South Florida Regional Planning Council   Demographic and EconomicCharacteristics of Southeast Florida  1                 ...
Overview• Population dynamics in all of Southeast Florida (the seven counties  from Monroe in the south to Indian River in...
Personal Income• Per capita personal income in Southeast Florida in 2009 was  $43,057, which was higher than the State of ...
Southeast Florida              Real Per Capita Income 1990-2009 ($2009)$65,000                 Monroe     M-Dade      Brow...
Southeast Florida                    Per Capita Income by Source 2009 100%  90%              6,934                        ...
Southeast Florida                Per Capita Transfer Receipts by Type 2009 100%                414                        ...
Southeast Florida        % of Population Below Poverty Level, 1999 & 201025%                                              ...
Southeast Florida              % of Elderly Below Poverty Level, 1999 & 201025%         Elderly (65+)                     ...
Southeast Florida              % of Children Below Poverty Level, 1999 & 201030%              Children (0-17)             ...
The Economic Downturn• As the economy slowed down, both in the nation and in Southeast  Florida, the job picture worsened ...
Nov-11                                                                                                                    ...
Oct-11                                                                                                                    ...
Nov-11                                                                                                                    ...
Southeast Florida            Median Housing Value ($), 2005-2010700,000600,000500,000                 Monroe          Miam...
Resident Population Growth, 2000-10                          Miami-                     Palm                             I...
Southeast Florida – Components of Population Change                            2000 to 2010100% 80% 60%                   ...
Southeast Florida                                   Place of Birth, 2010 100% 90%                                         ...
Southeast Florida              Foreign-Born Population, 1980-2010  100%   90%                                             ...
Origin of the Foreign-Born• In 2010, 87.2% of the region’s 2.2 million foreign-  born residents came from Latin America. T...
Southeast Florida                         Journey to Work Flows, 2009                                             County o...
Changing Composition - Race/Ethnicity• There is enormous diversity within the categories we use to present  data on race a...
Southeast Florida        Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Population, 2010100%90%80%70%60%50%40%                      ...
Southeast Florida            Change in Racial and Ethnic Composition, 2000-10100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0%          M...
Southeast Florida Age Distribution, 2010  100%   90%   80%   70%   60%   50%   40%   30%   20%                            ...
Southeast Florida - Median Age, 1990-201050                  1990      2000   2010454035302520     Monroe    Miami-Dade   ...
Southeast Florida          Change in Age Composition by Gender, 2000-10               85 years and o ver                  ...
Southeast Florida Growth, 1920-2040  Year           Resident                  Absolute     New Residents       Average Ann...
Changing Composition - Age• Current projections indicate that, over the next 2  decades, the population 65 and older in So...
Southeast Florida Projections by Age                          2000-2030  100%   90%   80%   70%                           ...
Southeast Florida Population 65+, 2000-2030           1.8Millions                 Population 65 and over           1.6    ...
Growth - UncertaintiesFactors that could affect future growth:• Economic Recovery - The pace in the recovery of  employmen...
Growth - UncertaintiesFactors that could affect future growth (continued):• Changes in immigration laws and enforcement – ...
