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   Jaina literature and philosophy, a critical    approach – By Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pärshvanäth    Vidyäpith   Forward by...
   24 Tirthankars in each half time cycle   Nirvana of 1st and 24th Tirthankar of Avasarpini    Käl   4th Ärä is 10¹⁶ S...
prajaaptiryah prathamam jiiivishhu sashaasa   krishsyadishhu karmasuprajah.   (vrihat-svayambhuu stotra)As first Prajäpati...
  dhammo vi dayamuulo vinimmiyo aadi bamhena.   (trilokasaara) The "first Brahma" (Lord Rishabha) established   the (ord...
   Bhagavata-Purana also mentions the locks of hair    of Lord Rishabha..kutila jatila kapisha-kesha-bhuumibhaaraa.   Th...
   Bhagavata calls him "shariira maatra parigraha"    (body his only possession), "gagana-    paridhaanah" (wearing the s...
   Biography of Neminäth is available in    Harivanshpuran. Neminäth is connected with the    legend of Sri Krishna as hi...
   Harappa and Mohenjo Daro excavations (5000    BC)   The nude images in Käyotsarga i.e., the standing    posture lost ...
   References of Vratya and Arhatas in Rig-Veda    and Atharva Veda.   In the Upanishadik period (800 B.C.) they were   ...
   Bhagawän Pärshvanäth (850 BCE) flourished in    Väränasi based on several mentions in    Buddhist texts.   Mention of...
   Nätaputta and Lichchaviputta   Vedic Tradition and Srmanik Tradition   Sänkhya and Ajivika Traditions – short lived...
   Idol worship - 4th - 3rd century BC   Adoption of Hindu deities 5th – 8th century AD   Inclusion of Rama, Rävan and ...
   Magadha – Capital Patliputra (Patna) - the center    of knowledge and learning 160 years after Mahävir    ( 350 BC)  ...
   Buddhism competing with Jainism   Role of King Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) in    Buddhism. Ashoka coronation in 270 BC. ...
   Towards Delhi, Mathura and Gujarat - Mostly    followed Shvetämbar tradition   Through the coastal route to Orissa an...
   King Madhav comes to power with great effort    of a Digambar Monk Simhanandi In Karnatak   Many rulers of Ganaga dyn...
l. Sudharmä-swämi2. Jambuswämi3. Prabhav swämi4. Sayyam-bhava Swami5. Yashobhadra6. (a) Bhadrabähu and (b) Sambhuti Vijay....
 8. (a) Mahägiri and (b) Suhastin. 9. (a) Susthita and (b) Supratibuddha     (a) Kotika and (b) Kakandaka10. Indradatt.11....
History of jainism
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History of jainism

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  1. 1.  Jaina literature and philosophy, a critical approach – By Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pärshvanäth Vidyäpith Forward by Padmanabh Jaini , ‘That Which Is’ By Nathmal Tatia Antiquity of Jainism. By Mahävir Saran Jain Jainworld.com Dr. Malaiya Jain, Uni. Of Colorado Various other sources
  2. 2.  24 Tirthankars in each half time cycle Nirvana of 1st and 24th Tirthankar of Avasarpini Käl 4th Ärä is 10¹⁶ Sägaropam years Thus according to Jainism Rishabha Dev Bhagawän existed many billions of years ago
  3. 3. prajaaptiryah prathamam jiiivishhu sashaasa krishsyadishhu karmasuprajah. (vrihat-svayambhuu stotra)As first Prajäpati, he taught people, who wanted to earn a living, various professions.
  4. 4.  dhammo vi dayamuulo vinimmiyo aadi bamhena. (trilokasaara) The "first Brahma" (Lord Rishabha) established the (ordinary) dharma based on compassion Ächärya Ravishena in Padma-Purän vaatod-dhuutaa jataastaasya rejuraakulamuurtauah. dhuumalva iva sad-dhyaan-vahnisaktaya karmanah.Blowing in the wind, the locks of his hair looked, as if they were smoke coming out the fire burning the karmas.
  5. 5.  Bhagavata-Purana also mentions the locks of hair of Lord Rishabha..kutila jatila kapisha-kesha-bhuumibhaaraa. The Bhagavata says: ashhtame merudevyaam tu naabherjaata uruukramah. darshayan vartma dhiiraanaam sarvaashramanamaskritamam..In the womb of Marudevi, wife of Näbhi, the lord had his eighth avatar. He showed himself in a form that is to be worshipped by all Shramanas.
