Academic Writing  PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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7 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT WRITING FORMAL ESSAYS & RESEARCH PAPERS

7 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT WRITING FORMAL ESSAYS & RESEARCH PAPERS

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Academic Writing PART 1: INTRODUCTION Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Academic Writing 7 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT WRITING FORMAL ESSAYS & RESEARCH PAPERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PART 1: INTRODUCTION Jaime Alfredo Cabrera Albukhary International University Alor Setar, Malaysia 22 July 2013
  • 2. 7 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW START: THE 2 WAYS TO START WRITE: THE 7 STEPS OF WRITING PLAN: THE 3 STEPS OF PREPARATION SUBMIT: THE 4 DEADLINES ASSESSMENT: THE 15 ITEMS FOR GRADING FINAL: THE 9 PARTS IN ORDER REVIEW: QUICKLY, 1 MORE TIME NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 3. IMPORTANT NOTE: 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 4. IMPORTANT NOTE: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 5. IMPORTANT NOTE: 2 5 6 7
  • 6. IMPORTANT NOTE: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 7. TIP FOR HIGHER GRADES •Your grade depends on the level of thinking that a teacher can see in your formal essay or in your research paper. •The teacher must be able to see it. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 8. These are the levels of thinking that students use when they write. TIP: HOW TO WRITE FOR HIGHER GRADES (1) Low-level thinking is at the bottom of the triangle. 1 2 NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 9. TIP: HOW TO WRITE FOR HIGHER GRADES (1) Top-level thinking is at the top. 1 2 Mid-level thinking is in the middle. 3 4 5 6 NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 10. TIP: If the paper has perfect grammar, punctuation, spelling, & vocabulary Low-level thinking = low grades. E D Average thinking = average grades. C B High-level thinking = high grades. A A* NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 11. TIP: If you use perfect grammar, punctuation, spelling, & vocabulary and then you Explain, define, or rephrase ideas in your own words Show causes and/or effects Show how parts work together Use ideas other situations Repeat or quote ideas Choose ideas based on standards Judge ideas based on evidence NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 12. TIP FOR HIGHER GRADES •It is your responsibility to clearly show your level of thinking. •It is not the teacher’s duty to look for it if it is not clear. •Remember: you are not present when the teacher grades your paper. •So, your paper must be very clear. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 13. THE TWO WAYS TO START STARTING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 14. 1. SOURCED IDEAS 2. OWN IDEAS Perhaps you don’t know the topic, or You may not know what to say, or You may not be sure what to say, or You use ideas from other sources. You use your own ideas. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE You may not know how to say it. Because: But: You arrange the ideas in your own way. You show the connections of the ideas. You develop the ideas in your own way. You state the ideas in your own words. You start by borrowing ideas from other sources. You develop these ideas in your own way. Arrange Connect Develop Paraphrase
  • 15. 1. SOURCED IDEAS 2. OWN IDEAS Use sources with author(s) names, publication year, city, and publisher. Document*** all sources of all sourced ideas, texts, or images. At least 50% of your paper must be in your own words: paraphrase.** *** Documentation = citation and list of references ** Paraphrase = change all words and all arrangements of words The arrangement of borrowed ideas must be original,* not copied. * Original = cannot be found in any other source NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 16. 1. SOURCED IDEAS 2. OWN IDEAS You use ideas from other sources. You use your own ideas. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE Other sources support your ideas. Other sources add details to your ideas. You question ideas in other sources. You disprove ideas in other sources. You know the topic, or You know what you want to say, or You are sure what you want to say, and You know how you will say it. Because: But: You start with your own ideas. You use ideas from other sources to make your ideas stronger. Support Detail Analyze Rationalize
  • 17. 1. SOURCED IDEAS 2. OWN IDEAS Documentation** is not necessary for original ideas. BE SURE: CHECK ALL SOURCES Document** all ideas that are not original, even if these are your own. Use sourced ideas to support your ideas. Document* all sources. *** Documentation = citation and list of references ** Paraphrase = change all words and all arrangements of words Your ideas are original if these are not found in another source(s). * Original = cannot be found in any other source NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 18. THE SEVEN STEPS WRITING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 19. STEP 1 SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS Add Support RESEARCH NOTES STEP 2 B B Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 3 O B SUMMARY STEP 4 O CONCLUSION STEP 5 O STEP 6 O BACKGROUND INTRODUCTIONSTEP 7 B O FIRST DRAFT LIST OF REFERENCES O Outline Thesis Statement v2 O OWN or ORIGINAL IDEAS B BORROWED or SOURCED IDEAS NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE The next lessons will show examples of each step.
