EMC – Safety
WEEE – RoHS
Washington Laboratories (301) 417-0220 web: www.wll.com 7560 Lindbergh Dr. Gaithersburg, MD 20879
• Established by government legislation
• Administered by national and local
• Provide for public safety
• Provide for operation of public
communication and electronic systems
• Electrical shock (contact, insulation breakdown)
• Energy related (burns, arcing, ejection of molten
• Fire (fire spread)
• Thermal (contact burn, insulation breakdown, ignition)
• Mechanical (cuts, pinch, crush, equipment instability,
• Radiation (sonic, RF, infra-red, ultraviolet, ionizing,
high intensity visible)
• Chemical (contact, inhalation)
• Exposure to hazardous materials
• Air contamination (inhalation)
• Contact (transfer of contamination)
• Ingestion (water, etc.)
• Waste control
• Management of waste volume
• Recycling of natural resources
• Potential for interference to electronic
• Exposure to radiated energy
• Immunity (Susceptibility)
• Operation impact from man-made and
natural RF energy
Safety compliance - US
• Products evaluated to specific safety criteria and
listed by the approved laboratory
• Ongoing service agreement to assure that listed
item maintains conformity
• Production testing for critical elements
• Electric strength (hi-pot)
• Protective earth continuity (ground impedance)
• Products considered medical are evaluated by the
FDA through 510K application
Safety compliance - CE
• Machinery directive (98/37/EC) calls out safety & EMC
• Low voltage directive (73/23/EC)
• Medical device directive (93/42/EEC) calls out safety and EMC
• Products evaluated to specific safety criteria for:
• Electrical hazards (shock, energy)
• Fire hazards (initiating fire, containment)
• Burn hazards (access, ignition, insulation breakdown)
• Mechanical hazards (access to moving parts, particulate ejection)
• Radiation hazards (noise, laser, x-ray, etc.)
• Chemical hazards (containment, ventilation)
• Product specific standards are used
• Manufacturer declares conformity and is responsible to maintain the
• Many other directives (toys, pressure vessels, etc.) are active and may
apply in conjunction or be specified as clauses
• National legislation not in effect
• State governments enacting legislation
• California leading
• Others have some activity
• Directives in effect
• Details in WEEE-RoHS presentation later
EMC compliance - US
• US commercial
• Applies to
• Unintentional emitters
• RF transmitters
• Regulates emissions (not immunity)
• CFR 47, Part 15
• ITE/Digital Devices (CIPSR 22 satisfies requirements)
• Unlicensed transmitters
• CFR47, Parts ----
• Specific parts for designated applications
• Part 22 - Cellular devices
• Part 90 - Licensed private land mobile radio
• Others (Television, Satellite, Education, Amateur, etc.)
• FCC OET Bulletin 65, Supplement C
• RF Exposure Levels to Humans
• ACTA – Administrative Council for Terminal Attachments
• Telecommunications – Part 68
EMC Compliance - Canada
• Industry Canada
• Formally Dept. of Communications
• ICES-003 – unintentional emitters (US Part
• CS03 – telecommunications products
• RSS-210 – non-licensed RF products
• RSS-119 – Land Mobile and Fixed Radio
EMC Compliance - Other
• MIL-STD-464A applies to systems
• MIL-STD-461 for equipment (called out by MIL-STD-464A)
• National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA Manual)
• Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
• US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.180 currently in
• Provides for dual path of compliance testing
• MIL-STD-461, previously used by EPRI TR-102323
• IEC 61000 series of EMI/RFI test methods
• Both approaches impose more stringent requirements than commercial
specifications and call out stringent test methods and limits
• Telecomm industry
• Bellcore (Telcordia) requirements for EMC, safety, environmental
• Each company amends with specific requirements
Safety evaluation basics
• Are instructions provided for proper installation and operation?
• Do warnings and labels conform to standards?
• Electrical shock/energy
• Is access to shock hazards controlled?
• Does chassis damage permit access?
• Are components approved?
• Does operation or a fault present a hazard?
• Is potential for fire spread controlled?
• Is access to hot surfaces prevented?
• Are components approved?
• Is access to moving parts controlled?
• Is potential for flying debris controlled?
• Is the item stable?
• Is exposure to hazardous radiation controlled?
• Are components approved?
• Is exposure to chemicals controlled?
EMC emission evaluation basics
• Are all potential modes of operation examined?
• Is the test article representative of production?
• Are cables in place that represent recommended?
• Intentional emitter
• Are emissions contained within the permitted frequency range?
• Is the transmit power limited to the maximum allowed?
• Does environmental conditions alter the performance?
• Are installation and operation instructions provided?
• Unintentional emitter
• Are radiated emission levels below the allowed threshold?
• Are conducted emission levels below the allowed threshold?
• Are particular emission modes applicable (e.g., magnetic fields)?
• Are harmonic and flicker levels below the allowed threshold?
EMC immunity evaluation basics
• Does the unit perform within tolerance when
• Exposed to ESD events?
• Exposed to RF radiated fields?
• Exposed to electrically fast transients on the cables?
• Exposed to induced lightning surge transients on the cables?
• Exposed to induced RF current on the cables?
• Exposed to magnetic fields?
• Exposed to power input voltage dips/interrupts?
• Power harmonic energy on the power input?
• Radiated transient energy?
• Is the performance criteria defined?
• Is there a method to monitor performance ?
• Deals with health and safety requirements regarding
exposure of workers to risks arising from
• Compliance mandatory from 30 April 2008
• Generic standard EN 50392 comes into force on 1
October 2006 but is not currently required for
• EN 50366 providing for magnetic field evaluation of
household and similar appliances within the scope of
the Low Voltage Directive became mandatory 1
• The next speaker will be dealing with
basics of EMC design
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