  6. 6.  Bhagavata calls him "shariira maatra parigraha" (body his only possession), "gagana- paridhaanah" (wearing the sky), vaatarashanaa (wearing the wind). Full details of Rishabha dev and Bharat are available in Ädipuräna and Mahäpurän of  Jinsenacharya and Shrimad-Bhagavat.
  7. 7.  Biography of Neminäth is available in Harivanshpuran. Neminäth is connected with the legend of Sri Krishna as his relative. According to the Triÿaáûiáaläkäpuruÿacarita, he was a cousin of Lord Krishna. The age when Väsudeva-Krishana flourished cannot be determined with certainty. The Chändogya Upaniÿad (the sixth or seventh century B.C.) refers to Väsudev Krishna. The Mahäbhärata war, in which Krishna is known to have participated, was, according to H.C. Ray CHAUDHARY, was fought either in the 14th century B.C. or in the 9th century B.C
  8. 8.  Harappa and Mohenjo Daro excavations (5000 BC) The nude images in Käyotsarga i.e., the standing posture lost in meditation, closely resemble the Jaina images. Some idols even in Padmäsan pose (unique to Sramanik tradition). A few others, found at Mohenjo-Daro, have hoods of serpents – Pre-Vedic Naga tribe, probably that of 7th Tirthankar Supärshva Näth
  9. 9.  References of Vratya and Arhatas in Rig-Veda and Atharva Veda. In the Upanishadik period (800 B.C.) they were known as Sramana and Nirgranth. Mentions in Vedas and Upanishadas about Tirthankar Rishabha, Arishthnemi, Supärshva and Ajit. This reasonably proves that Jainism is pre- Vedic, at least 3000 B.C. to 5000 B.C.
  10. 10.  Bhagawän Pärshvanäth (850 BCE) flourished in Väränasi based on several mentions in Buddhist texts. Mention of Chaturyäma in Buddhist texts The Majjhima Nikäya records a dispute between Buddha and Sakdäl, the son of a Nirgrantha Presence of Pärshva followers at the time of Mahävir
  11. 11.  Nätaputta and Lichchaviputta Vedic Tradition and Srmanik Tradition Sänkhya and Ajivika Traditions – short lived Vedic Tradition Ritualism, Yajna, Sacrifice, Tantrism, Cast system, Brahmanic Dominance Sramanik Tradition Austerity, Penance, Equanimity, atheism and non-possessiveness
  12. 12.  Idol worship - 4th - 3rd century BC Adoption of Hindu deities 5th – 8th century AD Inclusion of Rama, Rävan and Krishna amongst the next 24 Tirthankar before 3rd Century AD. Inclusion of Rama and Krishna amongst others in 63 Salakäpurusha Jain Rämäyan by Vimal Suri – 1st to 3rd Century AD
  13. 13.  Magadha – Capital Patliputra (Patna) - the center of knowledge and learning 160 years after Mahävir ( 350 BC) Nanda Dynasty – Chandra Gupta Maurya 12 year famine in Magadha Ächärya Bhadrabähu away First Vächanä of Ägam in Patliputra under the leadership of Sthulibhadra Beginning of schism of Shvetämbar and Digambar 12th Ägam – Drashtiväda - extinct
  14. 14.  Buddhism competing with Jainism Role of King Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) in Buddhism. Ashoka coronation in 270 BC. Ruled for 38 years Resurgence of Brahmanism in 150 BC Void of royal support for Jainism and subsequent migration of Jains from Magadha
  15. 15.  Towards Delhi, Mathura and Gujarat - Mostly followed Shvetämbar tradition Through the coastal route to Orissa and then onwards to Karnataka, Chennai and Mysore – Mostly followed Digambar This is why current distribution of Shvetämbar and Digambar. And virtually absent Jainism in Bihar
  16. 16.  King Madhav comes to power with great effort of a Digambar Monk Simhanandi In Karnatak Many rulers of Ganaga dynasty after Madhav continue to support until 14th AD In Gujarat, no such support until King Vanaraj who ruled between 746 AD and 806 AD Subsequent lack of royal support until Ächärya Hemchandrä-chärya (1088-1173) influences Solanki King Kumärpäl who ruled Gujarat (1143-1173 ) No significant royal support post Kumärpäl era
  17. 17. l. Sudharmä-swämi2. Jambuswämi3. Prabhav swämi4. Sayyam-bhava Swami5. Yashobhadra6. (a) Bhadrabähu and (b) Sambhuti Vijay.7. Sthulibhadra.   
  18. 18.  8. (a) Mahägiri and (b) Suhastin. 9. (a) Susthita and (b) Supratibuddha     (a) Kotika and (b) Kakandaka10. Indradatt.11. Datta.12. Sinhgiri.13. Vajra.14. Vajrasena.
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