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Disecting the landscape by james apichart jarvis
 

Disecting the landscape by james apichart jarvis

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The travels on the road not only insp​ired by current art work, but it defined my view of what America is. This paper is my final dissertation at University from which I got a high 2:1 grade and is ...

The travels on the road not only insp​ired by current art work, but it defined my view of what America is. This paper is my final dissertation at University from which I got a high 2:1 grade and is about how the United States have been uniformly shaped by the constructions of Highways. From the improvements to American economy, the changes to life in America, especially for the teens of the time, and cultural highlights from the prose of John Steinbeck to the rocking rhythms of the Rolling Stones.

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    Disecting the landscape by james apichart jarvis Disecting the landscape by james apichart jarvis Document Transcript

    • 1 AMERICAN STUDIES DISSERTATIONDISECTING THE LANDSCAPEHighways That Made America James Jarvis 2011
    • 2ContentsIntroduction 1Part I: Economy and the Los Angeles Sprawl 2 1.1 Highway Origins 2 1.2 Interstate Highway System 4 1.3 Roadside Economy 5 1.4 Los Angeles and the Sprawl 8Part II: American Life and Imagery 11 2.1 Pleasure Trips11 2.2 Daily Life around the Car 12 2.3 Aesthetics and Symbolism 13 2.4 Art and Music Influences 16Part III: Kerouac, Captain America and the 66 21 3.1 Kerouac on the Road 22 3.3 Captain America and Billy the Kid on their Bikes 25 3.4 The Migrant Road of the 66 28Conclusion 30Bibliography 32List of Illustrations 35
    • 3Main document word count: 10931
    • 4
    • 5IntroductionFor those who have had the pleasure of extended time in the UnitedStates it becomes wholly apparent how much of an impact the highwaysof the 1950s have had on the country. Endless mileage of concretesurfaces that dissects the natural beauty of North America’s landscapes,highways that have reshaped iconic cities through urban sprawl anddowntown decline, an integral extension of the a burgeoning automotiveindustry, and a symbol of youth culture and freedom that have inspiredlikes of Jack Kerouac and Easy Rider. There is something influential and appealing about highways that stillhold prominence even today. Something western. The term ‘road trip’instantly conjures images of long stretches of the road that includes theiconic Route 66, a sense of adventure, speed and freedom of exploringnot only the countless destinations but also the romantic notion oflearning about one self. I myself took on this adventure at the end of astudy abroad period that took me across the continent, twice, and, likeKerouac, I too documented my journey in the form of a journal. This personal thesis will focus on the academic historical impact thathighways have had on the growth of America while also dealing with itspresence within popular culture. As a means for immediate and extendedtravel, the highway is the embodiment of America’s past and present: anextension of the manifest destiny, the American dream, and the ideals ofindividualism and freedom. As this thesis progresses it becomes apparent that it is not merecoincidence that numerous themes keeps on presenting themselves inboth history and popular culture. The frontier ethos and pioneering spiritis on hand, as is the American ideal of individual freedom. Sex, also playsa part among the youth culture of the 1960s, Kerouac’s journal, and musicbased on the road. The aesthetic element of rhythm and repetition is alsoapparent in the lyrics and structure of literature while being a pivotalcomponent of Hockney’s photomontage. The dissertation, following this introduction, is divided into three moreparts. These follow a general procedure of consigning relevant themesand content together in to subsections. Part one (Economy and the Los Angeles Sprawl) starts by providing ahistorical context by analysing the origins of mass highway developmentthrough the Interstate System that provided a network of roads. The restof the section will then move on to emerging economies that emerged bythe road side, namely motels and McDonalds. Then the subject of the
    • 6sprawl of American cities as the highway reshaped the nation’s cities willbe addressed through the case study of Los Angeles, the city renownedfor its numerous overlapping expressways. Part two (American Life and Imagery) continues on the from thepreceding chapter by moving away from the city to its citizens, the waythe highway has transformed the common ‘normality’ of American life andculture. The poetic imagery and resonance of driving on the road will bediscussed with Jean Baudrillard as a key source. The inherent speed ofhighways will then be analysed in the form of popular culture, in bothmusic and the visual arts. Part three (Kerouac, Captain America and the 66) serves as aninterpretation through particular case studies. First is the widely readunderground title by Jack Kerouac: On the Road. Secondly, in what shouldnot be missed on a dissertation about highways, the iconic 1969 film EasyRider starring Peter Fonder and Dennis Hopper will be dissected as itpresents its own projections of what the endless road represents. Finally,a case study the most famous of drives, Route 66 will be presented as theessence of all that is discussed.Part I: Economy and the Los Angeles SprawlThe Interstate System of the 1950s was the pivotal federal policy thatallowed highways to dominate the American landscape. This part of thisdissertation will first deal with the origins of the highway whichaccommodated the growing presence of the automobile economy overalternative mass transit since the 1920s. The Interstate System itself willthen be covered before moving on to emerging economies that benefitfrom a nationwide network of roads while also dealing with the negatives,namely, urban sprawl and downtown decline.1.1 Highway OriginsTravel and transport by the road is seen as a significant function ofcivilised society, a symbol of an advanced nation.1 The burgeoningautomobile economy during the 1920s presented America with its own‘love affair’ with powerful engines and chromium. The automobile hadsuccessfully assimilated itself in to the lives of the American people.2 Asthe twentieth century progressed it would prove that America itself would1 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life (Massachusetts: The MIT Press,1971) p 32 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincolt Company, 1975) p 8
    • 7assimilate in to the automobile, the priority of highways over othertransportation networks is testament to that. The mass production and ownership of private passenger cars providedpersonal mobility of a new era in transportation, to an extent that it oncebecame possible to theoretically move the entire United States populationby car at one time. Good roads were needed to facilitate for a demand inincreased mobility. Hence the construction of highways which had threeprimary functions; to accommodate access to property; highwaysdesigned to carry local traffic; and arterial highways to connect trafficfrom intercommunity to long distance.3 The benefits of highways were clearly outlined in Lloyld Aldrich’sproponent report The Economy of Freeways: City of Los Angeles. It wasappreciated that highways had the capacity to alleviate city congestion byhandling, on average, three times the number of cars at twice the averagespeed than inner city roads. Additional benefits to the motorist were thestabilization or increase of property values; relief of overburdened surfacearteries; increased tourist travel; increase of the radius of real estatedevelopment; and increased mobility in times of emergencies. One thingthat Aldrich constantly addresses in this document is the monetary benefithighways will have on the local economy by reducing costs ofintermediate goods and motorists who can save an average of two dollarsper vehicle mile.4 This is document is evidently a piece of propaganda aimed to persuadethe nation of the benefits of highways regardless of reasonable demandfor such roads. It is interesting to note that Aldrich pointed out that hisfigures are the result of speculation rather than scientific fact. Highways,as this text will later inform, introduced as many negatives as positives. The origins of highways, however, can be traced back to the ‘GoodRoads Movement’ in which aimed to change the pathetic state of thenation’s roads where only 8.66% of it were documented as surfaced in1909. The formation of American Association of State Highway Officials in1914, one of the most important political groups in the county, instigatedan aggressive campaign for highways along with the National AutomobileChamber of Commerce and the American Road Builder’s Association. Thefirst Federal Aid Highway Act of 1916 introduced a federal system ofhighway aid which was distributed through an independent bureaucracy.The act was focused towards areas and was anti-urban in design.5 This is3 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, pp 8, 51, 604 Lloyd Aldrich, The Economy of Freeways: City of Los Angeles (Street and ParkwayDesign Division, 1953)pp 1, 3-5
    • 8understandable due to the fact that the population was yet to centre uponurban destinations. However it was the Federal Highway Act of 1921 that first recognisedthe desirability of a national network of arterial highways.6 Each state wasrequired to allocate seven percent of its road mileage as ‘federal-aidhighways’. The primary interstate routes would receive sixty percent ofthe money while secondary intercounty rural routes received fortypercent. This coincided with rising automobile ownership with eightmillion cars in 1920.7 Highway designer Hilaire Belloc stated a simpleoutline for roads to be as wide and straight as possible with nointersections and limited access to keep traffic flowing.8 These simplecategories were the design that highways would be constructed. The impact of the Depression and the consequent Franklin D.Roosevelt’s New Deal cannot be disregarded. The Great Depression wasthe worst in American history and within a year of his presidency in 1933President Franklin D. Roosevelt shaped the New Deal which representedthe culmination of numerous federal project grant-in-aids programs, in theattempt to save capitalism, the federal government was viewed as asavour.9 Of all work-relief jobs introduced by the New Deal, more than athird were focused on road and highway projects.10 Although it was thepolicy of the Interstate Highway System, a repercussion of the New Dealcharacter, which was pivotal to highway development.1.2 Interstate Highway SystemTo induce state governments to adopt policies that favoured nationalinterests, the federal government provided incentives. An example beingthe Interstate highway System during the 1950s, in which Congressprovided for ninety percent of all costs to construction, and today federalhighway money is still a prominent source of funding for the states. Forthose states that had the most trouble financing the movement towards anational standard, formula grants were introduced and the federal5 Owen D. Gutfreund, 20th Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of the AmericanLandscape (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) pp 15, 19-20, 226 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, pp 61, 707 Owen D. Gutfreund, 20th Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of the AmericanLandscape, pp 25-68 Hilaire Belloc, The Road (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1924) pp 196-89 Maldwyn A. Jones, The Limits of Liberty: American History 1607-1922, Second Edition(New York: Oxford University Press, 1995) pp 453, 458-46110 Owen D. Gutfreund, 20th Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of theAmerican Landscape, p 30