  • 20. PREPARATION IN THREE STEPS PLANNING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 21. Gather Ideas RESEARCH NOTES Outline IdeasB O STEP 2 STEP 1 B STEP 3 O Thesis Statement v1 Arrange Ideas O O Thesis Statement v1Rearrange IN-TEXT CITATIONS SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS O OWN IDEAS B BORROWED IDEAS NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE The next lessons will be about research notes & in-text citations.
  • 22. Outline Ideas STEP 1 B O SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS STEP 2 O B Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 3 O B SUMMARY STEP 4 O CONCLUSION STEP 5 O STEP 6 O BACKGROUND INTRODUCTIONSTEP 7 O O FIRST DRAFT LIST OF REFERENCES PREP 2 O Outline PREP 1 B PREP 3 O Thesis Statement v2 Thesis Statement v1 Arrange Ideas O O Thesis Statement v1Rearrange IN-TEXT CITATIONS SOURCED IDEAS - research notes and in-text citations are completed in the PREPARATION STAGE. OWN IDEAS - research notes and in-text citations are completed in the WRITING STAGE. NEXT SLIDE INNEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE Gather Ideas RESEARCH NOTES Add Support RESEARCH NOTES
  • 23. SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS TITLE PAGE FINISH 1 O TABLE OF CONTENTS FINISH 3 O ABOUT THE AUTHOR FINISH 2 O COVER LETTER FINISH 4 O LIST OF REFERENCESB FINISH 5 O OWN IDEAS B BORROWED IDEAS NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 24. SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS TITLE PAGE FINISH 1 O TABLE OF CONTENTS FINISH 3 O ABOUT THE AUTHOR FINISH 2 O COVER LETTER FINISH 4 O LIST OF REFERENCESB FINISH 5 Gather Ideas RESEARCH NOTES Outline IdeasB O PREP 2 PREP 1 B PREP 3 O Thesis Statement v1 Arrange Ideas O O Thesis Statement v1Rearrange IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 1 Add Support RESEARCH NOTES STEP 2 O B Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 3 O B SUMMARY STEP 4 O CONCLUSION STEP 5 O STEP 6 O BACKGROUND INTRODUCTIONSTEP 7 O O FIRST DRAFT LIST OF REFERENCES O Outline Thesis Statement v2 PREPWRITING&REWRITINGFINISHING A B C NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS REVIEW NOTES
  • 25. THE FOUR DEADLINES SUBMITTING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 26. Gather Ideas RESEARCH NOTES Outline Ideas STEP 1 B O SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS Add Support RESEARCH NOTES STEP 2 O B Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 3 O B SUMMARY STEP 4 O CONCLUSION STEP 5 O STEP 6 O BACKGROUND INTRODUCTIONSTEP 7 O O TITLE PAGE FINISH 1 O TABLE OF CONTENTS FINISH 3 O FIRST DRAFT LIST OF REFERENCES PREP 2 O Outline PREP 1 B ABOUT THE AUTHOR FINISH 2 O COVER LETTER FINISH 4 O LIST OF REFERENCESB FINISH 5 PREP 3 O Thesis Statement v2 WKS10-12WKS1-3WKS4-6WKS7-9 Thesis Statement v1 Arrange Ideas O O Thesis Statement v1Rearrange IN-TEXT CITATIONS DEADLINES     NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTES
  • 27. THE 15 ITEMS FOR GRADING GETTING THE GRADE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 28. Gather Ideas RESEARCH NOTES Outline Ideas1 1 SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS PREP 2 PREP 1 2 PREP 3 3 WKS1-3 Thesis Statement v1 Arrange Ideas 2 3 Thesis Statement v1Rearrange IN-TEXT CITATIONS WRITE, SUBMIT, REWRITE, & REWRITE FOR 3 WEEKS NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE FOR GRADING
  • 29. Your paper needs to be checked many times. There are 10 levels of checking. A tutor can only check the next level after you have revised the preceding level. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE WHY REWRITE MANY TIMES?
