Environmental Management

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Environmental Management

  1. 1. Environmental Management Session 4
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Waste is an unwanted or undesired material or substance. It is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk depending upon the type of material and the regional terminology. In living organisms, waste relates to unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from them.  Waste management is the human control of the collection, treatment and disposal of different wastes. This is in order to reduce the negative impacts waste has on environment and society.
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF WASTE AND WASTE MANAGWMENT  According to Waste Management Licensing Regulations, 1994.  Waste is defined as “a product which is no longer used in its primary role, which the holder then intends to, or is required to, discard.”  Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.
  4. 4. Types of wastes  RADIOACTIVE WASTE  PLASTIC WASTE  INDUSTRIAL WASTE  BIO- MEDICAL WASTE  ELECTRONIC WASTE  RECYCLABLE WASTE  DOMESTIC WASTE  COMMERCIAL WASTE  HUMAN WASTE  TOXIC WASTE
  5. 5. Landfill  Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it, and this remains a common practice in most countries.  A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials.  Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate.  Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically.
  6. 6. Incineration  Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material.  Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.  It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste).  Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills.  Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro- pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks.
  7. 7. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT  There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions.  Diagram of the waste hierarchy.
  8. 8. Best practice in waste management Minimization Reuse Recycling Energy recovery Disposal
  9. 9. Minimization  Reducing the production of waste through efficient operational practices and use of best available technology is a key step in any waste management plan.  Examples  Feed management technology. Use of correctly proportioned feeds to minimize wastage. Optimal feeding practices to prevent unnecessary waste.  Best available technology  Efficient removal of solids from effluent.  By-product extracts through biotechnological techniques.  Water use, Economic use of water at all times.
  10. 10. Reuse  Reuse of materials for the same or alternative purposes can result in high reductions in waste output. Local initiatives can promote the reuse of materials that might otherwise be discarded. Examples  Farming materials  Reuse of oyster bags and netting.  Reutilization of organic farm wastes.  Recirculation technology  Reuse of water in a culture tank through filtration, skimming and aeration techniques.
  11. 11. Recycling  Recycling of waste products to serve new purposes is becoming an increasingly viable option as more innovative ideas are developed to utilize wastes. Organic recycling on site is highly encouraged. Examples  Organic Recycling  Composting.  Ensiling (two phase method of fermentation: aerobic and anaerobic), Recycling of Protein Oil.  Inorganic Recycling  Bulk feed bags, Metals such as steel & aluminum.  Plastics of all form, Glass of all form.
  12. 12. Energy Recovery  Energy recovery methods such as anaerobic digestion, oil extraction and incineration allow for the extraction of a usable fuel source from aquaculture organic wastes. Examples  Biofuel  An efficient fuel source can be extracted from fish waste with a high oil content.  Biogas Methane can be extracted from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste and used as a fuel.
  13. 13. Disposal  Disposal methods isolate wastes from production in such a way that reuse or retrieval of the waste for the foreseeable future is not considered. Conventional disposal methods have main involved landfill dumping. Drawbacks  Disposal represents poor use of materials that could serve alternative uses. Legislation and environmental pressures mean disposal of both organic and inorganic waste from aquaculture is employed only as a last resort. Strict waste management legislation, means that inorganic material is the only aquaculture waste accept for dumping in most EU states.
  14. 14. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT  Waste hierarchy - the waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization.  Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product.
  15. 15.  Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market.  Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment.  With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.
  16. 16. RADIOACTIVE WASTES  Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. They are usually the products of nuclear processes, such as nuclear fission.  The majority of radioactive waste is "low-level waste", meaning it contains low levels of radioactivity per mass or volume.  This type of waste often consists of used protective clothing, which is only slightly contaminated but still dangerous in case of radioactive contamination of a human body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection.  In the United States alone, the Department of Energy states there are "millions of gallons of radioactive waste" as well as "thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel and material" and also "huge quantities of contaminated soil and water.
  17. 17. The nature and significance of radioactive wastes  Radioactive waste typically comprises a number of radioisotopes: unstable configurations of elements that decay, emitting ionizing radiation which can be harmful to human health and to the environment.  The radioactivity of all nuclear waste diminishes with time.  The faster a radioisotope decays, the more radioactive it will be. The energy and the type of the ionizing radiation emitted by a pure radioactive substance are important factors in deciding how dangerous it will be.  This is further complicated by the fact that many radioisotopes do not decay immediately to a stable state but rather to a radioactive decay product leading to decay chains.
