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A programming language is used to writecomputer programs such as application and utilities.      Programming allows a prog...
As an individual, I have learned that programming isa very broad because it composes many scripts, applicationsand can be ...
At first, programming is confusing because youhave so much to understand about codes that will enableto run a program. Pro...
You have to consider languages to run or writeyour own program, most demanded language inprogramming is the DEV C++ (a ful...
Switch case statements are a substitute forlong if statements that compare a variable toseveral "integral" values ("integr...
Basic Format for using Switch case:switch ( <variable> ) {case this-value:       Code to execute if <variable> == this-val...
The condition of a switch statement is a value.The case says that if it has the value of whatever isafter that case then d...
“Break” is a keyword that breaks out of the codeblock, usually surrounded by braces, which it is in.In this case, break pr...
The default case is optional, but it is wise toinclude it as it handles any unexpected cases. Switchstatements serves as a...
This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program#include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame(){   cout << "Play ...
That program will compile, but cannot be run until theundefined functions are given bodies, but it serves as amodel (albei...
Loops are used to repeat a block of code.Being able to have your program repeatedlyexecute a block of code is one of the m...
(They may be executing a small number oftasks, but in principle, to produce a list ofmessages only requires repeating the ...
One Caveat: before going further, you should understandthe concept of C++s true and false, because it will benecessary whe...
FOR            3 loop control components:     -initialization of the loop control variable     -test of the loop repetitio...
The variable initialization allows you to either declare avariable and give it a value or give a value to an already exist...
Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){   // The loop goes whil...
WHILEThe basic structure:               While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the     condition is true } The true r...
Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endlint main(){   int x = 0; // Dont forget to d...
DO-WHILE    •Both the for statement and the while statement evaluate a loop    repetition condition before the first execu...
Notice that the condition is tested at the end of the blockinstead of the beginning, so the block will be executed at leas...
Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){   int x;    x = 0;    do {       // "Hello, world!" is printed ...
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LOOPING STATEMENT 1#include <iostream>int main(){   using namespace std;    // nSelection must be declared outside do/whil...
LOOPING STATEMENT 2#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){   int nSelection;   double var1, var2;  do  {    co...
LOOPING STATEMENT 3if (nSelection == 2)      {        cout << "Please enter the first whole number ";        cin >> var1; ...
LOOPING STATEMENT 3#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){   int nSelection;   double var1, var2;   while (1) ...
LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2)     {         cout << "Please enter the first whole number ";         cin >>...
LOOPING STATEMENT 5#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){  // The loop...
LOOPING STATEMENT 6#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){  int x;    x = 0;    do {      // "Hello, world!" is...
LOOPING STATEMENT 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){int n;cout << "Enter the starting number > ";cin >> ...
SWITCH CASE 1SWITCH CASE#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){    int score;    cout << "What was your score?...
SWITCH CASE 2else if (score <= 50) {     cout << "nYou score aint great mate.."; } else if (score <= 75) {     cout << "nY...
SWITCH CASE 3else    {        cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!";    }    cin.ignore();    cin.get()...
SWITCH CASE 4#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl;int numbe...
SWITCH CASE 5#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price;cout<< "H...
SWITCH CASE 6#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>int main(void) {  int n;  printf("Please enter a number: ");  scanf("%d"...
SWITCH CASE 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(void){  char grade;  cout << "Enter your grade: ";  cin >> gr...
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In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I choose toshow MDAS just as an example for the program to run. If ...
I have came up with this by just starting to write this code:#include <iostream> and then enter the succeeding codes, comp...
When I learned that programming is very sensitive and atthe same time very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I mak...
So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces areneeded programming is very specific that whatever you have en...
Because of so many experiences I had before this program run,I found programming is also interesting for the more you are ...
In this switch case missing out a break statement causes controlto fall through to the next case label. Switches can alway...
Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements, the switch statement canhave a number of possible execution paths, A switch wo...
The switch statement evaluates its expression, then executes allstatements that follow the matching case label.           ...
The switch statement can include any number of case instances,but no two case constants within the same switch statement c...
