A healthier African American community.

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Black American women have higher rates of many risk factors for heart disease, including obesity, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension than white women

Black American women have higher rates of many risk factors for heart disease, including obesity, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension than white women

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  • 1. A Healthier Community Education and knowledge can help save your life Presented be Jacob Mason, RCIS
  • 2. Disclosure There are no relationships between planners or faculty of this program with pharmaceutical companies, biomedical device manufacturers and/or corporations whose products or services are discussed today.
  • 3. The Issue
  • 4. What is the issue?  Heart disease causes more deaths in Americans of both sexes and all racial and ethnic groups than any other condition Every 38 seconds, an American dies of heart disease1  Despite similar prevalence across racial/ethnic groups, women and people of color are treated at a lesser rate for heart disease than Caucasian men  Even when they have insurance and are of the same social class, minorities often receive a lower quality of care than do their white counterparts 1. American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2010 Update. Circulation. 2009;119:e21-e181.
  • 5. Magnitude of SCA in the US 163,000 Stroke1 Lung Cancer2 152,200 Breast Cancer2 AIDS3 40,000 18,000 Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics –2008 Update. A. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53:5-26. 3 U.S. HIV & AIDS Statistic Summary. Avert.org. 1 American 2 Jemel SCA claims more lives each year than these other causes of mortality. 400,000 SCA10 #1 Killer in the US
  • 6. Reasons for Disparities are Complex  Patient Related – Patient preferences – Treatment refusal – Care seeking behaviors and attitudes – Clinical appropriateness of care  Health Care System Related – Geographic availability of health care institutions – Changes in the financing (health insurance access) and delivery of health care services – Lack of interpretation and translation services – Time pressures on physicians  Provider Related – Bias – Clinical uncertainty – Beliefs/stereotypes about the behavior or health of minority patients Source: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation . Why the Difference Power Point Presentation, slide # 26. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare, March 2000. Available at http://www.kff.org/whythedifference/speakerkit.htm Accessed Sept.15, 2008
  • 7. Risk Factors • • • • • • • • • Family History Age Tobacco/Smoking Diabetes High Blood Pressure High/Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels Obesity Physical Inactivity Unhealthy Diet
  • 8. Why Focus on Disparities in Cardiovascular Health Care?  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the #1 killer of American women, blacks and Latinos1  By the year 2050, people from minority populations are expected to represent nearly 50% of the U.S. population2  Even when they have insurance and are of the same social class, minorities often receive a lower quality of care than do their white counterparts2  While some progress has been made in primary care, recent studies suggest that little progress has been made in addressing racial & ethnic disparities in cardiovascular care2
  • 9. In the United States,  42.1 million women (36%)2 are living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the population at risk is even larger1  Black American women have higher rates of many risk factors for heart disease, including obesity, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension than white women2  Latino women are more likely to be diabetic, physically inactive, overweight, and obese compared to white women3 One-third of women fail to recognize their own risk for heart disease4 1 Mosca, L et al. Evidenced-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: 2007 Update Circulation: 2007 115:14811501 2 Mosca, L et. al. Evidence-based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women. Circulation. 2004. 109-672-693. 3 Christian, A. et al. Nine-Year Trends and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Women’s Awareness of Heart Disease and Stroke: An American Heart Association Study. Journal of Women’s Health. Volume 16, Number 1. 2007 4 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The Heart Truth from Dr. Elizabeth Nabel. Available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/hearttruth/press/riskfactor_nabel.pdf. Accessed Oct. 15, 2008.
  • 10. Possible Signs and Symptoms In Women
  • 11. Possible Signs and Symptoms In Men
  • 12. Black Americans and Heart Failure  Black Americans are more likely to have heart failure and suffer more severely from it1  Black Americans are also more likely than other groups to:1 • develop symptoms at an earlier age • have their heart failure get worse faster • have more hospital visits • die from heart failure Black Americans are more likely to have high blood pressure than any other ethnic group3 1 National Heart Lung & Blood Institute: Heart Failure: Who is at Risk? Available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hf/HF_Who IsAtRisk. Accessed Sept. 25, 2008 2 National Minority Quality Forum. Heart Failure in African Americans. Available at http://www.nmhm.org/aaheart Accessed Sept. 25, 2008 3 National High Blood Pressure Education Program, NHLBI Downloadable resource “Prevent and Control High Blood Pressure: Mission Possible What Every African American should Know. Available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health. Accessed Sept. 25, 2008.
  • 13. Black Americans between the ages of 45 and 64 are 2.5 times more likely to die from heart failure than Caucasians in the same age range2 Heart failure
  • 14. Black Americans & High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  Black Americans are more likely to have high blood pressure than any other ethnic group1  For black Americans, high blood pressure tends to be more common and more severe • is a major reason why black Americans die at an earlier age • is a major reason why black Americans are 8 times more likely to develop kidney failure than whites
  • 15. Coronary Anatomy Front of the heart Back of the heart
  • 16. Coronary Artery Disease Foam cells Fatty streak Evolution of the Atherosclerotic Plaque: a Closer Look Intermediate Atheroma Fibrous lesion plaque Complicated lesion/rupture Endothelial dysfunction From first decade From third decade From fourth decade Plaque rupture
  • 17. Reasons for Cardiac Cath • Patient Symptoms • Chest Pain • Shortness of Breath • Fatigue • Abnormal 12 Lead ECG • STEMI • NSTEMI • Physical and History • Murmur • Diabetes • Hyperlipidemia • Smoker • Family History • Known CAD • Positive Stress Test • Pharmacologic • Treadmill test • Nuclear Scan • Stress-Echocardiogram
  • 18. Exercise for a Healthy Heart A sedentary (inactive) lifestyle is one of the top risk factors for heart disease. Fortunately, it's a risk factor that you can do something about. Regular exercise, especially aerobic exercise, has many benefits. It can: • Strengthen your heart and cardiovascular system • Improve your circulation and help your body use oxygen better • Improve your heart failure symptoms • Increase energy levels so you can do more activities without becoming tired or short of breath • Increase endurance • Lower blood pressure • Improve muscle tone and strength • Help reduce body fat and help you reach a healthy weight • Help reduce stress, tension, anxiety, and depression • Boost self-image and self-esteem •Make you feel more relaxed and rested • Make you look fit and feel healthy
  • 19. Exercise for a Healthy Heart A sedentary (inactive) lifestyle is one of the top risk factors for heart disease. Fortunately, it's a risk factor that you can do something about. Regular exercise, especially aerobic exercise, has many benefits. It can: • Strengthen your heart and cardiovascular system • Improve your circulation and help your body use oxygen better • Improve your heart failure symptoms • Increase energy levels so you can do more activities without becoming tired or short of breath • Increase endurance • Lower blood pressure • Improve muscle tone and strength • Help reduce body fat and help you reach a healthy weight • Help reduce stress, tension, anxiety, and depression • Boost self-image and self-esteem •Make you feel more relaxed and rested • Make you look fit and feel healthy
  • 20. Mediterranean diet The Mediterranean diet is one of the most popular diets in the health and fitness field. There has been much research on on the whole diet, how it works and why it works.
  • 21. Thank you!