  18. 18. TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  Removal of very low-level waste  Low level waste (LLW) is generated from hospitals and industry, as well as the nuclear fuel cycle. It comprises paper, rags, tools, clothing, filters, etc., which contain small amounts of mostly short-lived radioactivity.  High level waste (HLW) is produced by nuclear reactors. It contains fission products and transuranic elements generated in the reactor core.  Transuranic waste (TRUW) as defined by U.S. regulations is, without regard to form or origin, waste that is contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranic radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years, and concentrations greater than 100 nCi/g (3.7 MBq/kg), excluding High Level Waste.
  19. 19. ACCIDENTS INVOLVING RADIOACTIVE WASTES  A number of incidents have occurred when radioactive material was disposed of improperly, shielding during transport was defective, or when it was simply abandoned or even stolen from a waste store.  At Maxey Flat, a low-level radioactive waste facility located in Kentucky, containment trenches covered with dirt, instead of steel or cement, collapsed under heavy rainfall into the trenches and filled with water.  The scavengers and those who buy the material are almost always unaware that the material is radioactive and it is selected for its aesthetics or scrap value.
  20. 20. Plastic waste  The quantum of solid waste is ever increasing due to increase in population, developmental activities, changes in life style, and socio-economic conditions.  Plastics waste is a significant portion of the total municipal solid waste (MSW).  The plastics waste constitutes two major category of plastics; (i) Thermoplastics and (ii) Thermoset plastics.  Thermoplastics, constitutes 80% and thermoset constitutes approximately 20% of total post-consumer plastics waste generated in India.  However, thermoset plastics contains alkyd, epoxy, ester, melamine formaldehyde, phenolic formaldehyde, silicon, urea formaldehyde, polyurethane, metalised and multilayer plastics etc
  21. 21. Mangement of plastic waste  A MARVEL of polymer chemistry, plastics have become an indispensable part of our daily life.  The importance of this sector to the national economy can be gauged from the fact that the domestic demand is expected to cross 4 million tonnes by 2001-2002, confirming plastics as the material of choice in numerous applications due to depletion of already scarce natural resources.  The Government of Himachal Pradesh was one of the earliest to introduce legislation prohibiting the throwing or disposing of plastic articles in public places.  Recycling of plastic waste is a major activity in India through which thousands of families earn a livelihood.
  22. 22. Sustainable Agriculture  What is it?  Conway’s three properties are:  Productivity  Stability  Resiliency Source: Conway, G.R. and Barbier, E.B. 1990. After the Green Revolution. Sustainable Agriculture for Development. Earthscan, London. 205 p. 22
  23. 23. 1. Productivity 23 Net increment of valued product per unit of resource (kg/ha for example)
  24. 24. 2. Stability 24 Degree to which productivity remains constant over time when not faced with a shock
  25. 25. 3. Resiliency 25 The ability of a system to maintain or recover productivity when subject to stress or shock.
  26. 26. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEM A sustainable agriculture system A farm system that mimics as closely as possible the complexity of a healthy and natural ecosystem. Goals include:  Providing a more profitable farm income.  Promoting environmental stewardship.  Promoting stable, prosperous farm families and communities. 26
  27. 27. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEM  Reduces inputs.  Uses ecological pest and weed management strategies.  Cycles nutrients back into the soil for fertility and health.  Strengthens rural and urban communities.  Produces viable farm income.  Promotes healthy family and social values.  Brings the consumer back into agriculture.
  28. 28. Technologies for Sustainable Agricultural Development  Biotechnology  Pre & post harvesting technology  Energy saving technology  Environment protection technology  Information and Communication technology  GIS & RS technology  Internet/Intranet Technology
  29. 29. Sustainable forest management  Sustainable development is commonly defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.  Sustainable forest management has been considered as an integral component of sustainable development since the UNCED Conference at Rio de Janeiro in 1992, also called the Earth Summit.  International forest principles were formulated for the first time by world leaders and the first global policy on sustainable forest management was adopted.