  • 30. Level 01: Grammar errors Level 02: Errors in spelling & punctuation Level 03: Vocabulary accuracy errors Level 04: Errors in brevity & conciseness Level 05: Errors in logical flow & development Level 06: Use of higher-level cognitive skills Level 07: Errors in content accuracy Level 08: Percentage of original content Level 09:Errors in source documentation Level 10: Errors in formatting NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE 10 Levels of Checking The next level can be checked only after the preceding-level errors are corrected
  • 31. A tutor checks only one or two types of errors in one level of checking. A tutor can only check the next level after you have revised the preceding level. If you do not wish to rewrite a document, email your tutor and ask for a final grade; attach the document in your email. Your work will be assessed and given a final grade. Warning: A final grade is final. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE Why Rewrite Many Times?
  • 32. • To give your tutor time to identify all your errors, submit everything on the first week. • Immediately resubmit each part until every error is identified. • This can help you get the highest possible grade. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 33. • To give your tutor time to identify all your errors, submit everything on the first week. • Immediately resubmit each part until every error is identified. • This can help you get the highest possible grade. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 34. STEP 1 SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS Add Support RESEARCH NOTES STEP 2 4 4 Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 3 5 5 6 Outline Thesis Statement v2 WKS4-6 WRITE, SUBMIT, REWRITE, & REWRITE FOR 3 WEEKS If you rewrite and resubmit each part until you have corrected every error that your tutor identifies, then you can get the highest possible grade. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE FOR GRADING
  • 35. SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS SUMMARY STEP 4 CONCLUSION STEP 5 8 STEP 6 9 BACKGROUNDSTEP 7 10 FIRST DRAFT LIST OF REFERENCES 7 WKS7-9 WRITE, SUBMIT, REWRITE, AND REWRITE FOR 3 WEEKS NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE FOR GRADING • If you submit everything at the last minute, then your tutor may have no time to identify your errors. • You may have no time to rewrite. • Thus, you may not be able to get the highest possible grade.