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SE Florida Demograghic Trends Dick Ogburn

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Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Southeast Florida

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SE Florida Demograghic Trends Dick Ogburn

  1. 1. South Florida Regional Planning Council Demographic and EconomicCharacteristics of Southeast Florida 1 www.sfrpc.com
  2. 2. Overview• Population dynamics in all of Southeast Florida (the seven counties from Monroe in the south to Indian River in the north) are driven by: o Growth – The region has consistently grown more quickly than the nation, even if it now grows more slowly than the State of Florida as a whole. o Mobility – International migration has been the largest source of net growth, but domestic inflows and outflows also contribute to the “pulse” of growth. o Changes in composition – Migration, whether international or domestic, brings with it potential shifts in the age, race/ethnic and cultural make-up of the region. o Increasing spatial integration – commuting patterns and county- to-county migration show rising levels of cross-county movement, especially within the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach MSA, but also moving north within the region.• Despite the current downturn, when viewed on a competitive basis around the country, Southeast Florida continues to offer advantages that could position it well to resume growth when the national economy rebounds. 2 www.sfrpc.com
  3. 3. Personal Income• Per capita personal income in Southeast Florida in 2009 was $43,057, which was higher than the State of Florida ($38,965) and national ($39,635) averages. Still, the region was already feeling the economic downturn, as per capita income in 2009 was down from $43,887 in 2007 and $44,829 in 2008. o Within the region, per capita income in 2009 ranged from $29,526 in St. Lucie County to $60,174 in Monroe County. o Southeast Florida depends on Dividends, Interest and Rent for a larger portion of its personal income (30.0%) than either the State of Florida (26.9%) or the nation (18.0%). o Both Indian River County and Martin County derived over half of personal income from this category in 2009, followed by Monroe County (45.4%) and Palm Beach County (43.7%). o Transfer payments were highest as a proportion of overall personal income in St. Lucie County (27.9%) and Miami-Dade County (21.1%), compared to only 17.5% nationally. o The per capita value of transfer payments was highest in Indian River County ($9,191) and Martin County ($8,644), where both Social Security and Medicare payments were relatively high. 3 www.sfrpc.com
  4. 4. Southeast Florida Real Per Capita Income 1990-2009 ($2009)$65,000 Monroe M-Dade Brow ard$60,000 P Beach Martin St Lucie I River Region Florida$55,000$50,000$45,000$40,000$35,000$30,000$25,000$20,000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, RegionalEconomic Information System (April, 2011). 4 www.sfrpc.com
  5. 5. Southeast Florida Per Capita Income by Source 2009 100% 90% 6,934 7,143 10,058 7,348 10,475 12,915 80% 27,302 25,116 30,444 30,401 6,944 70% 7,677 6,472 7,440 60% 8,242 7,443 50% 6,637 7,889 40% 8,644 9,191 25,548 30% 21,746 24,655 22,700 21,050 13,936 20% 26,235 24,456 19,624 16,711 10% Net Earnings Transfer Payments Dividends, Interest, and Rent 0% Monroe Miami- Broward Palm Martin St. Lucie Indian Region Florida US Dade Beach RiverSource: Bureau of Economic Analysis, RegionalEconomic Information System (April, 2011). 5 www.sfrpc.com
