Elements of Professional Communication
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Elements of Professional Communication

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Elements of Professional Communication

Elements of Professional Communication

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Elements of Professional Communication Elements of Professional Communication Presentation Transcript

  • Professional Communication EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW (FOR NOW) SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Quote, Unquote You can’t give what you don’t have.” - Anonymous By anonymous SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • It’s Not What You Say  Why this course is important  What you may know: What you want to say.  What you may not know: How to say it in the most effective way  Effectiveness 1: The attention that you want  “Communication is about content and delivery, fifty-fifty. But when it comes to leadership, it's all about the delivery. Of course what you say matters, but how you say it, how you relate to folks, is what differentiates great leaders from the pack.” (Tobak, 2011)  Effectiveness 2: The results that you want  “That means you can have innovative ideas, indeed you must, but if you can't deliver them in a way that connects with people and relates to them in a meaningful way, you won't get results.” (Ibid.) Practical example and explanation are at www.cbsnews.com/8301-505125_162-28247949/its-not-what-you-say-but-how-you-say-it/ . This is related to writing effectiveness ("The entire point of communication Friday, October is toSLH1013 - Professional English communicate. This point seems frequently forgotten... Remember: Write for your audience.... the method that works is to be tactful about it, not blunt.) at www.critters.org/whathow.html . 05, 2012
  • THE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS 8 ELEMENTS 1 40 COMPONENTS 7 28 DETERMINERS 6 STEPS 4 QUESTIONS RESPOND SENDER or SOURCE • • • • • • • ACTIVE PURPOSE: MOTIVE, INTENTION PASSIVE CONTAINER: DATA, INFORMATION FEEDBACK NEED  IMPORTANCE  URGENCY TRANSLATE  CREATE MEANING  RELATE to NEEDS  TEXT  SUBTEX T CONTEXT 2 5 MINDSET  ABILITY  FORM  ACCESS LANGUAGE LETTERS VOCABULARY NUMBERS CHARACTERS SPELLING GRAMMAR GRAPHICS PUNCTUATION SPACES SYNTAX MEANING CONFIRM CONFIRMATION 4 PARTS STRUCTURES HIERARCHY MARGINS ALIGNMENT INDENTIONS CLARITY  ACCEPTABILITY  STANDARDIZATION RECEIVE INK, on PAPER RECEIVER MEDIUM 3  SPEED of TRANSFER  PRESERVATION of CONTENT  TIMELINESS or TIMING  CONFIRMATION of TRANSFER  CONFIDENTIALITY  SECURITY 2  SYMBOLS  CODES  FORMATS or MEANING 7 TO ENTERTAIN TO PERSUADE TO PRESERVE TO PUSH TO ACTION TO INFORM TO INFLUENCE TO EDUCATE ENCODE MESSAGE DECODE  NOISE  INTERVENING VARIABLE  INTERFERENCE  TARGET  NON-TARGET NUMBER: INTRAPERSONAL  INTER PERSONAL PUBLIC  MASS COMMUNICATION DESIRE SEND CHANNEL SOUND on TAPE MOTION on FILM UNI- or MULTIMEDIA on DATA STORAGE DEVICE  PRINT  AUDIO  ELECTRONIC  MULTICHANNEL  SPOKEN  PRINTED or DRAWN  PERFORMED or ENACTED  LIVE or RECORDED 3 4 ARE - Professional English SLH1013THE TARGET RECEIVER’S  NEEDS  POSITION or functions  and EXPECTATIONS determiners or not? Friday, October 05, 2012 1
  • ELEMENTS  The eight elements of professional communication are your guide to understanding the complete process.  Missing a required element can result in unprofessional communication, in miscommunication, or in partial or complete communication failure. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • COMPONENTS  The forty components of professional communication determine whether the receiver understands and believes your message.  Missing a required component can result in misunderstanding, in nonbelief, or in both, and therefore in communication failure. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • STEPS  The seven steps of professional communication determine the success of transferring your message to your target receiver.  Missing a step can result in nondelivery, and therefore result in communication failure. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • DETERMINERS  Determiners are elements that affect the elements, the components, and the steps of communication.  Determiners determine whether your communication is of an professional or unprofessional quality.  Failure to consider a determiner can affect the receiver’s decoding, thus resulting in miscommunication. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • QUESTIONS  The four questions can help you save time and effort.  These questions help you decide where to focus on your target audience.  Creating a message that focuses on a target receiver’s needs is not required in all of the seven steps. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step One: DESIRE 1. ORIGIN: SENDERS AND SOURCES 2. ACTIVE PURPOSE: MOTIVE, AND INTENTION 3. PASSIVE CONTAINER: DATA, AND INFORMATION 4. DETERMINERS: THE SEVEN PURPOSES OF COMMUNICATION SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Origin of the Message SENDER SOURCE  Active  Passive  With intention  Repository only  Sender sends  Receiver seeks  Sender makes  Receiver finds meaning for receiver SLH1013 - Professional English meaning for self Friday, October 05, 2012
