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Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
Aspects of curriculum
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Aspects of curriculum

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Accompanying a session on curriculum design in post-compulsory education

Accompanying a session on curriculum design in post-compulsory education

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  • 1. Aspects of Curriculum part 1
  • 2. Aspects of Curriculum part 1 James Atherton 5 December 2012
  • 3. Just an aide-memoire to complement your own notes Aspects of Curriculum part 1
  • 4. Just an aide-memoire to complement your own notes Aspects of Curriculum part 1 (And apologies for a somewhat “banking” slanted session—a la Freire!)
  • 5. • The ability to articulate what it is you have learned often arrives after you have learned to control and manipulate the the attempt to use situation, if at all. Indeed, conscious knowledge to guide learning frequently turns out to be counter productive. The effort to apply what you think is going on, or what you have been told is going on, can actively interfere with the ability of your brain to pick up useful but subtle aspects of the situation just through trial and error. Claxton G and Lucas B (2012) “Is vocational education for the less able?” in P Adey & J Dillon (eds.) Bad Education: debunking myths in education Buckingham; Open University Press, 2012
  • 6. • The ability to articulate what it is you have learned often arrives after you have learned to control and manipulate the the attempt to use situation, if at all. Indeed, conscious knowledge to guide learning frequently turns out to be counter productive. The effort to apply what you think is going on, or what you have been told is going on, can actively interfere with the ability of your brain to pick up useful but subtle aspects of the situation just through trial and error. (Thanks to Sam Shepherd’s blog for finding the quotation) We concluded last time that the simple model of “applying theory to practice” was unrealistic and not true to experience. It makes more sense to use theory to account for and to connect practice(s)—after the event, probably. That is the spirit of this session.
  • 7. Biggs’ 3Ps model of the teaching-learning situation (1993) P re s a g e P ro c e s s P ro d u c t STUDENT Feedback P rio r K n o w le d g e A b ilitie s D ire c t e ffe c ts M e ta - P re fe rre d w a y s o f le a rn in g e .g . a b ility le a rn in g V a lu e , e xp e c ta tio n s NATURE O F O UTCO MES tu d e n t p e rc e p tio n s T e a c h e r p e rc e p tio n s T A S K P R O C E S S IN G S tru c tu re D e ta il T E A C H IN G C O N T E X T Feedback C u rric u lu m M e ta - D ire c t e ffe c ts te a c h in g e .g . tim e T e a c h in g m e th o d C la s s ro o m c lim a te Feedback Assessm ent
  • 8. This is Biggs’ basic 3-stagemodel of the system: I’m Biggs’ 3Ps model of the going to refer to “input”teaching-learning situation (1993) “process” and output” P re s a g e P ro c e s s P ro d u c t STUDENT Feedback P rio r K n o w le d g e A b ilitie s D ire c t e ffe c ts M e ta - P re fe rre d w a y s o f le a rn in g e .g . a b ility le a rn in g V a lu e , e xp e c ta tio n s NATURE O F O UTCO ME S tu d e n t p e rc e p tio n s T e a c h e r p e rc e p tio n s T A S K P R O C E S S IN G S tru c tu re D e ta il T E A C H IN G C O N T E X T Feedback C u rric u lu m M e ta - D ire c t e ffe c ts te a c h in g e .g . tim e T e a c h in g m e th o d C la s s ro o m c lim a te Feedback Assessm ent
  • 9. This is Biggs’ basic 3-stagemodel of the system: I’m Biggs’ 3Ps model of the going to refer to “input”teaching-learning situation (1993) “process” and output” P re s a g e P ro c e s s P ro d u c t STUDENT Feedback P rio r K n o w le d g e A b ilitie s D ire c t e ffe c ts M e ta - P re fe rre d w a y s o f le a rn in g e .g . a b ility le a rn in g V a lu e , e xp e c ta tio n s NATURE O F O UTCO ME S tu d e n t p e rc e p tio n s T e a c h e r p e rc e p tio n s T A S K P R O C E S S IN G S tru c tu re D e ta il T E A C H IN G C O N T E X T Feedback C u rric u lu m M e ta - D ire c t e ffe c ts te a c h in g e .g . tim e T e a c h in g m e th o d C la s s ro o m c lim a te He makesdthe important point that de Fee back Assessm ent facto, what you have to start with (students and setting and requirements) is itself part of the curriculum.