    • 9government would sometimes payout up to five times that of stateexpenditures of those poorer states.11 The Interstate Highway System hasan underlying rhetoric of federalist ideals. Fundamentally envisaged as a method to rectify the disproportionbetween the extraordinary demand for automobiles and the deficient levelof highway facilities of the post war period an estimated $98 billion wassanctioned to the improvement of 35,000 miles of rural highways and6,000 miles of multi-lane super highways near metropolitan areas withinthe twenty years following 1961.12 These improvements would increasethe attraction for higher mobility for the public and most importantlytourists stated in Aldrich’s report. The Interstate Highway System of 1956 was imperative for advancedhighway development since in provided states, crippled by finances, newsources of highway revenues primarily through toll roads thus improvingthe state’s ability to appease the demands of motorist. States were finallyable to comfortably match the federal-aid grants after the Interstatelegislation.13 Secretary of Treasury George M. Humphrey summed up theimportance of Interstate Highway development by stating: America Lives of wheels, and we have to provide the highways to keep America living on wheels and keep the kind and form of life we want.14 Decades after the emergence of the automobile highways were finallyable to match the demands of a burgeoning public which wereassimilating themselves with the uses of private transportation.Automobiles had managed to usurp railway travel over long distances dueto the highway facility and the comfort of privatised travel that in anessence allowed travel to anywhere. As subsequent chapters willcontend, highways had a huge impact on the nation on an economic andurban environmental level.1.3 Roadside Economy11 Robert D. Albritton, ‘American Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations’, Edited byGillian Peele [et al], Developments in American Politics 5 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan,2006) pp 130, 13212 Ann Fetter Friedlaender, The Interstate Highway System: A Study in Public Investment(Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1965) pp 1-213 Owen D. Gutfreund, 20th Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of theAmerican Landscape, p 5714 Mark Howard Rose, Express Highway Politics, 1939-1956 (Ph.D. dissertation: OhioState University, 1973)p 215
    • 10Of all the trips by private automobile, three quarters are made foreconomic reasons, with forty-six percent make business trips or travel toand from work.15 The development of highways opened up newentrepreneurial opportunities while simultaneously expanding existingones. Highways that dissected rural landscapes provided cheap realestate land for the likes of gas stations, dinners, motels and shoppingmalls. Highways reinvented American economies related to theautomobile culture. The extension of highway travel has a direct correlation to the increasein the Gross National Product.16 The automotive industry is a vital part ofthe national economy providing one-sixth of the GDP in 1970 whenAmericans drove a total of more than one trillion miles and spent over $93billion to accommodate for their automobiles.17 Road construction led tomass use and ownership of automotive vehicles. This led to roadsideservicing, tourist courts, roadside restaurants and motel chains withTravelodge and Holiday Inns dominating the industry in 1960.18 The post-war boom reached prominence in 1962 when nearly seventy-five percentof all public-lodging establishments where motels rather than hotels.19 The movement of goods via the motor truck freight industry has been amajor beneficiary of the nationwide network of highways. Flexiblemobility has overshadowed the prior dominance of railroad transportationthat has struggled to compete with over seventy-five percent of freightmovement done on the road.20 The advent of the motor truck freightindustry has been very advantageous for small business’ that rely on thetransport of goods to rural or small-urban areas.21 Access to airports thathighways provide is another crucial advantage for businesses.22 Historianscredit the trucking industry as a significant influence to the advancementof the post industrial civilization.23 Improved mobility has also seen thegrowth of bus travel in what is seen as a ‘revival of a stagecoach era’, the15 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 10716 U.S. Department of Transportation, 1968 National Highway Needs Report(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Ofice, 1968) p 1017 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 918 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, pp 102-619 Robert More Fisher, The Postwar Boon in Hotels and Motels (Royal Ship: Board ofGovernors of the Federal Reserve System, 1965) p 320 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, pp 109, 114, 11921 J. Gordon McKay, ‘Highway Transportation’, Annuals of the American Academy ofPolitical and Social Science, vol.116 (November 1924) pp 129-13022 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 27
    • 11Greyhound System being a dominant company. After the highwayimprovements made in the 1950s a recorded 314,000 buses was inoperation in 1966 an increase from 18,000 in 1925.24 The layout of the shopping centre is based on the initial designs ofKansas City real estate developer J.C. Nichols, a plaza with Spanish stylearchitectural influences. Imitators, during the growth post Second WorldWar, which of course coincided with the great development of highwayswere designed towards functionalism, an ‘impermanent plastic-neonprefabricated appearance’.25 Aimed almost predominately at a growingmiddle-class population, shopping malls have been called “worlds ofartifice”, “palaces of consumption”, and “gardens of delight”;environments where everyone consumes yet no one lives. In the 1980s,after criticism of the ‘devoid of character’, mall developers sort to instilindividuality into designs of mega-malls that look like Mexican haciendasor European villages. Jennifer Price aptly described the new malls assimulated place, environments where it is thought Americans feel mostcomfortable.26 Huge shopping centres, malls, appeared on the outskirts of cities, takingup thousands of acres thanks to new and efficient mobility.27 Theexpansion of shopping centres is an element of the urban issue ofsprawling cities which will be addressed in the following chapter. Drive-ins are a huge feature that is strongly related to the developmentof highways. In an essence it brought existing entertainment amenities toa new environment defined by the automobile culture. The “drive-in”concept was profitably employed by outdoor motion pictures, restaurants,liquor stores, and now banks with ATMs.28 A prime example of drive-ins is the worldwide phenomenon ofMcDonalds of what is a dominant feature of the American roadside. Themost successful of franchise chains, McDonalds belonged to entrepreneur23 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 1024 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, pp 96-925 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 926 Jennifer Price, ‘Looking for Nature at the Mall: A Field Guide to the Nature Company’,Edited by William Cronon, Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature(New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1996)pp 189-19227 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 928 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 9
    • 12Ray Kroc with his hamburger stand in Des Plaines, Southern California,before spreading the golden arches nationwide in 1955. In fact, due tothe favourable climate of the “Golden State”, California is home to manyfast-food chains. Designed by architect Stanley Clark, McDonalds’buildings are the essence of function and efficiency that is the hallmark ofMcDonalisation while the exterior was aimed at self-adverting and eyecatching architecture with its golden arches.29 The term given to this styleis architainment and it is a style can be traced over seventy years ago onstandard roads. In the 1920s California’s automobile culture had beenaccompanied by ‘eye-catchers’ to attract motorists with restaurants thatresembled hot dogs, owls, milk cans and doughnuts. 30 McDonalds is theembodiment of the drive-in economy and the architectural style ofarchitainment that has become a distinctive feature of roadside ‘eye-catchers’. The highway had managed to contribute greatly to the Americaneconomy. Improved mobility has seen a burgeoning transportationindustry based around the motor truck while drive-ins have established asound business based on the roadside while making a distinctive style ofarchitecture. Drive-ins will be further analysed as part of the automotiveculture in Part II.1.4 Los Angeles and the SprawlThe vast and rapid expansion of residential suburbia in the United Statesis of main concern for environmentalists, socialists, and architecturalcritics. Approximately seventy-five percent of all new construction inrecent decades is categorised as real estate development in the outersuburbs and exurbs that has contributed to urban sprawl.31 The decline ofinner suburbs is a direct result of urban sprawl. Mike Davis cited thedownward spiral of aging districts to the attraction of living in newer andaesthetically pleasing outersuburbs.32 These modern problems all stem from the mass developmentof highways that have encouraged urban cities to expand.29 Alan Hess, ‘The origins of McDonald’s Golden Arches’, Journal Society of ArchitecturalHistorians, Vol. 45, No.1 (March 1986) pp 60-230 David Gebhard and Robert Winter, Los Angeles: An Architectural Guide (Utah: GibbsSmith Publisher, 1994) pp xxi-xxii31 Ellen Dunham-Jones, ‘75%: The Next Big Architectural Project’, William S. Saunders(ed.) Sprawl and Suburbia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005) p 132 Mike Davis, ‘Ozzie and Harriet in Hell: On the Decline of Inner Suburbs’, William S.Saunders (ed.), Sprawl and Suburbia, p 28
