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  1. 1. Muziek, games en emotie<br />Hoofdvraag:<br />Op welke manieren kan je muziek inzetten in videogames om emotie (ontzag) over te brengen.<br />Deelvragen:<br />Hoe brengt muziek precies emoties over? (Muziek en de hersenen)<br />Welke methodes passen componisten toe? Zijn er universele codes in muziek?<br />Hoe wordt muziek toegepast in films?<br />Op welke manieren wordt muziek toegepast in games om emotie over te brengen?<br />
  2. 2. Hoe brengtmuziekemotie over?<br />Bron: Exploring the Musical Brain, scientifficamerican 2001<br /><ul><li>Music—like language—stimulates many areas in the brain, including regions normally involved in other kinds of thinking. For this reason, Mark Jude Tramo of the Harvard Medical School argues in a recent issue of Science that the brain doesn't have a specific "music center," as others have suggested.
  3. 3. … But music goes much deeper than that—below the outer layers of the auditory and visual cortex to the limbic system, which controls our emotions. The emotions generated there produce a number of well-known physiological responses.</li></ul>Je breinheeftgeenspeciaal ‘muziekcentrum’<br />
  4. 4. Zijneruniversele codes in muziek?<br />Bron: Music, Emotion and the Brain, GeetanjaliVaidya<br /><ul><li>A piece of music may be undeniably emotionally powerful, and at the same time be experienced in very different ways by each person who hears it. The emotion created by a piece of music may be affected by memories associated with the piece, by the environment it is being played in, by the mood of the person listening and their personality, by the culture they were brought up in: by any number of factors both impossible to control and impossible to quantify. </li></li></ul><li>Zijneruniversele codes in muziek?<br />Bron: Exploring the Musical Brain, scientifficamerican 2001 ^<br />HUMPBACK WHALES use many of the same rhythms and patterns as human composers in their songs, tempting some scientists to speculate that a universal music awaits discovery.<br />“Heb je even voormij?”<br />
  5. 5. Zijneruniversele codes in muziek?<br />Bron: Music, Emotion and the Brain, GeetanjaliVaidya<br /><ul><li>Several characteristics have been suggested that might influence the emotion of music. For example, according to one study, major keys and rapid tempos cause happiness, whereas minor keys and slow tempos cause sadness, and rapid tempos together with dissonance cause fear. There is also a theory that dissonance sounds unpleasant to listeners across all cultures. Dissonance is to a certain degree culture-dependent, but also appears to be partly intrinsic to the music.
  6. 6. Studies have shown that infants as young as 4 months old show negative reactions to dissonance.</li></li></ul><li>Muziek, emotie, films<br />Bron:<br /><ul><li>it grounds a film in a particular time and place;
  7. 7. creates mood and heightens atmosphere;
  8. 8. characterizes the people on-screen and helps to define their psychology;
  9. 9. delineates abstract ideas;
  10. 10. Film music engages with the deepest and most profoundly unconscious levels of the audience;
  11. 11. It largely serves these purposes without drawing conscious attention to itself.
  12. 12. Music embodies the emotion that the image represents, prompting audiences to recognize that emotion and connect to the characters on the screen. Film music thus engages audiences in processes of identification that bond them to the film.
  13. 13.</li></li></ul><li>Muziek, emotie, games: Asteroids<br /><ul><li>…Asteroids took this one step further (before these games were even invented) by matching the music with the action to a certain extent, as more asteroids came on screen the music speeded up–the "music" was actually a fairly good rendition of your heart beat.
  14. 14.</li></li></ul><li>Muziek, emotie, games: Planescape Torment<br /><ul><li>As you prepare to trounce your opponent, the droney ethereal background music suddenly jumps into the foreground, morphing seamlessly into the driving rhythm of battle music. Periodically, Mark's score seems to disappear, melting into the rich ambient sound of the game. Then quietly, the music steals back into gameplay, always shadowing the action of the game. The Making of Torment Audio </li></ul><br />
  15. 15. Muziek, emotie, games<br /><ul><li>This is no accident, music, after all, is all about rhythm and what are our bodies but rhythms machines. When you take a breath, what is that if not an upbeat, when you are excited your heart beats fast and sometimes irregular, even your blood and nervous system make noise (but interestingly this noise is quite a bit different, how?). It is no coincidence that most music has tempi that lie within the normal beating pattern of the human heart–between 60 and 80 bpm. </li></ul><br />
  16. 16. Discussie<br /><ul><li>“Geluid 50% van de gameervaring?” </li>