Submitted to:    Prof. Erwin Globio     Submitted by:Unite, Jamaica Aubrey T.       BM10203 http://eglobiotraining.com
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Switch case and looping jam

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Transcript of "Switch case and looping jam"

  1. 1. http://eglobiotraining.com
  2. 2. A programming language is used to writecomputer programs such as application and utilities. Programming allows a programmer or end user todevelop the sets of instructions that constitute acomputer program or software. The role of aprogramming language can be described in two ways:Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform TasksConceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes. http://eglobiotraining.com
  3. 3. As an individual, I have learned that programming isa very broad because it composes many scripts, applicationsand can be used to run a program that has been part of theprogramming language. A programming language should both provide meansto describe primitive data and procedures and means tocombine and abstract those into more complex ones. The distinction between data and procedures is notthat clear cut. In many programming languages, procedurescan be passed as data (to be applied to ``real data) andsometimes processed like ``ordinary data. Conversely``ordinary data can be turned into procedures by anevaluation mechanism. http://eglobiotraining.com
  4. 4. At first, programming is confusing because youhave so much to understand about codes that will enableto run a program. Programming has applications andprogram development, the best example for this is theInternet bowser… Programming is a creative process done byprogrammers to instruct a computer on how to do a task.Fundamentally programs manipulate numbers and text.These are the building blocks of all programs.Programming languages let you use them in differentways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on diskfor later retrieval. http://eglobiotraining.com
  5. 5. You have to consider languages to run or writeyour own program, most demanded language inprogramming is the DEV C++ (a full-featuredIntegrated Development Environment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programminglanguages in the world. Also known as "C withClasses".New to programming or thinking about it? It mightsurprise you to know that there are many programmerswho program just for fun and it can lead to a job. http://eglobiotraining.com
  6. 6. Switch case statements are a substitute forlong if statements that compare a variable toseveral "integral" values ("integral" values aresimply values that can be expressed as an integer,such as the value of a char). http://eglobiotraining.com
  7. 7. Basic Format for using Switch case:switch ( <variable> ) {case this-value: Code to execute if <variable> == this-value break;case that-value: Code to execute if <variable> == that-value break;...default: Code to execute if <variable> does not equal the value following any of the cases break;} The value of the variable given into switch is compared to the valuefollowing each of the cases, and when one value matches the value of the variable,the computer continues executing the program from that point. http://eglobiotraining.com
  8. 8. The condition of a switch statement is a value.The case says that if it has the value of whatever isafter that case then do whatever follows the colon.The break is used to break out of the case statements.An important thing to note about the switchstatement is that the case values may only beconstant integral expressions. http://eglobiotraining.com
  9. 9. “Break” is a keyword that breaks out of the codeblock, usually surrounded by braces, which it is in.In this case, break prevents the program from fallingthrough and executing the code in all the other casestatements. http://eglobiotraining.com
  10. 10. The default case is optional, but it is wise toinclude it as it handles any unexpected cases. Switchstatements serves as a simple way to write long ifstatements when the requirements are met. Often itcan be used to process input from a user. http://eglobiotraining.com
  11. 11. This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program#include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame(){ cout << "Play game called";}void loadgame()} cout << "Load game called";void playmultiplayer(){ cout << "Play multiplayer game called";}int main(){ int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input; switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break; case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; } cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
  12. 12. That program will compile, but cannot be run until theundefined functions are given bodies, but it serves as amodel (albeit simple) for processing input. If you do notunderstand this then try mentally putting in if statements forthe case statements. Default simply skips out of the switchcase construction and allows the program to terminatenaturally. If you do not like that, then you can make a looparound the whole thing to have it wait for valid input. Youcould easily make a few small functions if you wish to test thecode. http://eglobiotraining.com
  13. 13. Loops are used to repeat a block of code.Being able to have your program repeatedlyexecute a block of code is one of the most basicbut useful tasks in programming -- manyprograms or websites that produce extremelycomplex output (such as a message board) arereally only executing a single task many times. http://eglobiotraining.com