  6. 6. Southeast Florida Per Capita Transfer Receipts by Type 2009 100% 414 409 438 457 464 437 523 426 525 444 352 321 276 365 244 334 413 340 320 90% 488 361 508 424 457 754 1,054 589 617 723 692 633 710 80% 699 657 898 755 965 916 70% 1,277 1,302 2,753 2,920 60% 2,633 2,048 2,389 2,192 50% 2,132 2,535 1,629 40% 2,766 30% 4,017 4,125 3,156 20% 2,588 3,114 2,612 2,042 2,279 2,241 1,608 R e tire m e nt & D is ab ility Ins u ranc e B e ne fit P aym e nts M e d ic are 10% P u b lic As s is tanc e M e d ic al C are / O th e r M e d ic al Inc o m e M ainte nanc e B e ne fit P aym e nts Une m p lo ym e nt Ins u ranc e B e ne fit P aym e nts Ve te rans / O th e r B e ne fit P aym e nts 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Brow ard Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River Region Florida USSource: Bureau of Economic Analysis, RegionalEconomic Information System (April, 2011). 6 www.sfrpc.com
  7. 7. Southeast Florida % of Population Below Poverty Level, 1999 & 201025% 1999 2010 % With Income Below Poverty Level20%15%10% 20.4% 18.0% 18.0% 16.8% 16.5% 15.3% 14.6% 14.2% 14.6% 13.4% 13.8% 12.5% 12.4% 11.1% 11.5% 5% 10.2% 9.9% 10.0% 8.8% 9.3% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida USSource: US Bureau of the Census, 2000 Censusand 2010 American Community Survey. 7 www.sfrpc.com
  8. 8. Southeast Florida % of Elderly Below Poverty Level, 1999 & 201025% Elderly (65+) 1999 2010 % With Income Below Poverty Level20%15% 22.4%10% 18.9% 13.8% 12.1% 11.4% 5% 10.0% 10.0% 9.9% 9.9% 8.8% 9.1% 9.0% 7.9% 8.4% 7.7% 6.6% 6.9% 6.7% 5.7% 5.2% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida USSource: US Bureau of the Census, 2000 Censusand 2010 American Community Survey. 8 www.sfrpc.com
  9. 9. Southeast Florida % of Children Below Poverty Level, 1999 & 201030% Children (0-17) 1999 2010 % With Income Below Poverty Level25%20%15% 28.8% 27.2% 25.4% 23.2% 22.9% 23.5% 22.7% 21.2% 21.6%10% 19.7% 18.9% 17.6% 16.6% 15.7% 14.6% 14.3% 14.3% 12.2% 5% 10.5% 8.7% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida USSource: US Bureau of the Census, 2000 Censusand 2010 American Community Survey. 9 www.sfrpc.com
  10. 10. The Economic Downturn• As the economy slowed down, both in the nation and in Southeast Florida, the job picture worsened dramatically: o Between Dec/07 and Jan/10, over 213,000 jobs were lost in the 7-county region, a reduction of 7.1%. o Of that total, almost 143,000 jobs were lost in South Florida (6.6%) and over 70,000 were lost in the Treasure Coast Region (8.4%). o During that period, the region’s unemployment rate rose from 4.7% to 11.0%. In Aug/10, the unemployment rate reached 12.1% in South Florida and 13.0% in the Treasure Coast. As of Dec/11, the region’s rate was still at 9.7%. o There were over 310,000 unemployed in Dec/11, down from 397,000 in Aug/10, but up from 147,000 in Dec/07 (111%).• Since December 2007, the number of Southeast Florida residents enrolled for public assistance rose as well. In Nov/11, there were 654,000 households receiving food stamps worth almost $156 million, three times the $51 million in Dec/07. 10 www.sfrpc.com
  11. 11. Nov-11 Sep-11 www.sfrpc.com Jul-11 May-11 Treasure Coast Mar-11 Jan-11 Nov-10 Sep-10 Jul-10 May-10Southeast Florida Employment, 2007-11 Mar-10 Jan-10 Nov-09 Sep-09 Jul-09 May-09 Mar-09 Jan-09 Nov-08 Sep-08 Jul-08 May-08 Mar-08 Jan-08 Nov-07 Sep-07 Jul-07 May-07 Mar-07 Jan-07 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 Millions Nov-11 Sep-11 Jul-11 May-11 Mar-11 Jan-11 South Florida Nov-10 Sep-10 Jul-10 May-10 Mar-10 Source: Florida Department of Economic Jan-10 Nov-09 Sep-09 Jul-09 May-09 Mar-09 Jan-09 Nov-08 Sep-08 Jul-08 May-08 Mar-08 Jan-08 Nov-07 11 Sep-07 Jul-07 Opportunity. May-07 Mar-07 Jan-07 2.18 2.16 2.14 2.12 2.10 2.08 2.06 2.04 2.02 2.00 Millions
  12. 12. Oct-11 www.sfrpc.com Jul-11Southeast Florida Unemployment Rate, 2007-11 Apr-11 Jan-11 Oct-10 Jul-10 Apr-10 Jan-10 Oct-09 Jul-09 Apr-09 Treasure Coast Jan-09 Oct-08 Jul-08 Apr-08 Jan-08 Oct-07 Jul-07 Apr-07 Jan-07 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% Oct-11 Jul-11 Apr-11 Jan-11 Oct-10 Jul-10 Apr-10 Source: Florida Department of Economic Jan-10 Oct-09 Jul-09 Apr-09 Jan-09 South Florida Oct-08 Jul-08 Apr-08 Jan-08 Oct-07 12 Jul-07 Opportunity. Apr-07 Jan-07 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%