  • A Sender’s Active Purpose MOTIVE INTENTION  Hidden or implied  Clearly stated purpose or reason  May be different from intention  Receiver may guess the hidden motive purpose or reason  May be different from motive  Receiver can understand the stated intention SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Types of Messages DATA INFORMATION  Not structured  Code is structured  Needs to be  No need for translated  Not understood by receiver  Meaning created by receiver translation  Understood by receiver  Meaning created by sender SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • THE SEVEN FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
  • 7 Reasons for Communicating 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Entertaining To elicit a receiver’s willing suspension of disbelief; to help the receiver forget reality for a while Persuasive - To convince a receiver to change a belief or mind-set Preservative - To record an event, information, or data for posterity Quantifying - To elicit and measure a receiver's reaction or output Informative - To effectively transfer information to a receiver Affective - To modify or change a receiver’s attitude, tendency, or feeling about something Educative - To transfer information and skills, at the same time creating positive affect SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 1. TO ENTERTAIN To elicit a receiver’s willing suspension of disbelief; to forget reality for a while Entertaining Not Entertaining  A dramatic movie  A documentary film  A soap opera on  A weather report on radio  A romantic novel  A joke about life on campus radio  A math textbook  A speech about campus safety SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 2. TO PERSUADE To convince a receiver to change a belief or mind-set Persuasive Not Persuasive  Advertisement  Advertisement showing white teeth  Receiver’s mindset is different  Receiver’s belief is modified or changed SLH1013 - Professional English showing toothpaste  Receiver’s mindset is the same  Receiver’s belief is the same Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 3. TO PRESERVE To record an event, information, or data for posterity Preservative Not Preservative  Taking a picture of  Giving a lecture native costumes  The data is preserved for others to access in the future SLH1013 - Professional English about native dress  The data is presented for access at present Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 4. TO MEASURE REACTION To elicit and measure a receiver's reaction or output Quantifying Non-quantifying  Asking a patient to  Telling a patient to open his mouth for a thermometer  The receiver must react  The output can be measured SLH1013 - Professional English go to stop worrying  The receiver may or may not react  The output cannot be measured Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 5. TO INFORM To effectively transfer information to a receiver Informative function Non-informative  Telephone directory  Fiction novel  News broadcast  Joke book  Menu  An abstract  Recipe painting  A speech in an unknown language  Road signs  Free samples SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 6. TO MODIFY AFFECT To modify or change a receiver’s attitude, tendency, or feeling about something Affective Non-affective  A low grade for a  Making a funny low quiz score  Improving the taste of food  Endlessly repeating an advertisement  Punishing a crime joke  Recording an event on camera  A series of tests with the same level of difficulty SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • 7. TO EDUCATE To transfer information and skills, at the same time creating positive affect. Educative Non-educative  Teaching essay  Memorizing past writing and praising a well-written final essay  Increasing the difficulty of succeeding lessons historical events for a quiz  A series of tests with the same level of difficulty SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • FINAL NOTE A message that entertains while, at the same time, delivering information is more effective than a message that delivers only information. SLH1013 - Professional English Communication is more professional when a message can effectively deliver more functions. Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step Two: ENCODE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ENCODING, DECODING, AND SYMBOLS SYMBOLS: LETTERS, NUMBERS, CHARACTERS, AND SPACES CODES: LANGUAGE, VOCABULARY, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION, AND SYNTAX FORMATS: PARTS, STRUCTURES, HIERARCHY, MARGINS, ALIGNMENT, AND INDENTIONS MEDIA: PAPER, TAPE, FILM, DATA STORAGE DEVICE DETERMINERS: CLARITY, ACCEPTABILITY, STANDARDIZATION DETERMINERS: SPOKEN, PERFORMED OR ENACTED, LIVE OR RECORDED SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Encoding, Decoding, and Symbols  To encode is to translate an idea into a physical form while to decode is to translate symbols into meaningful ideas.  