  30. 30. Sustainable forest management  India has only 2.5% of the world’s geographic area and 1.85% of the world’s forest area, we have 17% of the world’s population and 18% of livestock population.  Applications to define and assess sustainable forest management are  Criteria and indicators  Life cycle assessment,  Cost–benefit analysis  Knowledge-based systems  Environmental impact assessment
  31. 31. Sustainable forest management  Accordingly, the forest resources and lands should be managed sustainably to meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual functions, and for the maintenance and enhancement of biological diversity.  Criteria and indicators approach developed as a potent tool for assessment, monitoring and reporting of sustainability of forest resources.  Currently, about 160 countries are participating in nine regional and international processes of sustainable forest management following the criteria and indicator approach
  32. 32. Sustainable forest management  Criteria define and characterize the essential elements, as well as a set of conditions or processes, by which sustainable forest management may be assessed.  Each criterion relates to a key element of sustainability and may be described by one or more indicators.  While indicators are parameters that measure specific quantitative and qualitative attributes and help monitor trends in the sustainability of forest management over time.
  33. 33. Sustainable forest management  International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)  Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM), Bhopal  The 1988 National Forest Policy  A total of 8 criteria and 51 indicators specific to Indian forestry conditions were developed.  The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has already created a Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Cell in the Ministry in 2006.
  34. 34. Integrated Water Resources Development and Management  IWRDM.  India has 2.5 % of world’s land, 4% of freshwater, 17% of population, and 18% of its cattle.  WATERSHED Development
  35. 35. Concepts and Principles of IWM Objectives:  Water has multiples uses and must be managed in an integrated way.  Water should be managed at the lowest appropriate level.  Water allocation should take account of the interests of all who are affected.  Water should be recognised and treated as an economic good.
  36. 36. Concepts and Principles of IWM Strategies:  A long term, viable sustainable future for basin stake holders.  Equitable access to water resources for water users.  The application of principles of demand management for efficient utilisation.  Prevention of further environmental degradation (short term) and the restoration of degraded resources (long term). .
  37. 37. 1970 1980 1990 2000 PublicParticipation Watershed development program Low High Mainlywater conservation Socio-economicwith waterconservation Socio-economic, waterconservation, participation Publicparticipation planning,design, implementation Project success Integrated Watershed Approach  IWM is the process of planning and implementing water and natural resources an emphasis on integrating the bio-physical, socio-economic and institutional aspects.  Social issues are addressed through involvement of women and minority.  Community led water users groups have led the implementation efforts.
  38. 38. Integrated Watershed Approach  The four engineering and management tools for effective and sustainable development of water resources in semi-arid rural India: -  Appropriate technologies  Decentralised development system  Catchment based water resources planning  Management information system  For sustainable watershed management there is need to integrate the social and economic development together with soil and water conservation
  39. 39. IWA – Advanced Technologies
  40. 40. Water Conservation & Harvesting Total water management for sustainable development?.
  41. 41. Water Conservation  Important step for solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people's attitudes and habits  Conserve water because it is right thing to do!. What you can do to conserve water?  Use only as much water as you require. Close the taps well after use. While brushing or other use, do not leave the tap running, open it only when you require it. See that there are no leaking taps.  Use a washing machine that does not consume too much water. Do not leave the taps running while washing dishes and clothes.
  42. 42. Water Conservation…  Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of the water. Water in which the vegetables & fruits have been washed - use to water the flowers & plants.  At the end of the day if you have water left in your water bottle do not throw it away, pour it over some plants.  Re-use water as much as possible  Change in attitude & habits for water conservation  Every drop counts!!!
  43. 43. Rain Water Harvesting?. • Rain Water Harvesting RWH- process of collecting, conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area – for beneficial use. • Storage – in tanks, reservoirs, underground storage- groundwater • Hydrological Cycle
  44. 44. RWH – Methodologies  Roof Rain Water Harvesting  Land based Rain Water Harvesting  Watershed based Rain Water harvesting  For Urban & Industrial Environment –  Roof & Land based RWH  Public, Private, Office & Industrial buildings  Pavements, Lawns, Gardens & other open spaces
  45. 45. MUNCIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
  46. 46. Solid Waste Management  Solid waste management includes all activities that seek to minimise the health, environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid wastes.  It can also be defined as any waste excluding human excreta
  47. 47. Different Types of Solid Waste  Municipal Solid Waste  Industrial Waste  Hazardous Waste  Hospital Waste  Construction and Demolition Waste  Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)  End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) and Tyres  Agricultural Waste
  48. 48. Municipal Solid Waste  Such waste comprises household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue and waste from the street.  The consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradable components which cause immeasurable harm to the environment.