  • 10. Input-Output model Input (fixed) Process (fixed) Output (fixed) ThresholdRejectJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 11. So here is the basicmodel of any open system… Input-Output model Input (fixed) Process (fixed) Output (fixed) ThresholdRejectJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 12. So here is the basic model of any open system… Input-Output model Input (fixed) Process (fixed) Output (fixed)Which means any system whichinteracts with its environment Threshold Reject JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 13. So here is the basicmodel of any open system… Input-Output model Input (fixed) Process (fixed) Output (fixed) ThresholdReject …but you can’t fix all three components…JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 14. Degrees of FreedomJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 15. …so if you want to Degrees of Freedomput people througha standard course…JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 16. …so if you want to Degrees of Freedomput people througha standard course… ... And have them come out with capabilities at a set level...JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 17. …so if you want to Degrees of Freedomput people througha standard course… ... And have them ...then you need to come out with be selective capabilities at a set level...JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 18. …so if you want to Degrees of Freedomput people througha standard course… ... And have (most ...then you need to of) them come out be selective with capabilities at a …and/or accept set level... dropouts and failuresJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 19. Degrees of FreedomBut if you are not free to selectJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 20. But if you are not Degrees of Freedomfree to select, and take all-comers …to avoid dropouts and failure you may have to make the course longer…JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 21. Degrees of Freedom …and/or accept that even when they complete (pass) the course, some will not have met the requirements.JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 22. Dewey:Experiences are educativeif they lead in turn to other “Education”experiences, and are notdead-ends So education is about openi ng up experiences 10 December 2012
  • 23. Training...whereas training is aboutClosing d own in the sense of not doing it wrong JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 24.  “Education” and “training”are complementary  but training can only operate in a predictable system  (where there are “right answers”)  or convergence (Hudson) (?)JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 25. Planning Aim s Cycle 1 V alu es N eed s E valu atio n D esig n Im p le m e n t- a tio nJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 26. This is the simple process, which supposedly applies to all kinds of projects, in all Aim s kinds of contexts. V alu es N eed s E valu atio n D esig n Im p le m e n t- a tio nJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 27. L e a rn e rs T e a c h e rs B u s in e s s C o m m u n ity Aim s V alu es N eed s M o n ito rin g S tu d e n t-c e n tre d E v a lu a tio n S u p p o rt In d u s try-c e n tre d E valu atio n D esig n R e v ie w /c h a n g e S ystem s N e g o tia te d M a rk e tin g V a lid a te d ... e tc . Im p le m e n t- a tio n This is someone’s well-meaning attempt to elaborate the process—which of course bears less and less connection T e a c h in g /le a rn in g s tra te g ie s to the real world… M o d e o f d e liv e ry M a te ria ls Assessm entJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 28. Planning Cycle S tu d en ts E valu atio n T o p ic OK—this cycle is fairly practical—for planning teaching, that is. But! Does it create occasions D elivery for learning? That’s not the C o n strain ts same thing. M eth o d s O b jectivesJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 29. S e s s io n a l S c h e d u le S tu d e n t Jo b re q u ire m e n ts c h a ra c te ris tic s A n a lys e R e q u ire m e n ts L o c a te S tu d e n t b a s e lin e A v a ila b le fo rm s o f In s titu tio n a l assessm en t c o n s tra in ts T ra n s la te D e -c o n te x tu a lis e E q u ip S tu d e n t " d e fic it" D o m a in s o f S e le c t k n o w le d g e L e v e l o f d iffic u lty D e s ig n C u rric u lu m Q u e s tio n in g C h eck P re s e n ta tio n u n d e rs ta n d in g P u z z le s E x e rc is e s It’s much messier than that— Assess something like this, perhaps S tu d e n t p e rfo rm a n c e S yn th e s is e P rio ritis e R e -c o n te x tu a lis e In fo rm a l m e n to rsJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 30. S e s s io n a l S c h e d u le S tu d e n t Jo b re q u ire m e n ts c h a ra c te ris tic s A n a lys e R e q u ire m e n ts L o c a te S tu d e n t b a s e lin e A v a ila b le fo rm s o f In s titu tio n a l assessm en t c o n s tra in ts T ra n s la te D e -c o n te x tu a lis e E q u ip S tu d e n t " d e fic it" D o m a in s o f S e le c t k n o w le d g e L e v e l o f d iffic u lty D e s ig n C u rric u lu m Q u e s tio n in g C h eck P re s e n ta tio n u n d e rs ta n d in g P u z z le s E x e rc is e s It’s much messier than that— Assess something like this, perhaps S tu d e n t p e rfo rm a n c e Don’t worry if you can’t S yn th e s is e P rio ritis e read the individual labels—it’s the R e -c o n te x tu a lis e sprawling shape which carries the message. In fo rm a l m e n to rsJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 31. Jo b We’ll return to this in the “Critical An a lys e R e q u ire m e n ts Voices” section below The process of “teachifying” T ra n s la tepractice knowledge, D e -c o n te x tu a lis e as described by Becker (1972) D o m a in s o f k n o w le d g e L e v e l o f d iffic u lty D e s ig n C u rric u lu m Av a ila b le fo rm s o f assessm en t S e s s io n a l re q u ire m e n tsJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 32. Jo b An a lys e R e q u ire m e n ts The process of “teachifying” T ra n s la tepractice knowledge, D e -c o n te x tu a lis e as described by Becker (1972) D o m a in s o f k n o w le d g e L e v e l o f d iffic u lty The key feature is that we D e s ig n C u rric u lu m take that practice knowledge out of context Av a ila b le fo rm s o f assessm en t and impose our own “educational” logic on it. S e s s io n a l re q u ire m e n tsJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 33. Collection or Integration?Forms of knowledge (Bernstein)(Hirst/Phoenix)MathsScienceEnglishHumanitiesArtEtc.JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 34. Collection or Integration? Forms of knowledge (Bernstein) (Hirst/Phoenix) MathsA Science Once you decide to teach it, do you : side issue?(a) Teach the conventional disciplines, with their English coherence, and then expect learners academic to select and apply? (The collection model) Humanities(b) Or do you pre-select the bits which matter, across the disciplines? (Integrated model) Art More efficient and focused, but loses academic coherence. Etc. JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 35. Let this blob represent all the confusing, messy, amorphous,values, knowledge and skills which make up practice in the real world…
  • 36. And then let’s thinkabout how we might teach it Let this blob represent all the confusing, messy, amorphous, values, knowledge and skills which make up practice in the real world…
  • 37. And then let’s think about how we might teach it In neat little packages Let this blob represent all the which comply with confusing, messy, amorphous, regulations, and values, knowledge and skills whichassessment regimes, and make up practice in the real timetabling… world…
  • 38. Ethics LegalPolitical AspectsBackground
  • 39. With the best intentions, we populate the space with nice, neat, regular packages/courses/modules which address importantelements of the “curriculum” Ethics Legal Political Aspects Background
  • 40. Philosophies / models of Ethics Legal Practice Political AspectsDiscipline- BackgroundSpecificTheory
  • 41. Philosophies / models of Ethics Legal Practice Political Aspects Discipline- Background Specific Professional Theory StudiesTechnology Practice skills
  • 42. Philosophies / models of Ethics Legal PracticeOther Political Aspectscontributoryskills Discipline- Background Specific Professional Theory Studies Technology Practice skills
  • 43. But we still end up with areas which have not been, and cannot be, addressed—or assessed. Philosophies / models of Ethics Legal PracticeOther Political Aspectscontributoryskills Discipline- Background Specific Professional Theory Studies Technology Practice skills
  • 44. Questioning Presentation Check understanding Puzzles Exercises Assess Student performanceJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 45. Questioning Presentation Check understanding Puzzles Exercises Here is a close-up of Assesswhat we do, in order to get student performance up to Student performance the mark.JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 46. But that’s not thesame as practitioner performance in the real world. Questioning Presentation Check understanding Puzzles Exercises Here is a close-up of Assesswhat we do, in order to get student performance up to Student performance the mark.JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 47. S e s s io n a l S c h e d u le S tu d e n t Jo b re q u ire m e n ts c h a ra c te ris tic s A n a lys e R e q u ire m e n ts L o c a te S tu d e n t b a s e lin e A v a ila b le fo rm s o f In s titu tio n a l assessm en t c o n s tra in ts T ra n s la te D e -c o n te x tu a lis e E q u ip S tu d e n t " d e fic it" D o m a in s o f S e le c t k n o w le d g e L e v e l o f d iffic u lty D e s ig n C u rric u lu m Q u e s tio n in g C h eck P re s e n ta tio n u n d e rs ta n d in g P u z z le s E x e rc is e s Assess Here’s what S tu d e n t happens at p e rfo rm a n c e the end of the S yn th e s is e P rio ritis e process R e -c o n te x tu a lis e In fo rm a l m e n to rsJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 48. As s e s s Post-course learning S tu d e n t p e rfo rm a n c e S yn th e s is e P rio ritis e R e -c o n te x tu a lis e In fo rm a l m e n to rsJSA 10-Dec-12
  • 49. As s e s s Post-course learning S tu d e n t p e rfo rm a n c e S yn th e s is e P rio ritis e R e -c o n te x tu a lis eSo—bottom line— there is still anenormous amount of learning to dobeyond the course In fo rm a l m e n to rs JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 50. As s e s s Yes—we knew that! So? S tu d e n t p e rfo rm a n c e S yn th e s is e P rio ritis e R e -c o n te x tu a lis eSo—bottom line— there is still anenormous amount of learning to dobeyond the course In fo rm a l m e n to rs JSA 10-Dec-12
  • 51. The argument is that the structure of thecurriculum within educational institutions can potentially (weak form) / does necessarily (strong form)inhibit effective learning for practice.
