The Beginning Amish history can be traced to the Anabaptist movement Emerged in 1693 as a distinguished group among the Anabaptists Lived along the southern Rhine River, in Switzerland and in the Alsace region of France Named after their founder, Jacob Amman The Amish movement started as a reform group within the Mennonite movement Amman felt that the Mennonites had drifted away from their original beliefs and practices Some Amish went to the United States in the 18th century Initially settled in Pennsylvania Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, New York, Ohio, and other states
What did they change? Received communion twice a year instead of only once Prior to receiving communion, believers practiced self-reflection Reintroduced the practice of foot washing Shunned those who did not conform Amman felt that the Mennonites let the practice be disused Treated shunning very seriously Required the spouse of the shunned person to neither sleep nor eat with his/her shunned spouse until he/she repented or changed his/her beliefs
How do they view the sacraments? Generally, in their late teen years and early 20s that Amish youth are expected to decide if they truly want to join the church Adult baptism is seen as a lifelong vow that must be taken seriously Individuals who break this vow face expulsion and shunning from the Amish community Couples marry for life Divorces and remarriages never occur Communion services are held each spring and fall Emphasizes self-examination and self rejuvenation Sins are confessed Vows are renewed
How do they worship? A bible reading followed by an hour-long main sermon embodies the values of humility and submission. Preachers begin with a biblical blessing, then confess their unworthiness to preach Following the main sermon, many ordained men offer testimony Entire service takes about three hours After the service, the community eats a meal prepared by the women of the community
Vehicles: With very few exceptions, Old Order Amish congregations do not allow theThe Amish Lifestyle owning or use of automobiles or farm tractors. However, they will Language: Members usually ride in cars when needed. speak Pennsylvania Electrical devices: They do not Dutch (Deutsch). High German is use electricity, or have radios, TV sets, personal computers, computer used during worship. Children games, etc. learn English at school. Telephones: In-home telephones Education: Schools are one-room are not normally allowed. Some buildings run by the Amish. families have a phone remote from the house. Formal education beyond Grade 8 Rumspringa: Teens aged 16 and is discouraged. older are allowed some freedom in Appearance: Men grow beards, behavior. They may be allowed to but not mustaches date, go out with their friends, visit the outside world, go to parties, Clothing: Men usually dress in a drink alcoholic beverages, wear plain, dark colored suit. Women jeans, etc. The intent of usually wear a plain colored dress rumspringa is to make certain that youth are giving their informed with long sleeves, bonnet and consent if they decide to be apron. baptized. About 80% to 90% decide to remain Amish.
Mennonite*Jesus is the son of God -fully human -fully God*Believe in Father, Son, and Holy Spirit*During services: -singing -reading scripture -sermon -praying
Mennonite*Baptism is performed on Seven Ordinances:adults so they can confess *Baptism on Confession oftheir belief or faith in God. Faith *Lords Supper *Washing of the Saints Feet *The Holy Kiss *Marriage*Communion is symbolic, *Ordination of bishops,remembering Jesus sacrifice preachers of the word, and deacons *Anointing with oil for the healing
Mennonite*No restrictions on technology*Do not live in a specialcommunity*Participate in community andservice
Beginnings The Baptist Church began to take shape in the Sixteenth Century, in a period known as the post- Reformation Period. The founder of the Baptist Religion was John Smyth. Smyth preformed a very dangerous and radical act by re-Baptizing himself as an adult.
Start of A Church Smyth and fellow reformer, Helwys, fled England to go to Holland after being persecuted for trying to purify the Church of England of all traces of the Catholic Church. Smyth and Helwys joined a group of ‘Seperatists’ in the city of Gainsborough.
Beliefs and Views of Baptists Prime philosopher of the Baptist Religion was Calvin The Baptists Baptize but do not believe that Grace is passed on by Baptism or Original Sin is washed away at Baptism. Baptist take part in Eucharist, but do not believe that the bread and wine are God, but they are symbolic of the Last Supper. Believe in total immersion
Beliefs of the Early Baptists. Baptist Church was built on three core values. The Bible, not through tradition or prayers, was the way to deal with all matters of faith. The Church should be made up of believers only, not those brought into the Church when they were infants and didn’t willingly join the Church. The Church should be led by those believers, not by hierarchy of bishops.
History of Later Baptist Baptists eventually broke into two different groups. General Baptists who believe Christ died for everyone. Particular Baptists believed Christ died only for a particular group. The two groups eventually came together 1813 to form a ‘General Union’, which became the Baptist Union of England or Ireland
Baptists Today Baptists are part of an alliance known as the Baptist World Alliance. Unites Baptists throughout the world and focus primarily on matters of Faith.
There is no creed. Some hold diverse concerns of life after death. Few believe in eternal punishment. Contribute more in the promotion of tolerance, peace, and justice compared to any other Christian domination. Some Quakers hold meetings where members can share his or her feelings. Others hold meetings that are close to Christian servicesQuakers are found in parts of Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.
QUAKERpersonal encounter with God, not a ritual or a ceremonyTrue religion is a BELIEFS Individual worth before God Worship is an act of seeking Virtues: moral purity, integrity, honesty, simplicity, and humility. Christian love and goodness Concern for the suffering and the unfortunate Continuing revelation through the Holy Spirit.
Anabaptists Ana- “again” Baptists- “Baptizers The name Anabaptist is applied to those who practice re-baptism They are part of the Radical Reformation of 16th century Europe Required that baptismal canadates do their own confessions of faith The Amish and the Mennonites are direct descendants of the Anabaptists Disliked the name Anabaptist
Because of their practice of re-baptism, they were heavily persecuted during the 16th and 17th centuries by Protestants and Roman Catholics Anabaptists adhered to a literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount
Key Principals Infant baptism is invalid Rejected oaths Rejected capitol punishment Refrain from magic Justification by faith alone was rejected because it had no scriptural warrant The new Kingdom of God was to be the reconstruction of the Church AND the State No Christian has the “right of the sword” Civil government belongs to the world
Monogenesis Anabaptism began in Zürich Then it moved to Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands, where it developed into different branches Started around January 1525
Polygenesis Anabaptism developed through multiple independent movements Started in South Germany, Switzerland, and other countries
Apostolic Succession It was a continuation of Christianity Most popular theory among the religious groups
Common Beliefs and Practices The Bible is the sole rule of faith and practice Freedom of religion Seperation of Church and State Pacifism Separation to the world Voluntary Church Membership
THEtheRADICAL REFORMED GROUPMatch picture with the group.Quakers, Anabaptist, Baptist, Amish, and Mennonite