  49. 49. TYPES OF MUNCIPAL WASTE  Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).  Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.  Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.  Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Packs, waste plastics such as toys.  Domestic hazardous waste (also called "household hazardous waste") & toxic waste: medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.
  50. 50. Composition of Municipal Waste
  51. 51. Industrial Waste  Some of the largest waste generated by industrial sectors include the production of basic metals, food, beverage, tobacco products, wood products and paper products.  Waste from manufacturing sector continues to rise, despite national and international declarations to reduce waste from manufacturing industries.
  52. 52. Hospital Waste  Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals and also in the research activities in these fields as well as in the production and testing of biologicals.
  53. 53. Agricultural Waste  It is composed of organic wastes and wastes such as plastic, scrapped machinery, fencing, pesticides, waste oils and veterinary medicines.
  54. 54. Hazardous Waste  Hazardous waste could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things such as gases.  Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous.  In addition, certain types of household waste are also considered as hazardous.  The main disposal route for hazardous waste is landfill, incineration, and physical or chemical treatment.
  55. 55. Construction and Demolition Waste  Such waste arises from activities such as the construction of buildings and civil infrastructures, total or partial demolition of buildings and civil infrastructure, road planning and maintenance.  It is made up of numerous materials including concrete, bricks, wood, glass, asbestos and plastic, many of which can be recycled in one way or another.
  56. 56. W.E.E.E  It consists of end of life products and comprises of a range of electrical and electronic items such as:  Refrigerators  Telecommunication equipment  Freezers  Washing machines  Medical equipment  Hairdryers and televisions.
  57. 57. Solid Waste Treatment  Waste Prevention and Minimisation  Re-use  Recycle  Composting  Land filling
  58. 58. LANDFILLING  A landfill, also known as a dump, is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment  Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world.  Landfills may include internal waste disposal sites (where a producer of waste carries out their own waste disposal at the place of production) as well as sites used by many producers.
  59. 59. LANDFILLING  Many landfills are also used for other waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling).  A landfill also may refer to ground that has been filled in with soil and rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose, such as for building houses.  Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or liquefaction of the ground in a large earthquake.
  60. 60. REUSE OF WASTE  Reuse is using an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a new function. The classic example of conventional reuse is the doorstep delivery of milk in reusable bottles; other examples include the retreading of tires and the use of plastic delivery trays (transit packing) in place of cardboard cartons. Ways to Reuse - Using durable coffee mugs - Using cloth napkins or towels - Refilling bottles - Donating old magazines - Reusing boxes - Purchasing refillable pens and pencils
  61. 61. ADVANTAGES OF REUSE  Energy and raw materials savings as replacing many single use products with one reusable one reduces the number that need to be manufactured.  Reduced disposal needs and costs.  Refurbishment can bring sophisticated, sustainable, well paid jobs to underdeveloped economies.  Cost savings for business and consumers as a reusable product is often cheaper than the many single use products it replaces.  Some older items were better handcrafted and appreciate in value.
  62. 62. DISADVANTAGES OF REUSE  Reuse often requires cleaning or transport, which have environmental costs.  Some items, such as Freon appliances or infant auto seats, could be hazardous or less energy efficient as they continue to be used.  Reusable products need to be more durable than single use products, and hence require more material per item. This is particularly significant if only a small proportion of the reusable products are in fact reused.  Sorting and preparing items for reuse takes time, which is inconvenient
  63. 63. INCINERATION  Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.  Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals, and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants
  64. 64. COMPOSTING  Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. (Or in a simpler form: Composting is the decaying of food, mostly vegetables or manure.)  The decomposition is performed primarily by facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria, yeasts and fungi, helped in the cooler initial and ending phases by a number of larger organisms, such as springtails, ants, nematodes and oligochaete worms.