    • 13 Los Angeles is a city that presents this problem in full because of all themajor American cites, it is identified most closely with the automobile.33The city moved into the era of the highway in December 10, 1940 afterthe construction of the Arreyo Seco, later renamed the Pasadena Freeway,the “miracle boulevard”.34 Of what was once a suburbanized modern,industrial metropolis, the city is now an exurbanized, postmodern, servicecity that, in no small part due to automobile dominance.35 Los Angeles isdefined by urban highways, which take on average forty acres of land perroute mile, which navigate traffic through its expanding urban districts.36Critics of the urban sprawl in Los Angeles have conclusively blamed thehighway system of making it not a city but a collection of suburbs thathave contributed to the breakdown of society.37 Before moving on to the negatives of the urban sprawl that is relatedto highway construction, the positives itself should be acknowledged. Onepositive point was the beneficial process of ‘blending urban and ruralsociety’ by breaking down isolation and seclusion that used tocharacterise rural life; rural areas were becoming culturally urbanised.38The development of real estate over cheap land has made propertyaffordable to mass public who wanted to move away from the centres fornumerous reasons including; a fear of violence; more living space andleaner air; and a dislike for the confusion and congestion associated withthe city areas.39 Prior to the dominance of automobile transit, suburban growth followedthe tracks of trolley lines or train stations. The first main problem of theincrease of automobile usage throughout the twentieth century is theinability of cities, especially downtown districts, to manage congestion.The suburbs were essentially designed for an automotive culture.40 LosAngeles decentralized quickly; vast tracts of open land were open for realdevelopment opportunities and manufacturing factories took opportunity33 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 8134 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 335 Enid Arvidson, ‘Remapping Los Angeles, or, Taking the Risk of Class in PostmodernUrban Theory’, Economic Geography, Vol. 75, No.2 (April 1999) p 134 (134-56)36 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 306, 30937 James J. Flink, The Automobile Age (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1990) p 14238 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 166-739 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 28-940 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 28-9
    • 14of road construction. In general, Americans believed sprawling cities to bea positive element, allowing citizens to enjoy both the urban and the rural.The Los Angeles downtown businesses favoured freeways because it wasbelieved that newer roadways would improve access in and out of thebusiness district.41 However, highways did little to alleviate congestion as John Jeromenoted: Freeways make congestion... Freeways attract cars like magnate, pulling traffic off the secondary roads and local streets. Freeways funnel local traffic, in search of convenience, into the streams of long-haul through traffic for which the freeways were originally planned.42Highways actually deposited more and more cars into downtown businessdistricts five days a week. In response to mass congestion, cities hadconsigned one-third or more of the downtown space for automobileparking. A further twenty percent of downtown was built for theaccommodation of automobiles with the construction of streets, alleys,freeways, and “cloverleaf” interchanges; all characteristics of LosAngeles.43 The decline of downtown Los Angeles, has a further underlying rhetoricof racial and social class issues where minority groups and unemployed orworking class are relegated to Los Angeles’ downtown smog and highdensity areas, where the white middle to high class live in suburbanitesand secured gated communities.44 Los Angeles presents the topic ofenvironmental racism - the concept that nonwhites are disproportionatelyexposed to pollution and declining districts - and it is an example ofstructural racism that is present in America today. The example of ‘whiteprivilege’ that maintains the ideal of movement towards clean and openspaces of new suburbs related to urban sprawl.45 An interesting sequence of urban events due to the highway has nowled to a commitment towards mass transit over the last two decades.Senate legislative analyst, Bradford Snell criticised the United States41 Scott L. Bottles, Los Angeles and the Automobile: The Making of the Modern City(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987) pp 176-8, 21342 John Jerome, The Death of the Automobile (New York: Norton, 1972) p 10743 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, p 3044 Enid Arvidson, ‘Remapping Los Angeles, or, Taking the Risk of Class in PostmodernUrban Theory’, Economic Geography, p 13545 Lauran Pulido, ‘Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and UrbanDevelopment in Southern California’, Annuals of the Association of AmericanGeographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (March 2000) pp 12, 15
    • 15government for reshaping the “American ground transportation to servecorporate wants instead of social needs”.46 This quote perfectly sums upRichard O. Davies point, author of The Age of the Asphalt, who views theoverreliance upon automobiles as an “unfortunate mistake”. For Davies,the automobile has brought a catalogue of social ills includingenvironmental concerns involving fuel shortages, smog and massconstruction; congestion, inefficiency, increase of insurance costs, andappalling accident rates.47 After public disenchantment with highways, where in some citiesprotests have forced even the abandonment of construction plans and the‘People Before Highways’ stance, federal aid for mass transit became apriority through an Urban Trust Fund which included a $19 billion programin 1980. The ideal was to reduce growing traffic congestion, use less fuel,and reduce environmental problem with efficient mass transit systems oftrains, monorails and trams.48 The history of urban design in the twentiethcentury moved from a desirability of automobiles and high mobility, tofreeway expansion, urban sprawl then decline, to public disenchantment,to finally mass transit funding. It seems that urban design had gone fullcircle. Highway development, which accommodated the growing automobileindustry that now contributes one-sixth of America’s GDP, has introducedenormous changes. The introduction of the Interstate Highway Systemwas the conclusion of twenty-odd years that were devoted to highwaydevelopment since the Good Roads Movement. A burgeoning roadsideeconomy based primarily on the trucking industry and drive-ins thatreinvented existing amnesties for the road and attracted. The socialconcern of the urban sprawl in pushed further emphasis on an Americanculture that is dependent on automobiles and that is only recentlyconcerning itself with mass transit. The highway has proved to be veryinfluential since its completion.Part Two: American Life and ImageryThe automobile and its prospering industry from the 1920s relates to theAmerican attachment to power and technology. The automobileessentially freed motorists from the timetables of trolley schedules whileat the same time becoming a meaningful image and symbol of American46 Bradford Snell, ‘American Ground Transport’, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on theJudiciary, The Industrial Reorganisation Act: Hearing before a Subcommittee (1974)47 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, pp 3, 4148 Ibid. pp 32-3, 37, 41
    • 16daily life. Model, make, and style of an automobile are viewed as anexpression of the status of its owner’s monetary value as well ascharacter, or at least projected character.49 It is hard to argue with theperspective that the automobile was the single innovation of any centurythat has ‘so profoundly influenced manners, customs, and living habits’.50It says something about the American culture that has assimilated to anautomobile way of life to such an extent that it has become a dominantfeature of everyday life.2.1 Pleasure TripsIn Roadside America, by Jack Barth [et al.], the commentary ofcontemporary American travellers as excitement seekers given a highamount of freedom in a capitalist nation that provides extra money for acarefree and relaxing trip is a straightforward description of thecontemporary moment.51 Vacation is the key term and the family carmade frequent short pleasure trips possible. The ability of the motorist individual to control the direction and time oftheir own travel transformed recreational habits of the American nation.The vacation trip is predominantly a highway phenomenon which allowsfor low cost transportation and convenience. Most vacation trips areusually short in both time and distance.52 Statistics show that of allautomobile trips ninety-three percent of them were for outdoorrecreation.53 National Parks welcomed the automobile into their landscape because ofthe recognised political power of the motorised industry. In the 1970s,the decade which first witnessed the benefits of highway development,around one-fourths of all motorists who travelled over a hundred milesfrom home was for the purposes of outdoor recreation and sightseeingthat defines National Park usage. Overcrowding in parks was a concernfor officials and environmentalists however it was only present in peakperiods of the year. The design of roads that navigated the parks wascareful to preserve the natural state at the fullest possible degree. It isalso interesting to note that motorists took on a drive-in culture of limited49 Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, and the Conditionof Metropolitan America, pp 7-850 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 13351 Jack Barth [et al.], Roadside America (New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1986) p 952 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, pp 138-4053 Bureau of Public Roads, Highways and Economic and Social Changes (Washington,D.C.: Government Private Office, 1964) p 158