Symbols are characters that are used to record meaning; codes refer to the arrangement of symbols in order to create meaning SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • ENCODING The use of symbols to translate an idea or concept into physical form Symbols  Characters  Letters (a, Z, y)  Numbers (3, 1, 0)  Signs ($, {}, =, !)  Spaces Codes  Spelling  Grammar  Syntax  Punctuation  Spacing  Indention SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • CODES  Language – Formal, informal  Vocabulary - Academic, technical, business  Spelling – The arrangement of letters to form words that have meaning.  Grammar - The arrangement of words to form sentences that have meaning.  Syntax - The correct arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences.  Punctuation – Signs and conventions to start, end, pause, join, separate, or identify ideas. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • FORMATS  To format is to arrange symbols in codes in order to clarify or emphasize meaning.  Formats are conventions that guide the arrangement of the parts of a message; the purpose is to clarify the meaning of the message.  The use of professional formats indicate the sender’s level of education. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Definitions: FORMATS  Alignment – Arranging the first letters of each line of text to form a straight line  Left-align – The first letter of each line are all in a straight line on the left side of the paper.  Justified – The first and last letters of each line are all in a straight line on both sides of the paper.  Indention – The number of spaces between the margin and the first line of the paragraph SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • BLOCK FORMAT All lines are begin on the left side All paragraphs are aligned on the left and right sides SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • MODIFIED BLOCK FORMAT All lines are begin on the left side, except for date and signature. All paragraphs are aligned on the left and right sides SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • INDENTED FORMAT All lines are begin on the left side, except for date and signature, and the first line of each paragraph. All paragraphs are aligned on the left and right sides SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • MEDIA & TECHNOLOGY  Media are materials on which symbols can be recorded (medium is singular while media is plural).  Another meaning of media: a technology that is used for transmitting messages.  Paper, for instance, is a medium that can be used for recording as well as a technology for transmitting messages.  Technology refers to any human invention that can be used for any practical purpose. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • TYPES OF MEDIA 1. Paper medium – uses ink on paper to record ideas 2. Tape medium – records sound on sound tapes 3. Film medium - records motion, lights, shadows, and sound on video tape or movie film 4. Data storage device – records data, information, or multimedia in digital format on flash drives (USBs) or disk drives. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • DETERMINERS  Determiners are elements that affect the elements of communication.  For instance, your choice of a medium depends if the message is live or recorded; spoken, performed or enacted.  Professionalism depends on how these determiners affect the effectiveness of a message.  For instance, the clarity, acceptability, and use of standard codes and formats in a letter make the message more effective. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Determiners of Media and Channel  Live presentation – electronic media, projector; speech on amplifier  Recorded presentation – voice or action on tape  Spoken message – voice on amplifier  Written message – ink on paper  Enacted or performed message – same as live presentation SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Determiners of Professionalism  Clarity – simplicity, zero ambiguity, clear and understandable to the target receiver  Acceptability – codes and formats are acceptable according to the target reader’s culture, position or function  Standard codes and formats – codes and formats are standard in the profession, among people with formal education SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step Three: SEND CONFUSING: SEND, RECEIVE, TRANSFER 2. CONFUSING: CHANNEL, MEDIUM, AND MEDIA 3. MEDIA: PRINT MEDIA, AUDIO MEDIA, ELECTRONIC MEDIA 4. DETERMINERS: SPEED, CONTENT FIDELITY, TIMELINESS, CONFIRMATION OF DELIVERY, CONFIDENTIALITY, SECURITY 1. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • SEND, TRANSMIT, and TRANSFER  To send is to move a message in physical format (letter, roll of film, or photos) from Point A to Point B.  To transmit is to move a message in electronic (email, SMS) or sound (voice tape, voice mail) format from Point A to Point B.  