  14. 14. (They may be executing a small number oftasks, but in principle, to produce a list ofmessages only requires repeating the operation ofreading in some data and displaying it.) Now,think about what this means: a loop lets you writea very simple statement to produce a significantlygreater result simply by repetition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  15. 15. One Caveat: before going further, you should understandthe concept of C++s true and false, because it will benecessary when working with loops (the conditions are thesame as with if statements). Three types of Loops: for, while, and do.. http://eglobiotraining.com
  16. 16. FOR 3 loop control components: -initialization of the loop control variable -test of the loop repetition condition -change (update) of the loop control variableFor ( variable initialization; condition; variable update ) { Code to execute while the condition is true} http://eglobiotraining.com
  17. 17. The variable initialization allows you to either declare avariable and give it a value or give a value to an already existingvariable. Second, the condition tells the program that while theconditional expression is true the loop should continue to repeatitself. The variable update section is the easiest way for a for loopto handle changing of the variable. It is possible to do things likex++, x = x + 10, or even x = random ( 5 ), and if you really wantedto, you could call other functions that do nothing to the variable butstill have a useful effect on the code. Notice that a semicolon separates each of these sections, that isimportant. Also note that every single one of the sections may beempty, though the semicolons still have to be there. If the conditionis empty, it is evaluated as true and the loop will repeat untilsomething else stops it. http://eglobiotraining.com
  18. 18. Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){ // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get();} This program is a very simple example of a for loop. x is set tozero, while x is less than 10 it calls cout<< x <<endl; and it adds 1 to xuntil the condition is met. Keep in mind also that the variable isincremented after the code in the loop is run for the first time. http://eglobiotraining.com
  19. 19. WHILEThe basic structure: While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is the same as a for loop without the initialization and update sections. However, an empty condition is not legal for a while loop as it is with a for loop. http://eglobiotraining.com
  20. 20. Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endlint main(){ int x = 0; // Dont forget to declare variables while ( x < 10 ) { // While x is less than 10 cout<< x <<endl; x++; // Update x so the condition can be met eventually } cin.get();} The easiest way to think of the loop is that when it reaches the braceat the end it jumps back up to the beginning of the loop, which checks thecondition again and decides whether to repeat the block another time, or stopand move to the next statement after the block. http://eglobiotraining.com
  21. 21. DO-WHILE •Both the for statement and the while statement evaluate a loop repetition condition before the first execution of the loop body. •In most cases, this pretest is desirable and prevents the loop from executing when there may be no data items to process or when the initial value of the loop control variable is outside the expected range. •There are some situations, generally involving interactive input, when we know that a loop must execute at least one time.The Structure: do { } while ( condition ) ; http://eglobiotraining.com
  22. 22. Notice that the condition is tested at the end of the blockinstead of the beginning, so the block will be executed at leastonce. If the condition is true, we jump back to the beginningof the block and execute it again. A do..while loop isbasically a reversed while loop. A while loop says "Loopwhile the condition is true, and execute this block of code", ado..while loop says "Execute this block of code, and loopwhile the condition is true". http://eglobiotraining.com
  23. 23. Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();} Keep in mind that you must include a trailing semi-colon after thewhile in the above example. A common error is to forget that a do..while loopmust be terminated with a semicolon (the other loops should not be terminatedwith a semicolon, adding to the confusion). Notice that this loop will executeonce, because it automatically executes before checking the condition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  24. 24. http://eglobiotraining.com
  25. 25. LOOPING STATEMENT 1#include <iostream>int main(){ using namespace std; // nSelection must be declared outside do/while loop int nSelection; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); // do something with nSelection here // such as a switch statement return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  26. 26. LOOPING STATEMENT 2#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){ int nSelection; double var1, var2; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  27. 27. LOOPING STATEMENT 3if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; } return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  28. 28. LOOPING STATEMENT 3#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){ int nSelection; double var1, var2; while (1) { do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cout << "5) Exit" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4 && nSelection != 5); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  29. 29. LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; }else { return 0; } }} http://eglobiotraining.com
  30. 30. LOOPING STATEMENT 5#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){ // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
  31. 31. LOOPING STATEMENT 6#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