    • 17exits from their vehicles by staying in close proximity to their cars whilealso spending most of the time in the National Parks inside their vehiclesonly leaving to visit major visitor centres. Ultimately, the success of thehighway to promote automobile touring and the democratic accessprovided by the automobile was the main reason for the strong publicsupport for the acquisition of protected park lands such as the Yosemite.542.2 Daily Life around the CarFreedom of movement affords Americans with greater opportunity forboth work and play; eighty-one percent of trips are classified asentertainment and other pleasures.55 However, an underlying criticism isthe growing atmosphere of ‘rootlessness’ where people are constantly onthe move finding new homes and unwilling to fully settle down. Migrationoften followed where the job opportunities lied and it also relates to theAmerican rhetoric of ‘folk-wandering’.56 The breakdown of conservative social and moral standards wasadditionally charged to growing sense of automotive culture, by making iteasier for citizens to engage in immoral conduct, especially among theyouth. The automobile transformed the codes of dating and courtship,allowing young couples to escape the supervision of parents andneighbours in order to evade moral codes of acceptable social behaviour.57 David L. Lewis stated that ‘cars fulfilled a romantic function from thedawn of the auto age’.58 The automobile, especially through theemergence of Southern California drive-ins in the mid-1920s, became asocial essential for teenagers and was viewed as a threat to parentalcontrol. The auto makers had indivertibly facilitated sex in cars withinnovations such as air-conditioning, heathers and the tilt of the steeringwheel. The drive-in industry also sold sex to the youthful public such asthe A&W “tray girls” who became attractions for young men in search ofsexual adventure. The drive-in theatres, additionally, gained the name of“passion pits” where the shows in the cars matched the screen. However,since the 1970s sexual activities in cars have declined in the United States54 James J. Flink, The Automobile Age, pp 173-9, 18255 Bureau of Public Roads, Highways and Economic and Social Changes, p 15856 John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life, p 144-557 Ibid. p 15058 David L. Lewis, ‘Sex and the Automobile: From Rumble seats to Rockin’ Vans’, DavidL. Lewis and Laurence Goldstiein (eds.), The Automobile and American Culture (Michigan:University of Michigan Press, 1983) p 123
    • 18due to the expanding urban sprawl which has limited the availability ofsafe spots.59 In terms of the architecture of the typical American middle-class housethe automobile adapted its design and function. The car, in essence,removed leisure time activities away from the home to outside amnestiesand entertainment. The automobile culture turned the requirements ofthe house to one with needed many rooms into which family memberscould escape for privacy; becoming more of a dormitory and eliminatingspecialised functions such as the front porch and the parlour. Americanarchitect Frank Lloyd Wright directed the way forward by integratinggarages by the mid-1930s, a carport to preserve desired mobility.60 Theintegration of the driveway which leads directly into the garage from thekitchen turned the American home into an extension of the street. Inarchitectural terms the house had blended into the highway whereAmericans now live a large part of their lives.61 The automobile culture transformed the daily lives, the social standardsof Americans, particularly of the youth culture that is inclined towards theopposite sex and the very design of houses that has accommodated theautomobile and the highway.2.3 Aesthetics and SymbolismHighway transportation, almost unlimited potential of mobility, fits nicelyin to the American tradition of individualism.62 This is perhaps the mostpoignant symbolism of automobiles and highway transportation, however,writers and critics have commented on the aesthetics of highways and thesymbolism it represents, often comparing driving through the landscapesas art. The most significant work of social commentary based on highways isAmerica by modern cultural theorist Jean Baudrillard: The point is not to write the sociology or psychology of the car, the point is to drive. That way you learn more about this society than all academia could ever tell you.Baudrillard himself commented on his experiences of travelling on theroad and constantly referred to the imagery of highways passing through59 James J. Flink, The Automobile Age, pp 159-6260 Folke T. Kihlstedt, ‘The Automobile and the Transformation of the American House,1910-1935’, David L. Lewis and Laurence Goldstein (eds.), The Automobile and AmericanCulture, pp 162-361 James J. Flink, The Automobile Age, p 16762 Mark S. Foster, From Streetcar to Superhighway: American City Planners and UrbanTransportation, 1900-1940 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981) p 91
    • 19the desert at speed, ‘the America of the empty, absolute freedom offreeways’. Speed is a vital part of the highway experience; it ‘createspure objects... a triumph of effect over cause... [and] instantaneity overtime as depth’. Driving at speed, for Baudrillard, produces transparency,invisibility, transversality over perception, a form of amnesia.63 Speed is a common theme when looking at highways from an artisticstance of the visual motion. Travis Brown remarked how with the adventof the Interstate Highways System the American visual landscape becamea landscape that is ‘mediated by speed’ and that speed is the essence ofthe ‘brute power’ of the road itself. Brown stated how driving onhighways creates a ‘plastic and sensuous quality’, a distinct sensation ofrepetition like a time-elapsed film. However, the purest form of speed onthe road is found at night where ‘nothing exists outside the space of theroad’ and vision is punctuated by artificial colour and light.64 Vivien Arnoldobserved the state of diminishing peripheral vision, tunnel vision, as apossible example of visual art where only the sky and the roadbed isclear.65 In her essay The Image of the Freeway, Vivien Arnold deals with theissue as to whether highways should be considered either a work of art orarchitecture. Arnold was certain, however, that highways is the mostremarkable feature constructed with in the American landscape. On theone hand, roads embody the mythology of the past while on the other thesuperhighways reach towards the future.66 Jean Baudrillard commentedthe textural value of the concrete as remarkable smooth surfaces allowingmotorists to simply glide, a sensation of frictionless movement.67 WhileLawrence Halprin extends the view of highways as an art form sincedriving offers adventure, excitement, freedom, while simultaneouslyproviding a unique perception of the landscape: a “chorography ofmotion”.68 In overall artistic symbolism, highways are, as perceived by Baudrillard,as an extension of America’s hypereality the giant hologram of America’sidentity of space and grandeur. Highways, nonetheless, do not ‘de-63 Jean Baudrillard, America (New York: Veno, 1988) pp 5-9, 28-964 Travis Brown, Jr, ‘On an Aesthetic of Highway Speed’, Journal of ArchitecturalEducation, Vol. 30, No. 1 (September 1976) pp 25, 2765 Vivien Arnold, ‘The Image of the Freeway’, Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 30,No. 1 (September 1976) p 2866 Ibid. pp 2867 Jean Baudrillard, America, p 5468 Lawrence Halprin, Freeways (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1966)
    • 20nature’ the urban or rural landscape they only pass through it.69 VivienArnold contributes by perceiving highways as the contemporary archetypeof the American affection towards isolation and solitary, a mobileexperience of personal freedom since it is the car that is the realenvironment; an enclosed shell that eliminates contact with distractingoutside elements.70 Finally, the highway vividly represents the Americanadventure experience, travelling for the sake of movement, discovery, tosee new places and new people; seeing the country.71 Highways offer a visual motion that can be perceived as uniquely artisticby providing a different form of perception that is available to those whdrive on its long concrete surfaces while also presenting an interpretationof American identity.2.4 Art and Music InfluencesHighways have had the potential to influence traditional art forms, fromphotography, to literature, and music. The road, as described by TravisBrown, is generally uncommunicative but for deliberate messages onlabels that occur near exit or intersections of the highway; “food, fuel,lodging”; “slippery when wet”; “stay alert”; “pay toll one mile”. Thesurface of the highways is laden by stylish, clean, and bright white andyellow road markings that arrange themselves as it passes underneaththe moving vehicle. The markings are ‘elongated, uncluttered, andattractively decorative’.72 The visual symbols of signs and markingprovide both a poetic and artistic quality that this section will addressusing particular examples. Few artists can be so identifiable to Los Angeles, the city of highways,but British born artist David Hockney is one of them who permanentlymoved there in 1978. He was entranced by the sense of hedonism, theclimate, the ocean, and the well-tended landscape. Hockney is equallyfascinated with photography as well as painting, drawing, andprintmaking.73 In a review of his photographic collection, John Meany69 Jean Baudrillard, America (New York: Veno, 1988) pp 8, 28-970 Vivien Arnold, ‘The Image of the Freeway’, Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 30,No. 1, p 2871 Edited by Karl Raitz, A Guide to the National Road (Baltimore: The Johns HopkinsUniversity Press, 1996)pp 12-372 Travis Brown, Jr, ‘On an Aesthetic of Highway Speed’, Journal of ArchitecturalEducation, Vol. 30, No., p 2773 Bernard Weinraub, ‘Enticed by Light; From David Hockney, a Show of Photocollages inLos Angeles’, The New York Times (August 15, 2001) pp 1-3
    • 21commented on the artist’s jigsaw-making fun and attempt to rebel againstthe over-formality of photographs. Hockney’s experiments withfragmentation in his work were his attempt to break away from the staticcomposite which is apparent in the medium.74 The most famous of hisphotomontages is Pearblossom Highway, 11-18 April, 1986. The work isan assembled collage of photographs of a desert highway layered oneupon another.75 Shots taken at different vantage points the content is compactedhorizontally towards the centre with road signs on the right and cactuseson the left leading the viewers eyes towards a perspective point of theroad dropping off the horizon into the mountains ahead. Signs depicting“Stop” are used twice on the roadside and once in the immediateforeground. What is significant about this work of art is the sense ofmovement projected by incoherent edges that overlaps what cannot beseen. It relates closely to the aforementioned aesthetic of speed which isa strong part of the highway image.74 John Meany, ‘Hockney’s Photographs, Dougles Hyde Gallery, Dublin 4 October–10November 1984’, Circa Art Magazine, No. 19 (November-December 1984) pp 24-575 Bernard Weinraub, ‘Enticed by Light; From David Hockney, a Show of Photocollages inLos Angeles’, The New York Times, pp 4
    • 22 The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by famous writer John Steinbeck is amigration story set during the time of the Dust Bowl, as a family movedacross the nation from Oklahoma to California. Within the wider contextof the Great Depression where many Americans migrated to find work, inthis book the environment followed the road of the infamous highwayRoute 66. For Steinbeck Highway 66 is the ‘main migrant road’: 66- the long concrete path across the country, waving gently up and down on the map, from Mississippi to Bakersfield... 66 is the path of a people in flight.76 Like the aesthetic commentators in the preceding section, JohnSteinbeck also described the visual aspect of the highway as a ‘concreteroad [that] shone like a mirror under the sun, and in the distance the heatmade it seem that there were pools of water in the road’ while at nightthere were ‘dancing beams of [car] flashlights’. The sense of tranquillityis what Steinbeck seems to project when describing the road, a tranquillityto calm the 50,000 car migration movement that ‘crawled like bugs’.77 The landscape around the road was equally important in The Grapes ofWrath with roads ‘edged with a mat of trangled, broken, dry grass’ over76 John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (London: Pan Book Ltd, 1975) p 12677 Ibid. pp 130, 213, 386