To transfer is to move meaning or skill from sender to receiver. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • RECEIVE and DECODE  To receive is to take, accept, experience (read, hear, see) or welcome something.  To decode is to create meaning by translating a set of symbols in codes.  In formal communication, the next step is to find relevance by relating to personal needs or context. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • CHANNEL, MEDIUM, and MEDIA  Media are materials that can be use to record symbols or technology that can be used to transmit messages. The word medium is singular; media is plural  A channel is a person, procedure, or technology that can be used to move a message from Point A to Point B.  Person: secretary, messenger, assistant  Procedure: application procedure  Technology: email, telephone, electronic SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Print, Audio, & Electronic media  Media can refer to technology for recording and/or for transmitting messages.  Print media refers to books, magazines, and newspapers.  Audio or sound media refers to radio stations, telephones, sound recorders and players  Electronic media refers to electronic mail, SMS (short message service), and phone calls via computer (i.e., Skype) SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Determiners of Professionalism: DELIVERY 1. SPEED, TIMELINESS, & CONFIRMATION 2. CONTENT FIDELITY AND SECURITY 3. CONFIDENTIALITY SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Speed and Timeliness  Speed of Delivery – When a message is time-sensitive, delayed delivery can result in communication failure.  Timeliness or timing – When a message arrives at a time when it brings the answer to a receiver’s need, then it is timely. When a message comes at a time when it is not needed, that is bad timing. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Confirmation and Content Fidelity  Confirmation of Delivery – When delivery is confirmed by the receiver or a representative, it serves as proof of delivery, although not of decoding by the target receiver.  Fidelity of Content – When the delivery process does not affect the message, then content fidelity is preserved. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Security and Confidentiality  Security of Content – When the message is delivered to the target receiver without being seen by non-target receivers, then the delivery is secure.  Confidentiality – When unwelcome effects can result from non-target receivers who see the message content, then the message should be kept confidential. (See security.) SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step Four: RECEIVE CONFUSING: RECEIVE, UNDERSTAND 2. RECEIVER: TARGET OR NON-TARGET 3. NUMBER = TYPE: INTRAPERSONAL, INTERPERSONAL, PUBLIC, OR MASS COMMUNICATION 4. DETERMINERS OF DELIVERY –PHYSICAL OR ELECTRONIC FORM 5. DETERMINERS OF ACCESS – AVAILABILITY OR CONNECTIVITY OF RECEIVER 1. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • RECEIVE and DECODE  To receive is to take, accept, experience (read, hear, see) or welcome something.  To decode is to create meaning by translating a set of symbols in codes.  In formal communication, the next step is to find relevance by relating to personal needs or context. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Target and Non-target Receivers  A target receiver is the person or group that the sender expects to see the message.  A non-target receiver is any person or group that the sender does not expect to see the message. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Types of Communication by Number  Intrapersonal Communication– when a person communicates with the self.  Interpersonal Communication– when a person communicates with a very small group.  Public Communication - when a person communicates with a larger group.  Mass Communication - when a person communicates with an extremely large group whose members are located in various places. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Determiners of Delivery  Physical Form  Printed messages may be more secure than electronic or voice messages.  However, electronic messages can be transmitted faster and cheaper than print messages.  Electronic Form  Electronic and voice messages can be transmitted faster printed messages.  However, anyone with the appropriate skills can access any electronic message. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Determiners of Receiver Access  Availability  A receiver may be present but too busy to receive a printed message, or to answer a phone or an email.  A receiver’s phone or computer may be connected, but the receiver is not available for communication.  Connectivity A receiver’s phone may be unreachable or the receiver’s computer may not be connected. • A professional communicator anticipates such problems to ensure successful message transfer. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step Five: DECODE MESSAGE VS MEANING 2. NEED, IMPORTANCE AND URGENCY 3. TRANSLATE, CREATE MEANING, RELATE TO NEEDS 4. NOISE, INTERVENING VARIABLE, & INTERFERENCE 5. TEXT, SUBTEXT, AND CONTEXT 1. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Message VS Meaning  Message – A message is a set symbols that is arranged into a code to record meaning on a medium.  Medium – A medium is used to carry meaning from sender to receiver  Meaning – The sense (ideas that are revealed) when the code is decoded (understood) by the receiver SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Text, Subtext, and Context  Text – are the words that are used to create meaning.  Subtext – are meanings that are not stated but are implied enough to be understood by the reader.  Context – are elements around that affect any element of communication. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Noise  Noise – in communication, noise is anything that interferes with the transfer of information.  Intervening variable –any noise that is not deliberate. It can be distracting element in a context. Example: the speaker’s nationality prevents listeners from believing his speech.  Interference – any noise that is deliberately created to stop the transfer of information. Example: A boy sings loudly so that his sister cannot hear the radio. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • The Decoding Process  Encode – to use symbols to record meaning  Decode – to translate symbols in order to create meaning  Translate – to change from one code (language) to another  Create meaning – to understand  Find relevance – to relate the meaning of a message to the needs of the receiver SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Decoding Speed  Decoding – means understanding or making sense of a code  Perceived need – Decoding a message is faster when the decoder sees a strong need to do so  Perceived importance – Decoding a message is faster when the decoder sees the message as of high importance  Perceived urgency – Decoding a message is faster when the decoder sees the message as of high urgency SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step Six: RESPOND RESPONSE AND FEEDBACK SPEED OF RESPONSE SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Response and Feedback Response Feedback  A response is any  A feedback is a reaction to a message  This may be verbal or nonverbal  This may or may not be expressed verbal response to the sender, related to specific elements in the message  This may be spoken or written SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Response Speed  The speed of a response depends on  The time required to decode the message  The receiver’s perception of urgency or nonurgency of the message  The receiver’s perception of importance or non-importance of the message  The receiver’s perception of need or non-need to respond to the message  The receiver’s ability to quickly respond to the message SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • Step Seven: CONFIRM AGREEMENT REPETITION CORRECTION ANSWERING A QUERY PROVIDING DETAILS SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • How to Confirm  Answer a query – That will be tonight at eleven p.m.  Repeat the information – Yes, the shoes are red, size 34.  Agree to a response – Yes, you are right; the president will attend.  Correct a response – The dress code is casual, not formal.  Provide details – Aside from that, all guests are free to use the mall facilities. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • STRUCTURE & HIERARCHY WHAT IS STRUCTURE? 2. WHAT IS HIERARCHY? 3. HOW IS THIS RELATED TO COMMUNICATION? 1. SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • What is structure?  Structure is the way parts are arranged in order to function as a whole.  Hierarchy is the arrangement of parts according to importance.  Companies and organizations have structure and hierarchy.  Communication within a company is affected by structure, and by hierarchy SLH1013 - Professional English Friday, October 05, 2012
  • List of Resources You don’t miss the water till the well runs dry. SLH1013 - Professional English Types of business letters from  www.ehow.com/info_8252910_four-types-business-letters.html  http://www.ehow.com/list_6762210_different-types-business-letters_.html  http://www.ehow.com/info_8252910_four-types-business-letters.html  http://www.ehow.com/list_7438829_common-types-business-letters.html  http://www.ehow.com/info_7883179_various-types-business-letters.html  http://www.ehow.com/info_7883179_various-types-business-letters.html  http://www.ehow.com/list_6862771_types-business-letters-technicalwriting.html  http://www.ehow.com/about_5417482_types-letters.html  Parts of a letter from www.ehow.com/list_6758940_different-letters_amp_amp_-skeleton-parts.html  Letter layouts from http://bizcovering.com/employment/cover-letter-layoutsamp-samples-for-reference/  http://bpc.digitalbrain.com/bpc/web/mock%20courses/L2%20COM%20RP/pag e_07.htm  How to write letters for international purposes: http://ecpmlangues.ustrasbg.fr/cover-letters-layout.html Friday, October 05, 2012