  32. 32. LOOPING STATEMENT 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){int n;cout << "Enter the starting number > ";cin >> n;while (n>0) {cout << n << ", ";--n;}cout << "FIRE!n";return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  33. 33. SWITCH CASE 1SWITCH CASE#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){ int score; cout << "What was your score?"; cin >> score; if (score <= 25) { cout << "nOuch, less than 25...!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  34. 34. SWITCH CASE 2else if (score <= 50) { cout << "nYou score aint great mate.."; } else if (score <= 75) { cout << "nYour pretty good, wel done man!"; } else if (score <= 100) { cout << "nYou got to the top!!!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  35. 35. SWITCH CASE 3else { cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!"; } cin.ignore(); cin.get(); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  36. 36. SWITCH CASE 4#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl;int number;cin >> number;if(number == 1){cout << "one";}else if(number == 2){cout << "two";}else if(number == 3){cout << "three";}else if(number == 4){cout << "four";}else if(number == 5){cout << "five";}else{cout << number << " is not between 1 and 5!";}cout << endl;system("pause");} http://eglobiotraining.com
  37. 37. SWITCH CASE 5#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price;cout<< "How much is the price before discount for 1 dozen boxes of tissue?n";cout<<"RM ";cin>>price_before_discount;cout<<"nn";cout<< "How many dozen boxes of tissue you buy?n";cin>>dozen;cout<<"nn";switch (dozen){total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (95/100));case 1: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (88/100));case 2: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (75/100));case 3: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (60/100));case 4 : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (40/100));default : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";}return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  38. 38. SWITCH CASE 6#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>int main(void) { int n; printf("Please enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &n); switch (n) { case 1: { printf("n is equal to 1!n"); break; } case 2: { printf("n is equal to 2!n"); break; } case 3: { printf("n is equal to 3!n"); break; } default: { printf("n isnt equal to 1, 2, or 3.n"); break; } } system("PAUSE"); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  39. 39. SWITCH CASE 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(void){ char grade; cout << "Enter your grade: "; cin >> grade; switch (grade) { case A: cout << "Your average must be between 90 - 100" << endl; break; case B: cout << "Your average must be between 80 - 89" << endl; break; case C: cout << "Your average must be between 70 - 79" << endl; break; case D: cout << "Your average must be between 60 - 69" << endl; break; default: cout << "Your average must be below 60" << endl; } return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  40. 40. http://eglobiotraining.com
  41. 41. In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I choose toshow MDAS just as an example for the program to run. If logicalExpression evaluates to true, the statement executes. The logicalExpression is reevaluated. The body of the loop continues to execute untilthe logicalExpression is false http://eglobiotraining.com
  42. 42. I have came up with this by just starting to write this code:#include <iostream> and then enter the succeeding codes, compiled andrun. http://eglobiotraining.com
  43. 43. When I learned that programming is very sensitive and atthe same time very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I makesure that it is clear means that I put everything important codes in itso that the program would run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  44. 44. So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces areneeded programming is very specific that whatever you have entered in toit you should specify because when the statement is false it wouldn’t letyou run the program, I have experienced it before I arrived at this result. http://eglobiotraining.com
  45. 45. Because of so many experiences I had before this program run,I found programming is also interesting for the more you are practicingto make a program run, the more questions that came up in my mind andtry something that will fit to this or entering new codes to make matrixetc… that I know is possible. http://eglobiotraining.com
  46. 46. In this switch case missing out a break statement causes controlto fall through to the next case label. Switches can always be replaced bynested if-else statements, but in some cases this may be more clumsy.Each break statement terminates the enclosing switch statement. Controlflow continues with the first statement. http://eglobiotraining.com
  47. 47. Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements, the switch statement canhave a number of possible execution paths, A switch works withthe byte, short, char, and int primitive data types. http://eglobiotraining.com
  48. 48. The switch statement evaluates its expression, then executes allstatements that follow the matching case label. http://eglobiotraining.com
  49. 49. The switch statement can include any number of case instances,but no two case constants within the same switch statement can have thesame value. Execution of the statement body begins at the selectedstatement and proceeds until the jump-statement transfers control out ofthe case body. http://eglobiotraining.com
  50. 50. Submitted to: Prof. Erwin Globio Submitted by:Unite, Jamaica Aubrey T. BM10203 http://eglobiotraining.com
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