and the Computer
Onda, Jessica Nadine S.
A computer generally means a programmable
The computer help transform the nursing
profession prior to the new century. It
includes the transformation of paper-based
records to computer-based records. It is
use to manage information in patient’s
care, monitor the quality of care and
evaluate the outcomes of care. It can be
used for communication and enhancing the
nursing education and support nursing
Prior to 1960’s
Computer industry grew- nursing also made
Computers are used by health care
facilities for basic business functions:
Sort and prepare data for processing
Use of computers is being QUESTIONED.
Nurses station is viewed as the “hub”
of information exchange
Introduction of Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)and
online data communication and real time
Hospital information systems were developed
primarily for BILLING and ACCOUNTING systems.
VENDORS of computer systems and applications
in hospitals started
Nurses began to see the value of computers in the profession
DOCUMENTATION of nursing practice
QUALITY of patient care,
REPETITIVE aspects of managing patient care.
Computers are perceived as cost-saving technologies
(Hospital Information System) HIS’s further advanced
Computer-based MIS in public health developed
NURSING INFORMATICS emerged
Need of DATA
STANDARDS,VOCABULARIES and CLASSIFICATION schemes
for computer based patient record systems (CPRS)
HIS emerged with nursing subsystems
Order entry (like KARDEX)
Narrative nursing notes
Discharge planning systems
Microcomputer / Personal Computer emerged
Has brought computing power to
workplace, especially the POINT-of-CARE.
Served as stand-alone
User-friendly and allowed nurses to
create their own applications
Computer technology became an integral
part of health care settings, nursing
practice, and the profession.
Nursing Informatics was approved in1992
by ANA as a new nursing specialty
Demand for NI expertise increased greatly
Use of innovative technologies for all
levels and types of nursing and patient
Laptops and Notebooks were utilized at bedside and
all point-of-care settings.
Local area networks (LANs) were developed in
Wide area networks (WANs) were developed for
linking care across healthcare facilities
INTERNET is widely used and helped information and
knowledge databases to be integrated into bedside
1995 – internet was brought to the
www protocols (The Web)
The internet was used to exchange data
between CPRS, while the Web became the
means to communicating online services
(browsing the internet)and resources to
the nursing community.
Development of wireless Point-of-care systems
with focus on OPEN SOURCE solutions
Clinical information systems (CIS)became
individualized in the Electronic Patient
Record (EPR) and patient specific systems
considered for the lifelong longitudinal
record or the Electronic Health Record (EHR)
Mobile Technology Advances
Wireless tablet computers
Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
Smart cellular telephones (Smartphones)
Voice over internet protocol (VOIP)
TELENURSING became popular
Remote monitoring of ICU patient, community patients
made an impact on the practice - The Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
– 1. enacted to streamline health care transactions
– 2. reduce cost
– 3. reimbursements
– 4. security, privacy, and confidentiality
FOUR MAJOR NURSING AREAS
Has evolved and changed radically.
It has become an integral part of the
Computer system with nursing and patient
care data, nursing care plans are no
longer separate subsystems of the
computerized HISs, but rather integrated
into one interdisciplinary patient health
record in the EHR.
Emerged with the introduction of several
nursing terminologies that were
recognized by the ANA.
Most policy and procedure manuals are
accessed and retrieve by computer.
Has also changed with the introduction of
the computers that links nursing
Internet is being used by nurses to access
digital libraries, online resources, and
research protocols at the bedside.
Most universities and schools of nursing
offer computer in enhancing courses,
online courses and or distance education.
Live classroom lectures via digital
telephone lines arise.
Campus-wide computer systems are
Web and E-mail are used to enhance
Provides the impetus to used the computer for
analyzing nursing data.
Computer technology data bases supporting nursing
Software programs are made available for processing
both quantitative and qualitative research data.
Databases support nursing research for online
searching and retrieving information.
Nursing practice standards
Nursing data standards
Health care data standards
Developed and recommended by the ANA.
They recommended that nursing process
serve as a conceptual framework for the
documentation of nursing practice.
Joint commission on accreditation of
hospital organizations which stressed the
need for adequate records on patients in
hospitals practice standards for the
documentation of care.
Focused on both organizing principles of
clinical nursing practice and standards
of professional performance.
Nursing Data Standards
Emerged a 13 nursing terminologies
that have been recognized by the
Critical care classification system.
Nursing information classifications
a new requirement for the EHR.
Health Care Data
It is a critical review the standards
organizations that have emerged to either
develop or recommend health care data
standards that should be recommended to the
federal government as required health care
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
American Society for Testing and Materials
National Committee on Vital and Health
Early Computer –Based
Developed before the mid-1970’s as a part
Different nursing applications focused on
documentation of nursing practice and
management of patient care.
Designs for hospitals, ambulatory care
settings, and community health agencies.
Landmark Events in
Nursing and Computers
Computers were introduced into the
nursing profession over 35 years
Major milestones of nursing are
interwoven with the advancement of
computer and information
technologies, the increase need
for nursing data, development of
nursing applications, and changes
making the nursing profession an
Landmark Events in Nursing
The landmark events were described by the
(a)early conferences, meetings
(b)early academic initiatives
(c)initial ANA initiatives
(d)Initial National League for
(e)early international initiatives
(f)initial educational resources
(g)significant collaborative events