    • 23‘red lands and grey lands’.78 Edges of towns presented a site ofautomobile decay with: used-car yards, the wreck yards, the garages with blazoned signs – Used Cars, food Used Cars, Cheap transportation, three trailers, 27 Ford, Clean. Checked cars, guaranteed cars, Free radio, Car with 100 gallons of petrol free.79In a way that is reminiscent with rhythmic poetry, John Steinbeckdescribed road signs with a repetition beat, no descriptors simple wordsthat stream across the page like the viewpoint of the passenger watchingconstant signs streaming past. Steinbeck’s subject in his book is not necessarily based about theadventures of the Joad family, to which the narrative follows, so much asthe social conditions that surround them and the highway is used afeature to ground these themes. Peter Lisca reviews the cross referenceof details, symbols, and dramatisation that occurs as a method to makethe novel seem more “scenic”; a form of “pictorial stance”.80 Theapplication of the highway is used to provide something sure, somethingpermanent; a path to the Promised Land of Califoria’s coastal mountainsas squatters and hitchhikers drink whiskey, ‘scuttling for work’ and‘scrabbling to live’.81 John Steinbeck used Route 66 as a literally device torepresent sureness within a time of uncertainty. In a discussion about highways in the context of art, the medium ofmusic cannot be over looked with the popular music world saturated bymany examples of references to the road. The rhythm and speed ofdriving can be strongly related to music with songs that vilify, glorify, orsimply describe the journey experience to the listener. The constanttheme in road songs is the American ideal of individual freedom andescapism.82 A quintessential genre which the highway is strongly related to is rockmusic. Rock has a non rational, Dionysian appeal that depends on thepower and rhythm of the piece, while loudness is a key component. Thedesired aim of this music genre is to affect the listener’s body directly, tocreate a visceral or somatic psychological response. The rock player’stechniques are generally natural as apposed to polished and mechanical.This fits with the brute force of the highway, which is noting to do with78 Ibid. pp 19, 126,79 Ibid. p 6780 Peter Lisca, ‘The Grapes of Wrath as Fiction’, PLMA, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 1957) p 30081 John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath, p 34482 Vivien Arnold, ‘The Image of the Freeway’, Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 30,No. 1, pp 29-30
    • 24balletic sensations. Rock music, importantly, is very often used as abackground accompaniment to other activities, such as driving which iswhy rock music is often the genre that resonates strongly with themovement highway.83 Perhaps the most well known song that features melodies of thehighway is Born to Be Wild (1969) by Steppenwolf and the flag-ship songof the most well known motorcycle movie Easy Rider. From the off, themusic attacks the listener with load acoustics and drums setting off themood of something big and exciting. The first words are sung with a rustyshouting voice: Get your motor running Head out on the highway Looking for adventure In whatever comes our wayThese lines state what is important to the band, going out on to the roadand searching for adventure. This theme of adventure and exploration iswhat resonates most with the highway, the sense of going somewherenew and what is explored in numerous songs. The final lines of the song‘Like a true nature’s child. We were born. Born to be to Wild’ exerts thepopular culture of the 1960s that exerted a trend against conformity, athem of rebellion for the young that broke down conservative socialvalues explained in Part II.84 A rock song that uses the automobile as a metaphor for sex is StartMe Up (1976) by the famous British rock group Rolling Stones. If you start me up If you start me up Ill never stop Ive been running hot You got me ticking gonna blow my topLyrics, essentially shouted by lead singer Mick Jagger, uses the sexualaspect of the car as a way to portray the sexual aspect of his “engined”body that can’t stop when it is started that needs the spread of oil andgasoline. Start Me Up is less about the road than it is about people whileusing the automobile as a device to express sexual desire.85 Another style of music that often uses the highway as a lyrical device isthe archetypal American genre, the black music, of Motown. Originatedby Bery Gordy and his session band members of Earl Van Dyke, James83 Stephen Davies, ‘Rock versus Classical Music’, The Journal of Aesthetics and ArtCriticism, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Spring 1999) pp 193-4, 196-784 Steppenwolf, ‘Born to Be Wild’, The Best of Steppenwolf: Born to Be Wild (c.d.), Track1 (Universal/Island: March 1999)85 Rolling Stones, ‘Start Me Up’, Rolling Stones: Forty Licks (c.d.), Disc 2, Track 1 (UMTV:September 2005)
    • 25Jamerson and Benny Benjamin, Motown took black music and introducedit successfully to the white American teenager. Motown music is definedby dynamic and communal elements that stems from a background ingospel. Constructed with fast tempo, with a call-response rhythm,expressive vocal tones, repetition, and hand-clapping and foot-tapping tocreate the catchy tunes that made Mowtown so popular.86 Hit the Road Jack (1960), written by Percy Mayfield and famouslycovered by Ray Charles, is a song about relationships where a girl wantsto push away the Jack of the title: ‘Hit the road Jack and dont you comeback no more’. With a call-response quality with the backing singers andsmooth musical beat, the repetition of order of ‘Hit the road’ gives a senseof a journey out of Jack’s hand forced out of an environment he hassaturated and he moves on to the next destination. A sense of freedom istherefore suggested on Jack’s part being able to ‘pack my things and go’.87 Another Motown song covered by Wilson Pickett, Mustang Sally (1966), issimilar to Start Me Up in that an automobile is used as a metaphor todescribe the fast Sally who is hard to keep up with. You been runnin all over town, now Oh, I guess I have to put your flat feet On the ground All you wanna do is ride around SallyThe use of the car as a device to characterise the tendencies of Sally is aninteresting one, especially when using a mustang as an adjective since itis perceived as a young man’s car and that is the point ‘Mustang Sally’ isthe ultimate male desire, such is the desire to go on the road.88 In a different paced African American music genre, Get Your Kicks onRoute 66 (1946) a Jazz rendition penned by Booby Troup while he wasdriving west to seek fame and fortune in Los Angeles via the famousroute. One of the most popular road songs ever written, it became aprime force driving the international popularity of the highway with thecover by Jazz legend Nat King Cole. It also led the pronunciation of “root”rather than the typical American wording of “rout”.8986 Jon Fitzgerald, ‘Motown Crossover Hits 1963-1966 and the Creative Process’, PopularMusic, Vol. 14, No. 1 (January 1995) pp 1, 3-487 Ray Charles, ‘Hit the Road Jack’, The Definitive Ray Charles (c.d.), Disc 1, Track 21(WSM: September 2005)88 Wilson Picket, ‘Mustang Sally’, Wilson Pickett’s Greatest Hits (c.d.), Track 7 (Rhino:October 1990)89 Jamie Jensen, Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America’s Two-LaneHighways, Third Edition (California: Avalon Travel, 2002) p 855
    • 26 If you ever plan to motor west, Travel my way, take the highway that is best. Get your kicks on route sixty-sixUsing the slow rhythm of Jazz music in the background the lyrics providesa slower paced drive that is not common with other road songs. Thisseems to suggest the longevity of embarking on a trip on Route 66 whilegiving it the time it deserves to travel westwards like the millions over thepast two centuries. Using the steady beat as a base Nat King Cole recitesthe destinations on the way from ‘Chicago to L.A.’: ‘Now you go throughSaint Luis Joplin, Missouri, And Oklahoma City is mighty pretty. You seeAmarillo, Gallup, New Mexico, Flagstaff, Arizona’. This recitation is similarto the technique used by John Steinbeck when he lists off the road signs inthe Grapes of Wrath.90 Another artist that used the recitation technique is the brooding Countrysinger Johnny Cash who covered Geoff Mack’s song I’ve Been Everywherein 1996. In a song that varies in tempo, starting off slow before gettinginto an intense pace that lasts the rest of the song, I’ve Been Everywhereseems almost humorous in the way that Cash recites where he’s been atan incessant speed; which seems like everywhere in America. Ive been to: Boston, Charleston, Dayton, Louisiana, Washington, Houston, Kingston, Texarkana, Monterey, Faraday, Santa Fe, Tallapoosa, Glen Rock, Black Rock, Little Rock, Oskaloosa,The list goes on accompanied by fast a repetitious guitar strumming thatembodies the turning wheels of the automobile before repeating thechorus: I’ve been everywhere man I’ve been everywhere man Cross the deserts bare man I’ve breathed the mountain air man Of travel I’ve had my share manIt was quite suitable for Johnny Cash to sing this song when he was in hissixties because considering his life story a sense of wisdom is parted inthis song that suggests a life time of travelling on the road.91 The highway has produced an influential theme for artists and popularculture art mediums. David Hockney’s photomontage suggests thefragmentation of the environment that is there to be explored whenviewing the overlapping photographs; the road is the only sure andconcrete element in the picture. This sense of solidarity of the highway is90 Nat King Cole, ‘Get Your Kicks on Route 66’, The Very Best of Nat King Cole (c.d.),Disc 2, Track 2 (Not Now Music: January 2008)91 Johnny Cash, ‘I’ve Been Everywhere’, Ring of Fire: The Legend of Johnny Cash (c.d.),Track 16 (Island: November 2005)
