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Research Paper Writing - Citation  & Referencing Quicktips
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Research Paper Writing - Citation & Referencing Quicktips

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research paper, writing, plagiarism, strategies, higher-order thinking, synthesis, utilization, cognitive skills, analysis, application, APA, citation, referencing, quick tips, tips, strategies, …

research paper, writing, plagiarism, strategies, higher-order thinking, synthesis, utilization, cognitive skills, analysis, application, APA, citation, referencing, quick tips, tips, strategies, attribution, in-text citation, reference, APA style

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  • 1. CITATION & REFERENCING v3 What they don’t teach you about APA citations and references By Jaime Alfredo Cabrera 29 March 2013
  • 2. Pre-requisites • This is lesson requires that you first: – Complete your outline of original ideas – Complete your first draft of original ideas – Type (*) after any non-original idea in your draft – An APA Style Guide like those found here.
  • 3. Goal of this Lesson • This lesson will show you how to replace the asterisk in the (*) with an APA-style citation.
  • 4. NEXT HOW DOES A CITATION LOOK LIKE?
  • 5. NEXT USE DIFFERENT PATTERNS
  • 6. Patterns of In-text Citations 1. Blah blah blah (Sherap, 2011) blah blah blah. – Use the surname only, not the first name, and not the surname plus the first name initial 2. According to Sherap (2011) blah blah blah …. – If there is no date, google how to do it or check your APA style guide. Get the one from Ugyen here. 3. Blah blah Sherap (2011) says that blah blah … • If there is no writer’s name, google how to do it or check your APA style guide. 4. Blah blah blah “quote” (Sherap, 2011). – Note: The citation is inside, not after the sentence.
  • 7. Do not use the same pattern • Show your reader that you can use different patterns. (It’s less boring.) • Alternate the four patterns in your paper: – According to Sherap (2011)…. – Sherap (2011) says that… – “quote” (Sherap, 2011). (the in-text citation is inside the sentence.
  • 8. NEXT REPEATING THE SAME CITATIONS
  • 9. Citing the Same Source Again • It’s a bit boring to repeat the same citation when you refer to one source many times in your paper. • You can use two strategies to solve this problem: – ibid – loc. cit. • First, google “difference ibid loc cit”
  • 10. For repeating citations: Ibid • Ibid. is used like this: (author, ibid.) • This is used when the same in-text citation appears in the paper repeatedly. • The first time: (Sherap, 2011, p.2) • The repeated citation: (Sherap, ibid). • Meaning: same author, same source, same page. • Next slide: what if other sources are between the first citation and the repeat of that citation?
  • 11. NEXT REPEATING THE SAME CITATIONS WITH OTHER SOURCES IN BETWEEN
  • 12. For repeating citations: loc cit • It looks like this: (Sherap, loc. cit.) • Use this when the citation is repeated, but other sources are between the repetition. • The first time: (Sherap, 2011) • The second time: (Tsehten, 1923) • The next time: (Sherap, loc. cit.). – Meaning: same source (Sherap, not Tsehten).
  • 13. NEXT SOURCES
  • 14. SOURCES • A source is anywhere you get an idea, except from yourself. • We call these ideas sourced ideas or borrowed ideas. 4 • If the idea is from yourself, we call this original ideas. • When the idea is not original, you must cite a source.
  • 15. Citations for original ideas • • • • To support To echo To add details To disagree
  • 16. To support (agrees) original ideas • ORIGINAL IDEA + CITATION: Buddhism did not originate in Thailand (Wangmo, 1954). • REFERENCE: Wangmo, P., (1954). History of Buddhism. Random House, USA.
  • 17. To echo (says the same) original ideas • Original idea + citation • CITATION: Buddhism did not originate in Thailand (Wangmo, 1954). • REFERENCE: Wangmo, P., (1954). History of Buddhism. Random House, USA.
  • 18. To add details to original ideas • Original idea + citation + details • IF YOUR OWN WORDS Buddhism did not originate in Thailand but in other countries such as India and Pakistan (Wangmo, 1954). • IF EXACT COPIED WORDS USE QUOTE MARKS: Buddhism did not originate in Thailand but in “other countries such as India and Pakistan” (Wangmo, 1954).
  • 19. To disagree with original ideas • Original idea + citation + details • IF YOUR OWN WORDS: Although Wangmo (1954) says that Buddhism came from India and Pakistan, I have proof that Buddhism originated in Mae Sot in Thailand. • IF EXACT COPIED WORDS USE QUOTE MARKS: Although Wangmo (1954) says that “Buddhism came from India and Pakistan”, I have proof that Buddhism originated in Mae Sot in Thailand.
  • 20. Please check your APA Style Guide • In-text Citation: APA citations are different, depending on the type of source. • Reference List: APA references are listed in different ways according to the type of source. • For example, books, interviews, lectures, phone calls, newpapers, magazines, dictionaries, and websites are listed in different ways.
  • 21. For Comments or Questions mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com