  • 36. SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS TITLE PAGE FINISH 1 12 TABLE OF CONTENTS FINISH 3 14 ABOUT THE AUTHOR FINISH 2 13 COVER LETTER FINISH 4 15 LIST OF REFERENCES11 FINISH 5 WKS10-12 WRITE, SUBMIT, REWRITE, AND REWRITE FOR 3 WEEKS To get the highest possible grade, try and draft all parts of the paper in the first three weeks even if the schedule for submission is later. The drafts need not be perfect; getting everything written is the most important thing. Write everything at the start; adding and revising is much easier than writing from zero. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE FOR GRADING
  • 37. ARRANGING THE NINE PARTS FINALIZING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 38. in order
  • 39. SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS Add Support RESEARCH NOTES Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS SUMMARY SUMMARY CONCLUSION CONCLUSION 06 07 04 BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION TITLE PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS 02 FIRST DRAFT Outline ABOUT THE AUTHOR 08 COVER LETTER 09 LIST OF REFERENCES 05 03 01 Thesis Statement v2 Thesis Statement v2 FIRST DRAFT          NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 40. AND ONE MORE TIME REVIEW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 41. Gather Ideas RESEARCH NOTES Outline Ideas STEP 1 B O SOURCED IDEAS OWN IDEAS Add Support RESEARCH NOTES STEP 2 O B Show Connections Add Details IN-TEXT CITATIONS STEP 3 O B SUMMARY SUMMARY STEP 4 O O CONCLUSION CONCLUSION STEP 5 O O 06 06 06 P4 STEP 6 O O 04 BACKGROUND INTRODUCTIONSTEP 7 O O 07 TITLE PAGE FINISH 1 O TABLE OF CONTENTS FINISH 3 O 02 FIRST DRAFT REFERENCES PREP 2 O P2 Outline / Contents PREP 1 B P1 ABOUT THE AUTHOR FINISH 2 O 08 COVER LETTER FINISH 4 O 09 LIST OF REFERENCESB 05 FINISH 5 PREP 3 O P3 03 01 Thesis Statement v2 Thesis Statement v2 WKS10-12WKS1-3WKS4-6WKS7-9 Thesis Statement v1 Arrange Ideas O O Thesis Statement v1Rearrange IN-TEXT CITATIONS FIRST DRAFT REFERENCES O NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS REVIEW NOTES
  • 42. 1. SOURCED IDEAS 2. OWN IDEAS Maybe you don’t have a topic. You have a topic. You may not know what to say. You know what you want to say. You may not be sure what to say. You are sure what you want to say. You use ideas from other sources. You use your own ideas. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS REVIEW NOTES You may not know how to say it. You know how you will say it. You arrange the ideas in your own way. You connect the ideas in your own way. You develop the ideas in your own way. You state the ideas in your own way. Sources add support to your ideas. Sources add details to your ideas. You question ideas in other sources. You disprove ideas in other sources.
  • 43. 1. SOURCED IDEAS 2. OWN IDEAS Use sources with author(s) names, publication year, city, and publisher. Documentation** is not necessary for original ideas. BE SURE: CHECK SOURCES Document*** all sources of all sourced ideas, texts, or images. Document** all ideas that are not original, even if these are your own. At least 50% of your paper must be in your own words: paraphrase.** Use sourced ideas to support your ideas. Document* all sources. *** Documentation = citation and list of references ** Paraphrase = change all words and all arrangements of words The arrangement of borrowed ideas must be original,* not copied. Your ideas are original if these can’t be found in any other source. * Original = cannot be found in any other source NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 44. Level 01: Grammar errors Level 02: Errors in spelling & punctuation Level 03: Vocabulary accuracy errors Level 04: Errors in brevity & conciseness Level 05: Errors in logical flow & development Level 06: Use of higher-level cognitive skills Level 07: Errors in content accuracy Level 08: Percentage of original content Level 09:Errors in source documentation Level 10: Errors in formatting NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE 10 Levels of Checking The next level can be checked only after the preceding-level errors are corrected
  • 45. TIP: If you use perfect grammar, punctuation, spelling, & vocabulary and then you Explain, define, or rephrase ideas in your own words Show causes and/or effects Show how parts work together Use ideas other situations Repeat or quote ideas Choose ideas based on standards Judge ideas based on evidence NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE
  • 46. A tutor checks only one or two types of errors in one level of checking. A tutor can only check the next level after you have revised the preceding level. If you do not wish to rewrite a document, email your tutor and ask for a final grade; attach the document in your email. Your work will be assessed and given a final grade. Warning: A final grade is final. NEXT SLIDE IN 0001020304050607080910 SECONDS TAKE NOTE Why Rewrite Many Times?
  • 47. REMEMBER: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 48. DON’T MISS Next: APA Documentation • Step by Step • With Examples • Common Errors to Avoid END SHOW Next: How to Write Each Part • Step by Step • With Examples • Common Errors to Avoid
  • 49. To request for the animated slideshow, email mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com