  13. 13. Nov-11 Oct-11 www.sfrpc.com Sep-11 Aug-11 Jul-11Monthly Value of Food Stamp Benefits, 2007-11 Jun-11 May-11 Apr-11 Mar-11 Feb-11 Jan-11 Dec-10 Nov-10 Oct-10 Sep-10 Aug-10 Jul-10 Jun-10 May-10 Apr-10 Mar-10 Feb-10 Southeast Florida Jan-10 Issuance ($) Dec-09 Nov-09 Oct-09 Sep-09 Aug-09 Jul-09 Jun-09 May-09 Apr-09 Mar-09 Feb-09 Jan-09 Dec-08 Nov-08 Oct-08 Sep-08 Aug-08 Jul-08 Source: Florida Department of Children Jun-08 May-08 Treasure Coast Region Apr-08 South Florida Region Mar-08 Feb-08 and Families (December, 2011) Jan-08 Dec-07 Nov-07 Oct-07 Sep-07 Aug-07 Jul-07 Jun-07 May-07 Apr-07 13 Mar-07 Feb-07 Jan-07 $160 $140 $120 $100 $80 $60 $40 $20 $0 Millions
  14. 14. Southeast Florida Median Housing Value ($), 2005-2010700,000600,000500,000 Monroe Miami-Dade Brow ard Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie400,000 Indian River Florida United States300,000200,000100,000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: US Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey. 14 www.sfrpc.com
  15. 15. Resident Population Growth, 2000-10 Miami- Palm Indian Southeast Growth Monroe Dade Broward Beach Martin St. Lucie River Florida Florida US Absolute -6,499 242,656 125,048 188,943 19,587 85,094 25,081 679,910 2,818,486 27,323,632 (%) -8.2% 10.8% 7.7% 16.7% 15.5% 44.2% 22.2% 12.3% 17.6% 9.7%45%40%35%30%25%20%15%10% 5% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida US -5%-10%Source: US Bureau of the Census 15 www.sfrpc.com
  16. 16. Southeast Florida – Components of Population Change 2000 to 2010100% 80% 60% Natural Increase Net Migration 40% 20% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Brow ard Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida-20%-40%-60%-80%-100% Source: Bureau of Economic and Business Research (May, 2011) 16 www.sfrpc.com
  17. 17. Southeast Florida Place of Birth, 2010 100% 90% 379,317 39,659 39,612 21,824 812,645 564,889 1,952,962 95,016 6,635,477 80% 70% 181,747,947 311,374 Foreign born Born outside the US 60% Born in other state in the US Born in state of residence 1,848,428 579,110 50% 38,452 7,961,693 40% 80,072 609,515 91,832 138,073 30% 83,418,099 1,302,205 20% 2,247,509 558,399 306,611 10% 3,658,043 11,349 39,588 39,955,854 16,202 13,155 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Brow ard Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River Region Florida USSource: US Bureau of the Census,2010 American Community Survey. 17 www.sfrpc.com
  18. 18. Southeast Florida Foreign-Born Population, 1980-2010 100% 90% Foreign-born Native 258,305 80% 445,696 538,665 70% 3,713,156 3,971,461 3,267,460 60% 2,728,795 50% 40% 441,139 30% 598,427 441,614 20% 1,806,370 2,247,509 1,207,943 10% 766,329 0% 1980 Change 1980-90 1990 Change 1990-00 2000 Change 2000-10 2010Sources: US Bureau of the Census, DecennialCensuses, 2010 American Community Survey. 18 www.sfrpc.com
  19. 19. Origin of the Foreign-Born• In 2010, 87.2% of the region’s 2.2 million foreign- born residents came from Latin America. That included 1.1 million from the Caribbean, 434,000 from South America, and 329,000 from Central America.• Countries of origin for the largest number of foreign-born residents of the region included Cuba (647,000), Haiti (193,000), Colombia (154,000), Jamaica (128,000), and Nicaragua (95,000).• Other countries with a significant presence in 2010 included Mexico, Venezuela, Honduras, Peru and the Dominican Republic, each with more than 50,000 residents. 19 www.sfrpc.com
