BACKGROUND Cadmium (Latin cadmia meaning calamine) a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. Cadmium is a soft, malleable, ductile, bluish-white divalent metal It is a by product of zinc Is similar to zinc and mercury
BACKGROUND found in some paints, batteries and at other industrial workplaces. Cadmium is absorbed through inhalation of the larger particles of ore or the smaller particles of dust. 25%of ingested cadmium is absorbed and transported by the blood into the liver and kidneys. Cadmium can stay in the blood for up to two years.
DENTAL CORRELATIONPERIODONTITIS Cadmium is released from intra-oral alloys in dental patients and is accumulated in both teeth and oral tissues the intermetallic compound of dental amalgam contains approximately 4.5 μg/g Cd in the metal–matrix alloy. levels of Cd in tooth specimens were significantly higher in samples with dental amalgam fillings. Cd released from dental alloy restorations may influence many aspects of mineralized hard tissue of teeth and their immediate surrounding periodontal tissues.YELLOWING of TEETH Caused by chronic exposure to Cadmium(Cd)
Itai Itai Disease Itai-itaidisease: a form ofcadmiumpoisoning. Female workersfrom Japan whoworked in BatteryFactories sufferedfrom Cadmiumpoisoning, theydeveloped kidneyrelated diseases andosteomalacia.
Cadmium poisoning 3 STAGES1. Mild stage - with the renal tubular dysfunction and decreased bone mass.2. Typical stage - with the severe renal tubular dysfunction and pseudofracture detectable by X-ray examination3. Serious stage -with severe renal dysfunction and pseudofracture or fracture.
PREVENTION Do not live near hazardous waste sites or industrial factories that emit cadmium into the air Do not work in a metal smelting and/or refining plant Do not work in a plant that produces cadmium products (batteries, coatings, plastics, pigments)
TREATMENTMild Treated as outpatients. They were provided with increased dairy products and given vitamin D tablets. With this treatment, their pain decreased within two months and after four months they were able to return to work.Moderate to severe Kept in the hospital and given shots of vitamin D and taken into the sun as much as possible. After they were discharged, they had to receive vitamin D shots for one to two years. In most cases, patients’ pain subsided after two months and by eight months their bone structure had recovered enough for them to walk again.
TREATMENT To aid in the removal of cadmium a chelating agent can be used. The agent will help bond the excess metals in the bloodstream which will speed up the removal of the excess cadmium. Hemodialysis can also be used to remove the toxins from the bloodstream.