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Basic Author Date (Harvard) Referencing

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A basic introduction to the rationale and practice of author/date a.k.a Harvard academic referencing

A basic introduction to the rationale and practice of author/date a.k.a Harvard academic referencing

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  • 1. Referencing: Author/date or “Harvard” 4 October 09
  • 2. “ If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants” Isaac Newton (letter to Robert Hooke, 5 February 1676) Poussin N (1658) Paysage avec Orion aveugle cherchant le soleil Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • 3. “ If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants” Isaac Newton (letter to Robert Hooke, 5 February 1676) Poussin N (1658) Paysage avec Orion aveugle cherchant le soleil Metropolitan Museum of Art Yes, this needs to be referenced too…
  • 4.
    • So instead of an uncontroversial canter through the research literature and its relevance for the post-compulsory sector, I have deliberately decided to provoke argument and perhaps even opposition in the hope of engaging readers in the main issues. 2 ……
    2. I learned this from Karl Popper who, in his autobiography, wrote of ‘my custom, whenever I am invited to speak in some place, of trying to develop some consequences of my views which I expect to be unacceptable to the particular audience. For I believe that there is only one excuse for a lecture: to challenge. It is the only way in which speech can be better than print’. [Popper K Unended Quest. Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1976, p.124]
  • 5. That quotation was from;
    • Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... London; Learning and Skills Network
    • Or, in the text itself—
    • (Coffield, 2008)
  • 6. That quotation was from;
    • Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... London; Learning and Skills Network
    • Or, in the text itself—
    • (Coffield, 2008)
    The structure of the flag is where the system gets its name from; Author/Date (Also known outside the US as the “Harvard system” – but no formal connection with Harvard University)
  • 7.
    • This is not the place to explore all the unintended consequences of such a funding mechanism, but among them is certainly the rise of a risk-averse approach to management, with ever closer control being exercised over staff roles and teaching practices (Coffield, 2008). At the micro-level of the classroom, this is reinforced by the technology ….
    • References:
    • Boud D and Feletti G (1998) The Challenge of Problem-based Learning (2nd edn.) London; Kogan Page
    • Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority… London; Learning and Skills Network
    • DfES (2004) Equipping our teachers for the future: Reforming initial teacher training for the learning and skills sector London; Department for Education and Skills. Available to download from http://www.lluk.org/3009.htm (accessed 8 September 2008) …
    The “flag” in the text; Author’s surname and date The full reference at the end Hadfield P and Atherton J (2008) “Beyond compliance: accountability, assessment and anxiety, and curricular structures to help students engage with troublesome knowledge” in C Rust (ed.) Improving Student Learning; through the curriculum Oxford; Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development 2009 pp 158-170
  • 8.
    • Coffield, 2008
    • Not “Frank Coffield” or “Prof. Coffield”
    • Hadfield and Atherton, 2008
    • Not “Peter and James, 2008”
    • But “Zander, et al. 2008”
    • Not “Zander, Boustedt, Eckerdal, McCartney, Mostrom, Ratcliffe and Sanders (2008)”
    • If you are using a direct quotation then you need to specify the page number(s), too.
  • 9. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    Separated onto different lines for clarity here; in practice on normal lines. All the authors, with initials (conventions about punctuation vary, chiefly so journal editors can prevent authors from submitting exactly the same manuscript to several journals)
  • 10. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    • The date is important.
    • it appears in the flag so helps locate this text in the bibliography
    • it differentiates between several writings by this author
  • 11. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008a)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    If you refer to several items from the same author in the same year, identify them (both in the flag and the citation) as “a”, “b”…
  • 12. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    The title! But it’s not that simple. We’ll come back to that
  • 13. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    Place of publication. Why? Because there may be different editions with subtle variations in spelling, local examples, currency, pagination, etc.
  • 14. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    Publisher, at that location, although…
  • 15. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    • (available; https://crm.lsnlearning.org.uk/user/order.aspx?code=080052&src=XOWEB accessed 3 October 09)
    In this case, it is also a free download from the web, so show that, including the date you checked its availability
  • 16. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    That’s fine for a simple book, but…
  • 17.
    • Proper academic stuff is more complicated than that, especially;
    • Individual papers in edited collections
    • Articles in journals
    • The net
  • 18. The full citation
    • Coffield F
    • (2008)
    • Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority...
    • London;
    • Learning and Skills Network
    The title! But it’s not that simple. We’ll come back to that
    • OK, but the title of what ?
    • Whatever will help you
    • Find a volume on a shelf
    • Find a paper in a volume
  • 19. Paper in a collection…
    • Hadfield P and Atherton J (2008) “Beyond compliance: accountability, assessment and anxiety, and curricular structures to help students engage with troublesome knowledge” in C Rust (ed.) Improving Student Learning; through the curriculum Oxford; Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development 2009 pp 158-170
    This is the volume you can find in the library catalogue or on the shelf. It’s conventionally in italics or underlined .
  • 20. Paper in a collection…
    • Hadfield P and Atherton J (2008) “Beyond compliance: accountability, assessment and anxiety, and curricular structures to help students engage with troublesome knowledge” in C Rust (ed.) Improving Student Learning; through the curriculum Oxford; Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development 2009 pp 158-170
    This is the article you would look for inside the volume; conventionally the title is in quotation marks.
  • 21. Article in a journal…
    • Kinchin I and Hay D (2005) “Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: A pilot study” Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (2) July pp. 182-187
    This is the volume you can find in the library catalogue or on the shelf. It’s conventionally in italics or underlined .
  • 22. Article in a journal…
    • Kinchin I and Hay D (2005) “Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: A pilot study” Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (2) July pp. 182-187
    This is the article you would look for inside the volume; conventionally the title is in quotation marks.
  • 23. Article in a journal…
    • Kinchin I and Hay D (2005) “Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: A pilot study” Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (2) July pp. 182-187
    The standards for citing volumes and editions are highly inconsistent and a nightmare. Which is OK because they don’t matter much in practice.
  • 24. It’s in the Handbook! Appendix 2 And on-line at ATHERTON J S (2008) Doceo; Assignment Presentation Guidelines [On-line] UK: Available: h ttp://www.doceo.co.uk/academic/assignment_presentation.htm   Accessed: 3 October 2009

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