3 Rules for Using THAT or WHICH v2

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3 Rules & 3 Tips When Using THAT or WHICH v2

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3 Rules for Using THAT or WHICH v2

  1. 1. Using that or which 3 QUICK RULES 3 QUICK TIPS Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  2. 2. Contents TEST YOURSELF REVIEW THE BASICS • Question 1 • Question 2 • • • • BEFORE YOU BEGIN • Clause VS Phrase • Two Types of Clauses What is a Phrase? What is a Clause? What is a Restrictive Clause? What is a Non-restrictive Clause? THAT VS WHICH • • • • Three Quick Rules Three Quick Tips When to use THAT When to use WHICH FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  3. 3. Self Test ARE YOU SURE? Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  4. 4. Which sentence is correct? 1. The cat that I saved from drowning is now a TV star. 2. The cat, which I saved from drowning, is now a TV star. 3. The cat, that I saved from drowning, is now a TV star. 4. The cat which I saved from drowning is now a TV star. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  5. 5. Answer The cat that I saved from drowning is now a TV star. When a clause is restrictive: (1) use THAT and (2) do not place the clause between commas The cat is now a TV star. The clause is restrictive because (1) the meaning is different when the clause is removed, (2) the clause describes a unique subject, and (3) the clause and the predicate refer to the same thing: the cat’s life. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  6. 6. Which sentence is correct? 1. Owls that feed on mice have night vision. 2. Owls which feed on mice have night vision. 3. Owls, that feed on mice, have night vision. 4. Owls, which feed on mice, have night vision. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  7. 7. Answer Owls, which feed on mice, have night vision. When a clause is non-restrictive: (1) use WHICH and (2) offset the clause between commas Owls have night vision. The clause is non-restrictive because (1) the meaning is unchanged when the clause is removed, (2) the clause is unrelated to the verb/adjective in the predicate, and (3) the clause gives general, not unique, information. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  8. 8. Before you Begin Clauses VS Phrases 2 Types of Clauses Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  9. 9. BEFORE YOU BEGIN... Clause VS Phrase A clause is complete with a subject and a predicate. On the other hand, a phrase lacks a subject or a predicate. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  10. 10. BEFORE YOU BEGIN... Two Types of Clauses A non-restrictive clause adds extra details that can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. On the other hand, a restrictive clause adds important details that, if removed, changes the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  11. 11. 3 QUICK RULES Use THAT RULE Use WHICH 1 To start a clause To start a clause 2 Without commas before or after the clause With commas before and after the clause 3 When the clause is restrictive When the clause is non-restrictive FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  12. 12. 3 QUICK TIPS RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE 1 The clause describes a unique subject of the sentence. The clause uses general terms to describe the subject of the sentence. 2 The clause gives details that are related to the predicate. 3 Removing the clause changes the meaning of the sentence. The clause gives details that are unrelated to the predicate. Removing the clause does not change the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  13. 13. When to UseNOTES THAT 3 QUICK Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  14. 14. Use THAT 1. To begin a clause 2. When the clause is restrictive 3. Without commas before or after the clause FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  15. 15. When to Use WHICH 3 QUICK NOTES Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  16. 16. Use WHICH 1. To begin a clause 2. With commas before and after the clause 3. When the clause can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  17. 17. 3 QUICK RULES Use THAT RULE Use WHICH 1 To start a clause To start a clause 2 Without commas before or after the clause With commas before and after the clause 3 When the clause is restrictive When the clause is non-restrictive FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  18. 18. Review the Basics 2 QUICK NOTES Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  19. 19. Note Phrase VS Clause 1 A phrase is a group of words with no subject or no predicate. On the other hand, a clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  20. 20. 1a Phrase A group of words with no predicate is a phrase. some men cats the story a rabbit FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  21. 21. 1b Phrase A group of words with no subject is a phrase. survived the typhoon is raining will eat the fish was exciting FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  22. 22. 1c Clause A clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate. The cows survived the typhoon. In other words, a clause is a complete sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  23. 23. 1d Clause A group of words with a subject and a predicate is a clause. SUBJECT PREDICATE Some men survived the typhoon. It is raining. The story will eat the fish. A rabbit was excited / exciting. