formal and Informal Groups Formal Task System Role Individual For a fuller discussion, see: www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/group_cultures. htm Informal
    • Task and Maintenance Task Individual Group
    • Task and Maintenance This is the basic model, to which we returned several times. Task Individual Group
    • Task and Maintenance This is the basic model, to which we returned several times. Task Individual Group All three components require attention from the leader (teacher)— and they may well pull in different directions
    • Group Size     2: Limited group process 3: Potential for 2 against 1 4: 3 against 1 and even splits 5: clear and marginal majorities    6–12: developing complexity: individualism preserved. 12-20: tendency to operate on sub-groups 20+: sub-group process inevitable
    • More on this at: www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/group_size.ht m     2: Limited group process 3: Potential for 2 against 1 4: 3 against 1 and even splits 5: clear and marginal majorities    Group Size 6–12: developing complexity: individualism preserved. 12-20: tendency to operate on sub-groups 20+: sub-group process inevitable
    • Group Development     Forming Storming Norming Performing Forming Storming Performing Norming
    • Group Development     Forming Storming Norming Performing More detailed discussion and source links: www.learningandteaching.info /teaching/group_development.htm Forming Storming Performing Norming
    • Basic Assumption Behaviour 1  Two levels:    Work-group Basic Assumption In ba behaviour: Group acts as if it had made the assumption that it is here to... In the early ‘60s, psychoanalyst W R Bion proposed a different model, outlined at www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/group_cultures.htm (page down to “Bion”) and linked material.
    • Basic Assumption Behaviour 2     ba Dependence ba Fight/Flight ba Pairing (Expectancy) We only discussed ba dependence, as most relevant to teaching, so other slides have been edited out. correspond to the 4 “F”s of organisms’ basic responses to external objects     Feed Fight Flee Mate
    • Basic Assumption Dependence   Groups acts as if it had made the assumption that it is here to depend on someone. May be very seductive for leader (but doesn’t last)
    • (This is an added slide)     In discussion the “additional” basic assumptions came up—indeed they were mentioned by group members before me. Great stuff. They are ba OneNess, postulated by Pierre Turquet in 1974. That is where the group as a whole is determined to deny differences and individuality. I admit that the discussion concentrated rather too much on the imposition of uniformity, rather than a desire arising out of the emotional needs of the participants, and I did not correct that drift as actively as I should have done. And ba MeNess is the polar opposite (from Gordon Lawrence et al. in 1996). In our discussion it arose from one of you identifying that in a class of people with severe learning disabilities, some or all may lack the capacity to understand what a group is. They are looked at in a little more detail at www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/groups_other_bas.htm (scroll down); an authoritative account can be found at; www.acsa.net.au/articles/thefifthbasicassumption.pdf
    • Roles in Groups  Function of     Formality Task Pressure Individual valency This issue is taken up further at: www.learningandteaching.info/ teaching/roles_in_groups.htm
    • Management Teams     Company worker Chairman Shaper Plant     Resource Investigator Monitor-evaluator Team-worker Completer-finisher According to Belbin (2004); the formula is disputed as well as followed even its own field. But teaching and learning is clearly beyond its range of convenience and applicability
    • Classes in School          swot rebel joker teacher's pet dunce scapegoat chatterbox bully victim  …and the teacher
    • Major dimensions of Roles in groups Dominance Included/ Committed Excluded/ Uncommitted Submission Here for the sake of completeness… there was no time to examine implications for classes.
    • What to do about them    Roles become a problem mainly when a member is locked into one Members who have a high valency for a role regardless of group can be tackled individually But if the role is a function of group needs, work with the whole group to give the problem member space to change
    • Proportion of time speaking Participation: vocal and silent members 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Group members (in order of contribution) We didn’t get a chance to discuss this research, although I promised we would, but there is more at: www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/ participation_levels.htm
    • Working with Groups  “Interaction breeds sentiment” (Homans) Task and Maintenance both need attention  Behaviour is information at the maintenance level  especially modelling  and representation 
    • www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/usingthegroup.htm