  20. 20. Southeast Florida Journey to Work Flows, 2009 County of Work – Primary Jobs County of Indian Palm Miami- Out of Total Residence River St Lucie Martin Beach Broward Dade Monroe Region WorkersIndian River 23,272 3,755 1,082 2,558 2,181 1,647 32 10,274 45,101St. Lucie 4,401 35,625 12,219 10,451 3,802 3,072 66 14,928 84,564Martin 441 4,351 19,227 10,294 2,423 1,911 40 9,049 47,736Palm Beach 1,075 3,058 4,892 292,921 61,418 27,818 413 56,989 448,584Broward 897 1,580 1,469 57,346 414,218 129,533 1,004 68,322 674,369Miami-Dade 777 1,5019 1,489 24,591 94,575 656,220 3,533 59,119 841,805Monroe 38 68 82 1,002 2,790 4,918 20,259 2,865 32,022Out of Region 9,682 9,833 6,555 51,771 66,470 59,072 2,064 205,447 Total Jobs 40,583 59,771 47,015 450,934 647,877 884,191 27,411 221,846 2,379,628 Source: US Bureau of the Census, Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics, On the Map. 20 www.sfrpc.com
  21. 21. Changing Composition - Race/Ethnicity• There is enormous diversity within the categories we use to present data on race and ethnicity. The Black or African American population includes a large number of people from the Caribbean and Central and South America, and the Hispanic or Latino population is very diverse within.• Between 2000 and 2010 there was continued rapid growth of the Hispanic (658,000) and non-Hispanic Black or African American (218,000) populations in Southeast Florida, and an absolute decrease in the non-Hispanic White population (-229,000).• In 2010, the race/ethnic composition of Southeast Florida was made up of 39% Hispanic or Latino, 38% non-Hispanic White, 19% non- Hispanic Black or African American, and 4% other non-Hispanic. About 40% of the Hispanic population was born in the United States.• In 2000, the non-Hispanic White population represented 47% of the regional total, down from 57% in 1990. In other words, the non- Hispanic White population of Southeast Florida ceased to be the majority sometime in the 1990s, due mostly to the growth of the Hispanic population in Miami-Dade County. 21 www.sfrpc.com
  22. 22. Southeast Florida Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Population, 2010100%90%80%70%60%50%40% White NH Black, African American NH30% Asian NH Other Race NH Two or More Races NH Hispanic or Latino (all races)20%10% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St.Lucie Indian River Region Florida US "Hispanic or Latino" includes people of all races. All racial data refer to those who answered "Not Hispanic or Latino" (NH). Individual racial categories reflect totals only for those who marked a single racial category, except the one labeled "Two or More Races NH."Source: US Bureau of the Census. 22 www.sfrpc.com
  23. 23. Southeast Florida Change in Racial and Ethnic Composition, 2000-10100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St.Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida US-10%-20%-30%-40% White NH Black, African American NH-50% Asian NH Other Race NH-60% Two or More Races NH Hispanic or Latino (all races)-70%-80% "Hispanic or Latino" includes people of all races. All racial data refer to those who answered "Not Hispanic or Latino" (NH). Individual racial categories reflect totals only for those who marked a single racial category, except the one labeled "Two or More Races NH."Source: US Bureau of the Census. 23 www.sfrpc.com
  24. 24. Southeast Florida Age Distribution, 2010 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% Under 5 5 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64 65 to 84 85 or more 10% 0% Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River SE Florida Florida United StatesSource: US Bureau of the Census 24 www.sfrpc.com
  25. 25. Southeast Florida - Median Age, 1990-201050 1990 2000 2010454035302520 Monroe Miami-Dade Broward Palm Beach Martin St. Lucie Indian River Florida USSource: US Bureau of the Census, DecennialCensuses. 25 www.sfrpc.com