  • 52. Critical voices
  • 53. Critical voices So let’s hear from somecritical voices
  • 54. All of whom argue in their different ways that all the preceding stuff was about top-down curricula, imposed on learners in the ultimate interests of someone else Critical voices So let’s hear from somecritical voices
  • 55. Paulo Freire • 1921 - 1997 • Brazilian educator: particularly adult literacy • Seen as political as well as practical • Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1972)10 December 2012
  • 56. Find out more about these thinkers at www.infed.org Paulo Freire • 1921 - 1997 • Brazilian educator: particularly adult literacy • Seen as political as well as practical • Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1972)10 December 2012
  • 57. “Banking” educationa. the teacher teaches and the students are taught;b. the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing;c. the teacher thinks and the students are thought about;d. the teacher talks and the students listen—meekly;e. the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined;f. the teacher chooses and enforces his choice, and the students comply;g. the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher;h. the teacher chooses the program content, and the students (who were not consulted) adapt to it;i. the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students;j. the teacher is the Subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects.10 December 2012
  • 58. This is how Freire regards the standard “Banking” top-down model of education educationa. the teacher teaches and the students are taught;b. the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing;c. the teacher thinks and the students are thought about;d. the teacher talks and the students listen—meekly;e. the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined;f. the teacher chooses and enforces his choice, and the students comply;g. the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher;h. the teacher chooses the program content, and the students (who were not consulted) adapt to it;i. the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students;j. the teacher is the Subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects.10 December 2012
  • 59. Freire“This book will present some aspects of what the writer has termed the “pedagogy of the oppressed”, a pedagogy which must be forged with, not for, the oppressed (be they individuals or whole peoples) in the incessant struggle to regain their humanity.This pedagogy makes oppression and its causes objects of reflection by the oppressed,and from that reflection will come their necessary engagement in the struggle for their liberation.And in the struggle this pedagogy will be made and remade.” From Freire P The Pedagogy of the Oppressed Penguin 1972:2510 December 2012
  • 60. (Personal take)Apart from being almost unreadable, Freire’s rhetoric is all well and good, but read up on his practice and you find a clear sense of “knowing what is best for the learners” which is no less patronising for being cast in the jargon of “liberation” See Taylor, P V (1993) The Texts of Paulo Freire Buckingham: Open University Press (Taylor would not agree with the note above.)
  • 61. Ivan Illich • 1926-2002 • priest who thought there were too many priests, • lifelong educator who argued for the end of schools • Argued hospitals cause more sickness than health, • that people would save time if personal transportation were limited to bicycles and • that historians who rely on previously published material perpetuate falsehoods.10 December 2012
  • 62. Ivan Illich • 1926-2002 • priest who thought there were too many priests, • lifelong educator who argued for the end of schools • Argued hospitals cause more sickness than health, • that people would save time if personal transportation were limited to bicycles and •that historians who rely on previously published And he makes very material perpetuate good cases for these falsehoods. strange claims.10 December 2012
  • 63. Ivan Illich • 1926-2002 • priest who thought there were too many priests, • lifelong educator who argued for the end of schools • Argued hospitals cause more sickness than health, • that people would save For a short time if personal introduction to his transportation were ideas see his limited to bicycles anddelightfully titled Tools • that historians who rely for Conviviality And he makes on previously published (Fontana, 1975) very good casesmaterial perpetuate falsehoods. for these strange 10 December 2012 claims.