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  24. 24. Note One More Time... 1 • A clause is complete with a subject and a predicate. • However, a phrase lacks a subject or a predicate. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  25. 25. Note 2 Restrictive VS Non-restrictive A restrictive clause adds details that cannot be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. On the other hand, a nonrestrictive clause adds details that can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  26. 26. 2a Restrictive Clause A restrictive clause adds details to indicate a unique subject. A rabbit that now lives in my cupboard will eat the fish. The which-clause is specific information. Your story that I almost burned last July turned out to be exciting. The which-clause is specific information. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  27. 27. 2b Restrictive Clause A restrictive clause adds information of uniqueness or specificity regarding the subject of the sentence. Some men that ate my leaves survived the flu. The water that is in her kettle is boiling. A rabbit that was caught Your story that we heard FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE will eat the fish. was exciting. LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  28. 28. 2c Restrictive Clause A restrictive clause adds necessary details that cannot be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. Some men that ate my leaves survived the flu. The water that is in her kettle is boiling. A rabbit that was caught Your story that we heard FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE will eat the fish. was exciting. LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  29. 29. 2d Restrictive Clause When a restrictive clause is removed, the meaning is different. Some men That ate my leaves survived the flu. The water that is in her kettle is boiling. A rabbit that was caught Your story that we heard FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW will eat the fish. was exciting. PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  30. 30. Note One More Time... 2 A restrictive clause adds necessary details that cannot be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  31. 31. 2e Non-restrictive Clause A non-restrictive clause adds details that do not describe a unique subject. A non-restrictive clause adds details that are unique or specific but unrelated to the predicate. The non-restrictive clause can be removed without affecting the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  32. 32. 2f Non-restrictive Clause A clause that adds details that are unique or specific but unrelated to the predicate can be considered non-restrictive. Some men , who I happen to know personally, , survived the flu. The who-clause is unique but unrelated to the verb in the predicate. The wine , which I bought in Italy last month, is boiling. The which-clause is unique but unrelated to the adjective in the predicate. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  33. 33. 2g Non-restrictive Clause A non-restrictive clause adds only additional details. A rabbit , which is cute but nervous, will eat the fish. The which-clause is general information. Your story , which is short and fast-paced, was exciting. The which-clause is general information. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  34. 34. 2h Non-restrictive Clause When a non-restrictive clause is removed, the meaning is the same. Some men survived the flu. The water is boiling. A rabbit will eat the fish. Your story was exciting. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  35. 35. Note One More Time... 2 A non-restrictive clause adds details that do not describe a unique subject. A non-restrictive clause adds details that are unique or specific but unrelated to the predicate. The non-restrictive clause can be removed without affecting the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  36. 36. SUMMARY RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE 1 The clause describes a unique subject of the sentence. The clause describes a general subject of the sentence. 2 The clause gives specifics that are related to the verb in the predicate. The clause gives specifics that are not related to verb in the the predicate. 3 Removing the clause can change the meaning of the sentence. Removing the clause does not change the meaning of the sentence. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  37. 37. Related Online Resources • Short Explanation About That and Which http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/notorious/that.htm • Quiz with explanations on Which, That, and Who http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/which_quiz.htm • Three Rules about That and Which http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/whovwhvt.asp • A 15-item quiz about That and Which http://www.softschools.com/quizzes/grammar/which_that/quiz3333.html • Explanation about restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/clauses-5.html FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  38. 38. Using that or which 3 QUICK RULES 3 QUICK TIPS FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE Image courtesy of lovely-pics.com) LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  39. 39. END OF PRESENTATION Send comments or suggestions to mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com THANK YOU FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE

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