  26. 26. Southeast Florida Change in Age Composition by Gender, 2000-10 85 years and o ver 80 to 84 years Male 75 to 79 years Female 70 to 74 years 65 to 69 years 60 to 64 years 55 to 59 years 50 to 54 years 45 to 49 years 40 to 44 years 35 to 39 years 30 to 34 years 25 to 29 years 20 to 24 years 15 to 19 years 10 to 14 years 5 to 9 years Und er 5 years-40,000 -20,000 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 Source: US Bureau of the Census 26 www.sfrpc.com
  27. 27. Southeast Florida Growth, 1920-2040 Year Resident Absolute New Residents Average Annual(April 1) Population Period Growth per Day Rate of Growth 1920 93,978 1930 247,346 1920/30 153,368 42.0 10.16% 1940 428,723 1930/40 181,377 49.7 5.65% 1950 763,521 1940/50 334,798 91.7 5.94% 1960 1,626,555 1950/60 863,034 236.3 7.86% 1970 2,404,094 1960/70 777,539 212.9 3.98% 1980 3,494,804 1970/80 1,090,710 298.6 3.81% 1990 4,475,531 1980/90 980,727 268.5 2.50% 2000 5,519,950 1990/00 1,044,419 285.9 2.12% 2010 6,199,860 2000/10 679,910 186.1 1.17% 2020 6,793,500 2010/20 593,640 162.5 0.92% 2030 7,390,900 2020/30 597,400 163.6 0.85% 2040 7,898,800 2030/40 507,100 138.8 0.67%Source: Bureau of Economic andBusiness Research (June 2011) 27 www.sfrpc.com
  28. 28. Changing Composition - Age• Current projections indicate that, over the next 2 decades, the population 65 and older in Southeast Florida will grow more than any other age cohort, as it absorbs the “baby boom” generation.• The Region’s elderly are expected to increase by over 688,000 (58%), to over 1.7 million, rising from 16.6% of the total in 2010 to 23.3% of the total in 2030.• The increase will be more pronounced in the Treasure Coast, where the elderly are projected to represent 28.4% of the total by 2030.• In South Florida, the elderly are projected to reach over million (20.7% of the total) in 2030, up from 14.2% in 2010. 28 www.sfrpc.com
  29. 29. Southeast Florida Projections by Age 2000-2030 100% 90% 80% 70% 0-4 5-19 20-34 35-64 65 and up 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030Source: Office of Economic and DemographicResearch (February, 2012). 29 www.sfrpc.com
  30. 30. Southeast Florida Population 65+, 2000-2030 1.8Millions Population 65 and over 1.6 1.4 South Florida Treasure Coast 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030Source: Office of Economic and DemographicResearch (February, 2012). 30 www.sfrpc.com
  31. 31. Growth - UncertaintiesFactors that could affect future growth:• Economic Recovery - The pace in the recovery of employment growth will contribute to the pace of population growth.• Affordability – The high cost of insurance and property taxes, combined with relatively low wages, could make less expensive regions of the State and elsewhere in the US more attractive than Southeast Florida, unless there are adjustments in the coming years.• Hurricanes / Insurance – If the region is hit repeatedly by hurricanes in the coming years, the disruption, the cost of repairs and increasing insurance costs could discourage residents from staying in Southeast Florida or coming here from other parts of the US. 31 www.sfrpc.com
  32. 32. Growth - UncertaintiesFactors that could affect future growth (continued):• Changes in immigration laws and enforcement – Some of the legislative changes under consideration, if approved, along with more aggressive enforcement, could both affect the number of international in-migrants.• External Events – As the earthquake in Haiti demonstrated, demographic flows into Southeast Florida are strongly affected by external events. Political and economic unrest in South and Central America and the Caribbean can generate unpredictable surges in international migration.• Sea Level Rise – Although the most severe direct impacts of sea level rise appear to be beyond the 2030 timeframe that is the focus of this presentation, the need to prepare for its impacts starting now will have important consequences for the way the Region grows going forward. 32 www.sfrpc.com

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