    • 27also expressed in John Steinbeck’s the Grapes of Wrath where narrativeevents present the uncertainty of the Great Depression. All the songs thathave been listed have one thing in common, a sense of freedom whileadditionally touching on themes of travelling, sex, and relationships. Thehighway exerts feelings of adventure and spontaneity that transcends allthe art mediums.Part III: Kerouac, Captain America and the 66This thesis has so far explored the origins of highway in the twentiethcentury and its economic impact, the role of the automobile and theimproved networks of roads in transforming the customs Americans andthe aesthetics and art influences the highway resonates. This part willtherefore focus on very particular case studies that have proved verypopular in American culture. Firstly, a detailed analysis of the JackKerouac’s influential journal will be presented with its literal content.Secondly, the themes that presents themselves in the most popular of artform’s cinema, in particular the road movies where Easy Rider will be themain reference point. Finally, this thesis will end with a case study ofRoute 66 the most famous of all highways and its quirky components.3.1 Kerouac on the RoadScribed on a long roll of teletype paper over the period of three weeksJack Kerouac was high on Benzedrine, On the Road (1957) is a vivid anddetailed documentation of Kerouac’s adventures across America where heencounters random people including Dean, girls, and an environmentcontaining jazz and drugs.92 The ultimate theme of this book is thefreedom the road affords, with no place to call home, and anuncompromising approach to life. Mobility is certainly a central theme in mainstream American culture,equal almost to the idea of the “American Dream”, and it is definitelywhat Jack Kerouac’s novel emphasises as it fits into the pioneer image ofAmerica’s past.93 It was my dream that screwed up, the stupid hearthside idea that it would be wonderful to follow one, great red line across America instead of trying various roads and routes.9492 Howard Cunnel, ‘Fast This Time’, Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll (NewYork: Viking Penguin, 2007) p 193 Tim Cresswell, ‘Mobility as Resistance: A Geographical Reading of Kerouac’s “On theRoad”’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 18, No. 2(1993) p 249
    • 28Kerouac commented on the spontaneity of travelling on the road whereplans are there to be made and dismantled with unerring regularity. It isnot Kerouac that controls his destination it is the road, the highway, andhis encounters that those so. This is poetic freedom in its fullest. Non-stop going for the sake of it is the main joy for Kerouac and hisfriend with a format of events that features the growing delusion of placesand the fascination with hitting the road to the next destination.95 Thepattern is set with the excitement of a new city that is overwhelming:‘spending most of my money, and didn’t give a damn, just as long as I’dbe in that damned Chicago tomorrow’. Then comes a period ofexploration, where in this case it is self-refectory: ‘the one distinct time inmy life, the strangest moment of all, that I didn’t know who I was. I wasn’tscared, I was just somebody else, some stranger, and my whole life was ahaunted life... I was halfway across America, at the dividing line betweenthe East of my youth and the West of my future’. Finally, a sense ofsadness and dejection is found before the pattern is rewound: ‘Detroit isactually one of the worst towns possible in America... what the hell are wedoing in Detroit?---and it grew cold’.96 The aesthetics are one of the defining elements of Jack Kerouac’s novel,able to describe the detail of environments, not just the look but the feelof things also; what they mean to him. Route Six came from the wilderness, wound around a traffic circle and disappeared again into the wilderness. Somewhere far across gloomy crazy New York was throwing up its cloud of dust and brown steam. The L.A. night. What brutal, hot, siren-whining nights they are. L.A. is the loneliest and most brutal. I preferred reading the American landscape as we went along. Every bump, rise and stretch mystified my longing.97The details are not what are important for Kerouac it is the emotion theyevoke for him; from going into the wilderness away from modernity to thedirtiness of 1950s New York and the hot brutality of Los Angeles. Howeverthe American landscape holds a beauty for Kerouac as he watches it pasthis side window, not looking ahead into the distance, the present is whatmatters to him and is reflective of the attitude of his journey withoutthought of the future.94 Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll, p 11695 Tim Cresswell, ‘Mobility as Resistance: A Geographical Reading of Kerouac’s “On theRoad”’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 18, No. 2, p25496 Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll, pp 117, 120, 343, 34597 Ibid. pp 116, 181, 187, 207
    • 29 As touched on earlier in this thesis, sexuality fits hand in hand with theautomobile and the freedom of the highway and that fact is presented inOn the Road, in blunt communication, as Kerouac ‘tried everything in thebooks to make a girl’.98 Kerouac presents himself as a modern-dayCasanova figure with a lack of commitment to traditional forms of sexualrelationships. Kerouac and his friend Dean constantly meet and leavewomen throughout their adventures, leaving before getting involved. Infact, every city is connected to a woman who is courted and thendiscarded.99 Kerouac’s descriptions of women are suitably erotic in naturewhen considering his sexual appetite and episodes without femalecompanionship: I saw the cutest little Mexican girl in slacks. Her breasts stuck out straight and true; her little flanks looked delicious; her hair was long and black; and her eyes were great big blue things with a soul in it.100Like the spontaneous movement by travelling on the road, not involvinghimself in a committed relationship seems to be Kerouac’s ideal offreedom; nothing to hold him down, no permanent home, no permanentwoman. Another aspect of Jack Kerouac’s novel is the use of it as a vessel fororiginal social commentary. Kerouac writes about America’s social state,the generalisation of America as a country and the people of the nation. Boys and girls in America have such a sad time together; sophistication demands that they submit to sex immediately without proper preliminary talk. Not courting talk – real straight talk about souls, for life is holy and every moment is precious. I began to realise that everybody in America is a natural born thief. Until you learn to realise the importance of the Banana King you will know absolutely nothing about the human interests of the world. Furthermore we know America, were at home; I can go anywhere in America and get what I want because it’s the same in every corner, I know people, I know what they do.101These are Jack Kerouac’s truths, an insightful way he views hissurroundings. All he has learned about his America is by travelling on theroad, experiencing his continent, just as Jean Baudrillard suggested when98 Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll, pp 17599 Tim Cresswell, ‘Mobility as Resistance: A Geographical Reading of Kerouac’s “On theRoad”’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 18, No. 2,pp 257-8100 Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll, p 183101 Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll, pp 159, 174, 222
    • 30he said that you can learn all you can about America by driving along thehighways. In his essay Mobility as Resistance, Tim Cresswell notices a subtle, yet,apparent relation to the music styles of jazz and bop. According toCresswell On the Road is a literal expression of ‘experience and feeling’which is related to the “Beat Generation”; an alienated and “hip” youth ofpost Second World War and pre-Vietnam period, before the inception ofthe “hippy” subculture. The construction of the chosen discourse is itselfa structural metaphor for jazz music. Passages contain cadences andrhythm, like the songs mentioned above. The zigzagging of the narrativeis equated by the zigzagging of the language.102 An example of thisrhythm, the recitation common in the musical lyrics and the Grapes ofWrath is the following passage: Everybody looked like a broken-down movie extra, a withered starlet; - disenchanted stunt-men, midget auto racers, poignant California characters... Casanovish men, puffy-eyed motel blondes, hustlers, pimps, whores, masseurs, bell hops103There is perhaps nothing coincidental about this; a sense of repetition oftone, a rhythmic pace, that is associated with highway and popularculture; the repetitious photographs to make David Hockney’sPearblossom Highway, John Steinbeck, the lyrics of Johnny Cash, and nowJack Kerouac. The highway seems to promote a certain repetitious andrhythmical nature within artists that associate themselves with highways.On the Road has become a legend within American counter culture,usually found behind the cash register counter of independent bookstores. Urban legend has it that the book is one of the most frequentlystolen books in the United States along with the Bible. Jack Kerouacseems to inspire outlaw tendencies that has spread across generations.104The rebellion against conservative values that the title represents is whatthe image of highway is all about within the vernacular of popular culture;a display of the individual’s confrontation with society.1053.2 Captain America and Billy the Kid on their Bikes102 Tim Cresswell, ‘Mobility as Resistance: A Geographical Reading of Kerouac’s “On theRoad”’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 18, No. 2,pp 253, 256103 Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll, p 272104 Penny Vlagopoulos, ‘Rewriting America’, Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The OriginalScroll, p 53105 Vivien Arnold, ‘The Image of the Freeway’, Journal of Architectural Education, Vol.30, No. 1, p 29
    • 31In American culture the road has always been a persistent theme which isincluded in the cannon of the frontier ethos. Road movies have the abilityto project the American Western mythology on to the landscape which istraversed and bound by the highways of the nation.106 For Manohla Dargisthe road movie is a modern continuation of the popular Western as the‘road defines the space between town and country. It is an emptyexpanse, a tabula rasa, the last true frontier’ in an age of modernity.107Road movies, therefore, represents a sense of romanticism while alsotouching on the theme of alienation, like Kerouac’s subculture, against theuniform identity of America’s mainstream society.108 The movie that highlights the above themes the best is the 1969 filmEasy Rider, produced by Peter Fonder, directed by Dennis Hopper, andstaring both actors in the two leads. Easy Rider is best described as amotorcycle film and a latter-day Western. It is prided as the first movie tosuccessfully celebrate and capture the conflict between the tribal, hippy,and drug-oriented generation of the 1960s and their mainstreamopposites.109 The film opens up with just the bare sound of motorcycle engines and ahot New Mexico landscape. Beginning with a slow pace Easy Rider followsthe two leads as they complete a drug deal transaction. Afterwards, thefilm begins, and sustains, an electric pace that lasts the rest of the picturewith the introduction of the rock song Born to Be Wild which accompaniesa wide shot of a highway racing towards the screen.110 Film is the only artmedium that is able to synthesise both the speed of the highway, theaesthetic of the tunnel vision, and the rock sounds that fit perfectly withthat speed. In a desert landscape, that is sentimentally empty, the vision of twomen on shiny chromium machines that dissects the emptiness is a stirringsight. The landscapes in this movie are typically Western and Easy Riderplays on this imagery. The scene where a motorcycle needs a tyrechange is made in a barn is beautifully poetic when at the same time, andin the camera shot, a horseshoe is placed on the hoof of the animal by106 Steven Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, ‘Introduction’, Edited by Steve Cohan and Ina RaeHark, The Road Movie Book (London: Routledge, 1997) p 1107 Manahola Dargis, ‘Roads to Freedom’, Sight and Sound 3 (1991) p 16108 Steven Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, ‘Introduction’, Edited by Steve Cohan and Ina RaeHark, The Road Movie Book, p 1109 Harriet R. Polt, ‘Review: Easy Rider’, Film Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Autumn 1969) p22110 Easy Rider (Columbia Pictures, dir. Dennis Hopper, 1969)