  • 64. De-Schooling SocietyMany students, especially those who are poor, intuitively know what the schools dofor them. They school them to confuse process and substance.Once these become blurred, a new logic is assumed: the more treatmentthere is, the better are the results; or, escalation leads to success.The pupil is thereby "schooled" to confuse teachingwith learning, grade advancement with education, adiploma with competence, and fluency with the abilityto say something new.His imagination is "schooled" to accept service in place of value.Medical treatment is mistaken for health care, social work for the improvement ofcommunity life, police protection for safety, military poise for national security, the ratrace for productive work. Health, learning, dignity, independence, and creativeendeavor are defined as little more than the performance of the institutions whichclaim to serve these ends, and their improvement is made to depend on allocatingmore resources to the management of hospitals, schools, and other agencies inquestion.(from ch. 1)10 December 2012
  • 65. “Teachification”• We set up special institutions to teach in• We de-contextualise (uproot) knowledge from its origins in practice• Allocate it to separate “subjects”• Taught by experts rather than practitioners• And sequence topics from “simple” to “difficult”• Assess them in fragments (usually by writing)• And then expect the student to put it all back together again Based on Becker H (1972) “School is a lousy place to learn anything in” originally published in American Behavioral Scientist (1972): 85-105, and reproduced in Burgess R G (1995) Howard Becker on Education Buckingham: OU Press10 December 2012
  • 66. The term is mine rather “Teachification” than Becker’s• We set up special institutions to teach in• We de-contextualise (uproot) knowledge from its origins in practice• Allocate it to separate “subjects”• Taught by experts rather than practitioners• And sequence topics from “simple” to “difficult”• Assess them in fragments (usually by writing)• And then expect the student to put it all back together again Based on Becker (1972)10 December 2012
  • 67. Situated Learning (Lave and Wenger 1991) Initial interaction is with other The boundary new entrants is constantly moving Progress is being allowed to take on more key, or risky, L & W explicitly reject tasks this way of Note: Lave & Wenger explicitly reject this kind of depiction of their model representing the idea10 December 2012
  • 68. L & W’s work is based largely on anthropological reports of how Situated Learningpeople pick up their trades/skills (Lave and Wenger 1991) where there is no formal structure for training Initial interaction is with other The boundary new entrants is constantly moving Progress is being allowed to take on more key, or risky, L & W explicitly reject tasks this way of Note: Lave & Wenger explicitly reject this kind of depiction of their model representing the idea 10 December 2012
  • 69. Situated Learning I’ve referred to a “Master” at the centre because the form of this learning with which we are most (Lave and Wenger 1991)familiar is apprenticeship, although that is not the clearest model Initial interaction is with other The boundary new entrants is constantly moving Progress is being allowed to take on more key, or risky, L & W explicitly reject tasks this way of Note: Lave & Wenger explicitly reject this kind of depiction of their model representing the idea10 December 2012
  • 70. Wenger (1998) goes into much more detail about meaning how it works... Participation forms living in the world points of focus membershipexperience acting world documents interacting monuments mutuality instruments projection Reification negotiation Based on Wenger E (1998) Communities of Practice Cambridge; CUP p. 63 1 of 2
  • 71. “Role of the Teacher” meaning Participation Endlessly debatable Contractsexperience Stories/cases world Working Statutory requirements myths Job specifications Reification This variant shows how different the negotiation role of the “teacher” is in such a community of practice—practitioners act as temporary mentors, but remain primarily practitioners 2 of 2
  • 72. Two metaphors:• Acquisition• ParticipationSfard A (1998) “On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one” Educational Researcher, vol. 27 no. 2 pp. 4-13.
  • 73. Two metaphors: These two images underpin• Acquisition much of this critical debate about curriculum. Is learning something that you get and possess? Or is it something you do, and take part in?• Participation Both, of course, but each “lens” or “frame” emphasises different qualitiesSfard A (1998) “On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one” Educational Researcher, vol. 27 no. 2 pp. 4-13.
  • 74. Mezirow: “transformative learning” (1990)• The most important aspect of adult learning is:  Not the content you learn, but  The fact that you are learning, which  Can lead to self re-evaluation.10 December 2012
  • 75. Mezirow: “transformative learning” (1990)• The most important aspect of adult learning is:  Not the content you learn, but  The fact that you are learning, which  Can lead to self re-evaluation. Mezirow and others elevate this to the cardinal principle of adult education—regardless of what you thought you were setting out to learn10 December 2012
  • 76. Illeris (2002) Cognition Emotion Society10 December 2012
  • 77. Illeris (2002) Cognition Emotion Illeris tries to help make sense of the “tension field” which underlies debates about curriculum by suggesting that any curriculum will lies Society somewhere in this triangle...10 December 2012
  • 78. Institutionalised learning Cognition Emotion Practice learning Collective learning ... And beassociated with the form oflearning in red. Society10 December 2012
  • 79. Notes, links etc. athttp://pce2011.blogspot.co.uk/

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