    • 32farmers; man’s modern form of the horse is contrasted by the real thingused by cowboys.111 Easy Rider is atypical of road movies that continue the tradition of theAmerican Western genre with the projection of dominant masculinity thatis inherent in persisting underlying conceptualizations of the Americannational identity.112 Peter Fonder plays Wyatt who exudes a ‘romanticaura’ as a driven and lonely, yet generous character; nicknamed after thepopular comic book hero Captain America, Wyatt is the modern variationof theclassic movie frontier hero.113 Dennis Hopper himself, on the other hand,is the classic frontier hero in both presentation and individualism.Dressed in attire that is reminiscent of a ranchman, complete with aStetson cowboy hat, Billy self-proclaims himself as “Billy the Kid” a sort ofrenewed spiritual projection of the cowboy legend who rebelled againstauthority. The principle theme of the Easy Rider is the idea of breaking away frommodernity, to strip back the material, and just be oneself on the road. The111 Ibid.112 Shari Roberts, ‘Western Meets Eastwood: Genre and gender on the road’, Edited bySteve Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, The Road Movie Book, pp 45113 Harriet R. Polt, ‘Review: Easy Rider’, Film Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1, p 24
    • 33interstate highways are metaphorically used as a construct for where onecan be and find their true selves, the romantic notion of ultimate freedom,and a theme that is also apparent in On the Road. Shari Robertscommented on the fact that within the road movie genre ‘the road standsin for the frontier... it simply asks over and over, as each mile marker haspassed, what does America mean today?’. The highway thereforebecomes a structuring device for internal journeys through physicalwanderings.114 The America that Easy Rider projects on the screen is the subculturethat emerged during the 1960s. The first example is the nomadic “hippy”culture that emerged in tandem with the social concurrent ofenvironmentalism. Wyatt and Billy picked up a hitchhiker, a Californiantrying to escape the mundane conformity of a clerk’s life, who introducesthem to a gentle community in search of self-sustainment. The highwayled the two main characters to possibly their version of attained freedom;Wyatt himself once earlier praised a farmer for his acquired attainment: You got a good set up here. I mean it. Not every man who can live off the land you know. Do your own thing in your own time... You should be proud.The hippy community seemed to offer what Wyatt and Billy was searchingfor but they turned the backs on it, still preferring the allure of freedomand mobility on the highway. Near the film’s end Wyatt ambiguouslyproclaims “We blew it”, it is possible that he was talking about the missedopportunity that the community offered.115 A further representation of the freedom that the road offers is embodiedby George, a drunken young aristocrat who yearns after vices, played byJack Nicholson. He plays a pivotal part in the message that is prominentin the road movie genre; the contrasting positions of conservative valuesand rebellious desires.116 In a country that has prided itself on individualspeech and freedom – although throughout American history that hashardly been the case – George questions the attitude of mainstreamsociety after they experienced severe bigotry in a country diner. This used to be a hell of a good country. I don’t understand what’s going on. Oh, they’re not get scared of you [Wyatt and Billy]. They scared of what you represent to them. Freedom. Talking about it114 Shari Roberts, ‘Western Meets Eastwood: Genre and gender on the road’, Edited bySteve Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, The Road Movie Book, pp 52-3115 Easy Rider116 David Laderman, ‘What a Trip: The Road Film and American Culture’, Journal of Filmand Video 48, 1-2 (1996)
    • 34 and being it, it’s two different things. I mean it’s real hard to be free when you are brought and sold on the market place.117George suggests that they three are not meant for the mainstream. Theirhome is not of the everyman where people can only dream of being freeenough to uncompromisingly be themselves. Their home is the road, andfreedom in affords for those who live on it. Soon after making thissweeping statement George is then fatally wounded in a brutal attack bythe men in the diner. They specifically singled him because he was aturncoat, an aristocrat who gave in to the urge to be free.At the end of the film Wyatt and Billy are killed by common country menwhile driving on the road simply because of the look of their hair. EasyRider had become an iconic film that resonate the appeal of the highwaywhile simultaneously representing the sub-culture of America thatappeared during the “Summer of Love” in the 1960s. Although thepicture continued the characteristic thread of freedom, sex, and rhythm, itis the only material so far examined in this thesis that has predominantlypresented a strong Western rhetoric that is strongly apparent with thehighway; the last remnants of a frontier ethos and pioneering spirit inAmerican tradition.3.3 The Migrant Road of the 66Route 66, also known as the ‘mother road’ while termed as the ‘migrantroad’ in John Steinbeck’s the Grapes of Wrath, the famous Americanhighway starts in Chicago to Santa Monica, built in 1926. Encompassing2,488 miles, Route 66 ‘passes through the heart of the United States’ andsome of the nation’s most archetypal roadside scenery. The routemeanders through small towns across the Midwest and Southwest.118 Thissection of the thesis will highlight points of interests along this route andhow they fit in to the highway vernacular. Today, Route 66 has managed maintain a nostalgic and mystic appealof the open road where travel journalist Jo Gardner tells of how the drivingdown the highway in an American Rambler convertible reminded him of‘simpler, halcyon days when technology’s grip was still very much part ofthe future’. Gardner described the ‘fiery red sunsets’, retro signs, and oldgas stations and 1950s diners with menus containing burgers and117 Easy Rider118 Jamie Jensen, Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America’s Two-LaneHighways, Third Edition,p 834
    • 35milkshakes, accompanied by rock n’ roll.119 The highway has become astrong part ofAmerican popular culture with books and songs that highlights its iconicstatus.120 Cadillac Ranch, a stretch of land that parallels the highway, west ofAmarillo, Texas, features ten classic Caddie automobiles, rusting andcovered in graffiti paint, are half buried nose down in the dirt. The artinstallation was created in 1974 by artists of the art group Ant Farm,Hudson Marquez, Chip Lord, and Doug Michaels, based in San Franciscoand commissioned by Amarillo helium millionaire Stanley Marsh III. Theten Caddies features tail fins that charts the design changes in the makefrom 1949 to 1964.121 March III commissioned this art piece because thecar, in particularly the Cadillac, and the road, Route 66, were monumentsto the American dream. The cars were not planted haphazardly, alluniformly angled vertically at around 80 degrees (the exact angles of theGreat Pyramid), in order to represent an intelligent civilization.122 Cadillac119 Jo Garnder, ‘North America: Route 66’ part of ‘Great Drives’, National GeographicTraveller (March/April 2011) p 69120 Michael Wallis, Route 66: The Mother Road (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin) p v121 Jamie Jensen, Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America’s Two-LaneHighways, Third Edition,p 870
    • 36Ranch permanently positions the automobile in the highway landscape bysuggesting that cars are the seeds of the land and therefore belongs to it. In a visual representation of sexual liberation that the highwaysymbolises, Exotic World home of the world’s only museum dedicated tothe profession of striptease dancing. Materials that fill the rooms of DixieLee Evans’ ranch house, herself being a former burlesque dancer madefamous for her striptease impersonations of Marilyn Monroe, gives eachvisitor personally guided tours of the collection that includes: posters,photos, props and elaborate costumes. Located in Helendale, California,Exotic World is neither seedy nor licentious, but rather a fun, energeticand illuminating place.123 The museum is not only a depiction of the sexassociated with the highway, but also a sort of social study of an Americansociety which is home to hyperreality and the ‘brutally naive’.124 Finally with the frontier theme, the Maramec Caverns roadsideattraction of limestone caves and features heavily on billboards in thenearby town of Stanton, Missouri. Developed during the Civil War, whenthe saltpetre was mined for manufacturing gunpowder, the caves werelater used as a venue for local farmers to get together for dances. Thelargest cave is still occasionally used for Easter Sunrise services, craftsshows, and chamber of commerce meetings. The Maramec Caverns wereopened as a tourist attraction in 1935 by Lester Drill where fact and fictionentwine including the legend of Jesse James’ use of a hideout. Within thenatural setting, however, a crude sound-and-light show is performedending with Kate Smith’s rendition of God Bless America.125 The cavernshelp reprieve the Western rhetoric by allowing visitors to experience aWestern past after driving on the present frontier.Interpreting the functions and themes of the road through attractions onRoute 66, provides further evidence of discussed elements that highwaysoffer. The art installation of Cadillac Ranch establishes physicalconnection between automobiles and the American landscape on theroadside; Exotic World presents a touristic view of the underlying sexualnature that the highway emits; while the Maramec Caverns continues the122 Stanley Marsh III, ‘A Route 66 Portrait’, Michael Wallis, Route 66: The Mother Road, p131123 Jamie Jensen, Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America’s Two-LaneHighways, Third Edition,p 841124 Jean Baudrillard, America, p 28125 Jamie Jensen, Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America’s Two-LaneHighways, Third Edition,p 888-9
    • 37institutionalised tradition of the frontier myth in to the modernity of thehighway.ConclusionHighways in America helped to fuel a society that has become attached tothe automobile and the freedoms that come with it. From its concludingconstruction in the 1960s, highways offered American’s a modern versionof the frontier ethos, a sense of exploration and adventure while providinga pattern of rhythm and repetition in aesthetics and popular culture. Thisthesis has explained why the highway is so prominent in the shaping ofthe United States and thus deserves adequate attention. The origins of the highway emerged out of the necessity of better roadsto accompany the growing automobile industry that emerged in 1920sAmerica as the nation assimilated the car in to their lives. Highways hadthree primary functions to fulfil; access to property; to carry local traffic;and arterial highways to connect traffic from intercommunity to longdistance. The Interstate Highway System completed the policy of anational network of roads and is in fact a product of the strengthening ofFederalism in American politics. The construction of highways providedeconomic benefits that come with increased mobility, particularly themotels, shopping malls and drive-ins of which McDonalds has become aglobal phenomenon. However, the highways changed the design andconstruction of numerous cities that experienced urban sprawl, along withthe disadvantages of congestion, pollution, and environmental racism. Inrecent years these negatives have pushed local governments to invest inimproved public transportation services, an indirect result of the highway. The automobile freed motorists from the timetables of publictransportation schedules while at the same time becoming a meaningfulimage and symbol of American daily life. The highway had come tofacilitate the automobile culture. The common activity of pleasure trips,short excursions done on and individual nature is one feature of Americanlife that has originated simply because of increased mobility with nationalparks becoming chief beneficiaries. Conservative moral codes of socialbehaviour was also broken as the car became a must have for teenagerswho partook in sexual adventure as cars offered an escape from socialvalues. The home also took on a transformation with architecture thatrevolved around the car with the establishment of garages andelimination of the porch and parlour in architectural design. The aesthetics of the highway is important to social commentators andartists alike. Speed is the identifiable theme which exerts a feeling oftransparency and invisibility while creating a plastic and sensuous qualityto the visual experience. The ability of the road to create a poetic and
    • 38artistic quality in popular culture is another aspect discussed in this thesis.From David Hockney’s repetitious photographs; to John Steinbeck’s use ofthe highway as a metaphor of sureness within a narrative of uncertainty;and then the road songs that focused on repetition and rhythm of the roadthrough music and lyrics. Finally the themes of the frontier, freedom, social conflict, sex, andadventure are explored in the case studies of On the Road, Easy Rider,and the attractions on Route 66. It is these concurrent themes that areapparent on the road, the highway, as it proved itself to be the mostaffecting instrument in shaping the image of the American landscape andculture.BIBLIOGRAPHYPart ILloyd Aldrich, The Economy of Freeways: City of Los Angeles (Street and Parkway Design Division, 1953)Hilaire Belloc, The Road (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1924)Richard O. Davis, The Age of Asphalt: The Automobile, the Freeway, andthe Condition of Metropolitan America (Philadelphia: J.B. LippincoltCompany, 1975)Owen D. Gutfreund, 20th Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of the American Landscape (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)Maldwyn A. Jones, The Limits of Liberty: American History 1607-1922, Second Edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)John B. Rae, The Road and the Car in American Life (Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1971)Robert D. Albritton, ‘American Federalism and IntergovernmentalRelations’, Edited by Gillian Peele [et al], Developments in American Politics 5 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006)Ann Fetter Friedlaender, The Interstate Highway System: A Study in Public Investment (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1965)Mark Howard Rose, Express Highway Politics, 1939-1956 (Ph.D. dissertation: Ohio State University, 1973)U.S. Department of Transportation, 1968 National Highway Needs Report
    • 39 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Ofice, 1968)Ellen Dunham-Jones, ‘75%: The Next Big Architectural Project’, William S. Saunders (ed.) Sprawl and Suburbia (Minneapolis: University ofMinnesota Press, 2005)Robert More Fisher, The Postwar Boon in Hotels and Motels (Royal Ship: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 1965)David Gebhard and Robert Winter, Los Angeles: An Architectural Guide (Utah: Gibbs Smith Publisher, 1994)Alan Hess, ‘The origins of McDonald’s Golden Arches’, Journal Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 45, No.1 (March 1986) pp 60-7Gordon McKay, ‘Highway Transportation’, Annuals of the AmericanAcademy of Political and Social Science, vol.116 (November 1924) pp 127-132Jennifer Price, ‘Looking for Nature at the Mall: A Field Guide to the Nature Company’, Edited by William Cronon, Uncommon Ground: Rethinkingthe Human Place in Nature (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1996)Urban Development in Southern California’, Annuals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (March 2000) pp 12-40Enid Arvidson, ‘Remapping Los Angeles, or, Taking the Risk of Class in Postmodern Urban Theory’, Economic Geography, Vol. 75, No.2 (April1999)Mike Davis, ‘Ozzie and Harriet in Hell: On the Decline of Inner Suburbs’, William S. Saunders (ed.), Sprawl and Suburbia (Minneapolis: Universityof Minnesota Press, 2005)James J. Flink, The Automobile Age (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1990)John Jerome, The Death of the Automobile (New York: Norton, 1972)Lauran Pulido, ‘Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California’, Annuals of the Associationof American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (March 2000)Bradford Snell, ‘American Ground Transport’, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, The Industrial Reorganisation Act: Hearing before a Subcommittee (1974)Part IIBureau of Public Roads, Highways and Economic and Social Changes (Washington, D.C.: Government Private Office, 1964)Jack Barth [et al.], Roadside America (New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.,
    • 40 1986)Mark S. Foster, From Streetcar to Superhighway: American City Plannersand Urban Transportation, 1900-1940 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981)Folke T. Kihlstedt, ‘The Automobile and the Transformation of theAmerican House, 1910-1935’, David L. Lewis and Laurence Goldstein (eds.), The Automobile and American CultureDavid L. Lewis, ‘Sex and the Automobile: From Rumble seats to Rockin’ Vans’, David L. Lewis and Laurence Goldstiein (eds.), The Automobileand American Culture (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1983)Vivien Arnold, ‘The Image of the Freeway’, Journal of ArchitecturalEducation, Vol. 30, No. 1 (September 1976) pp 28-30Jean Baudrillard, America (New York: Veno, 1988)Travis Brown, Jr, ‘On an Aesthetic of Highway Speed’, Journal ofArchitectural Education, Vol. 30, No. 1 (September 1976) pp 25-7Lawrence Halprin, Freeways (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation,1966)Peter Lisca, ‘The Grapes of Wrath as Fiction’, PLMA, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 1957) pp 296-309John Meany, ‘Hockney’s Photographs, Dougles Hyde Gallery, Dublin 4 October–10 November 1984’, Circa Art Magazine, No. 19 (November- December 1984) pp 24-6Bernard Weinraub, ‘Enticed by Light; From David Hockney, a Show of Photocollages in Los Angeles’, The New York Times (August 15, 2001)John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (London: Pan Book Ltd, 1975)Stephen Davies, ‘Rock versus Classical Music’, The Journal of Aestheticsand Art Criticism, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Spring 1999) pp 193-204Jon Fitzgerald, ‘Motown Crossover Hits 1963-1966 and the Creative Process’, Popular Music, Vol. 14, No. 1 (January 1995)Jamie Jensen, Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America’sTwo- Lane Highways, Third Edition (California: Avalon Travel, 2002)Ray Charles, ‘Hit the Road Jack’, The Definitive Ray Charles (c.d.), Disc 1, Track 21 (WSM: September 2005)Johnny Cash, ‘I’ve Been Everywhere’, Ring of Fire: The Legend of Johnny
    • 41 Cash (c.d.), Track 16 (Island: November 2005)Nat King Cole, ‘Get Your Kicks on Route 66’, The Very Best of Nat KingCole (c.d.), Disc 2, Track 2 (Not Now Music: January 2008)Wilson Picket, ‘Mustang Sally’, Wilson Pickett’s Greatest Hits (c.d.), Track7 (Rhino: October 1990)Steppenwolf, ‘Born to Be Wild’, The Best of Steppenwolf: Born to Be Wild (c.d.), Track 1 (Universal/Island: March 1999)Rolling Stones, ‘Start Me Up’, Rolling Stones: Forty Licks (c.d.), Disc 2, Track 1 (UMTV: September 2005)Part IIIHoward Cunnel, ‘Fast This Time’, Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll (New York: Viking Penguin, 2007) pp 1-52Tim Cresswell, ‘Mobility as Resistance: A Geographical Reading ofKerouac’s “On the Road”’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,New Series, Vol. 18, No. 2 (1993) pp 249-62Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll (New York: Viking Penguin, 2007)Penny Vlagopoulos, ‘Rewriting America’, Jack Kerouac, On the Road: The Original Scroll (New York: Viking Penguin, 2007) pp 53-68Steven Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, ‘Introduction’, Edited by Steve Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, The Road Movie Book (London: Routledge, 1997) pp 1-14Manahola Dargis, ‘Roads to Freedom’, Sight and Sound 3 (1991)Easy Rider (Columbia Pictures, dir. Dennis Hopper, 1969)David Laderman, ‘What a Trip: The Road Film and American Culture’, Journal of Film and Video 48, 1-2 (1996)Harriet R. Polt, ‘Review: Easy Rider’, Film Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1(Autumn 1969) pp 22-24Shari Roberts, ‘Western Meets Eastwood: Genre and gender on the road’, Edited by Steve Cohan and Ina Rae Hark, The Road Movie Book (London: Routledge, 1997) pp 45-69Jo Garnder, ‘North America: Route 66’ part of ‘Great Drives’, National Geographic Traveller (March/April 2011)Michael Wallis, Route 66: The Mother Road (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin)
    • 42List of IllustrationsFront PageEvidence of trip around the U.S. Greyhound 30 day pass photocopyPage 17David Hockney, Pearblossom Highway, 11-18 April, 1986 (http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=112574&handle=li)Page 26Easy Rider Print screen still from Easy Rider DVD (Sony Pictures: January 2000)Page 29Cadillac Ranch (http://e7diablo.deviantart.com/art/Cadillac-Ranch-89375187)