  65. 65. Benefits of Composting  Keeps organic wastes out of landfills.  Provides nutrients to the soil.  -Increases beneficial soil organisms (e.g., worms and centipedes).  Suppresses certain plant diseases.  Reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides.  Protects soils from erosion.  Assists pollution remediation
  66. 66. COLLECTION OF WASTE  Waste collection is the component of waste management which results in the passage of a waste material from the source of production to either the point of treatment final disposal.  Waste collection also includes the kerbside collection of recyclable materials that technically are not waste, as part of a municipal landfill diversion program.
  67. 67. RECYCLING OF WASTE  Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air (from incineration) and water (from landfilling) pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.  Recycling is a key component of modern waste management and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.
  68. 68. Benefits of Recycling  Conserves resources for our children's future.  Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants.  Saves energy.  Supplies valuable raw materials to industry.  Creates jobs.  Stimulates the development of greener technologies.  Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators.
  69. 69. What you can do to reduce solid waste  Say no to all plastic bags as far as possible.  Reduce the use of paper bags also.  Reuse the soft drinks polybottles for storing water.  Segregate the waste in the house –keep two garbage bins and see to it that the biodegradable and the non-biodegradable is put into separate bins and dispose off separately.  Dig a compost pit in your garden and put all the biodegradables into it.
  70. 70. What you can do to reduce solid waste  See to it that all garbage is thrown into the municipal bin as the collection is generally done from there.  Carry your own cloth or jute bag when you go shopping.  When you go out do not throw paper and other wrappings or even leftover food here and there, make sure that it is put in the correct place, that is into a dustbin.  As far as possible try to sell all the recyclable items that are not required to the person who trades in waste.
  71. 71. MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM  Per capita waste generation increasing by 1.3% per annum  With urban population increasing between 3 – 3.5% per annum  Yearly increase in waste generation is around 5% annually  India’s Population = 1027 Million As per 2001 Census  Urban Population = 285 Million  Urban Areas = 5161 (Cities / Towns)
  72. 72. MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM  India produces 42.0 million tons of municipal solid waste annually at present.  Per capita generation of waste varies from 200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day. Average generation rate at 0.4 kg per capita per day in 0.1 million plus towns.  Collection efficiency ranges between 50% to 90% of the solid waste generated.  Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/- to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid waste management of which,  60-70% of the amount is on collection alone  20% - 30% on transportation  Hardly any fund is spent on treatment and disposal of waste  Crude dumping of waste in most of the cities
  73. 73. Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste  Compostable / Bio-degradable = 30% - 55%matter(can be converted into manure)  Inert material = 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)  Recyclable materials = 5% - 10% (Recycling)  These percentages vary from city to city depending on food habits
  74. 74. Present status of waste management  Storage of waste at source is lacking  Domestic waste thrown on streets  Trade waste on roads / streets  Construction debris left unattended  Bio-medical waste disposed in municipal waste stream  Industrial waste disposed of in open areas  Segregation of recyclable waste at source not done  Primary collection of waste not done at place of generation
  75. 75. Contd../  Design & location of municipal waste storage depots inappropriate, resulting in littering of garbage .  Street sweeping not done everyday  Waste transportation done in open vehicles  Waste processing partially practiced in 35 ULBS only  Final disposal done through crude dumping  Rag pickers collect recyclables from municipal bins / dumpsites and litter the waste causing insanitary conditions
  76. 76. REASONS FOR IMPROPER MANAGEMENT OF WASTE  Lack of planning for waste management while planning townships  Lack of proper institutional set up for waste management, planning and designing in urban local bodies  Lack of technically trained manpower  Lack of community involvement  Lack of expertise and exposure to city waste management using modern techniques / best practices  Lack of awareness creation mechanism  Lack of Management Information Systems  Lack of funds with ULBs  Indifferent attitude of ULBs to levy user charges and sustainability
  77. 77. RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE MANAGEMENT 1. Possible Waste Management Options : (a) Waste Minimisation (b) Material Recycling (c) Waste Processing (Resource Recovery) (d) Waste Transformation (e) Sanitary Landfilling – Limited land availability is a constraint in Metro cities. 2. Processing / Treatment should be : (i) Technically sound (ii) Financially viable (iii) Eco-friendly / Environmental friendly (iv) Easy to operate & maintain by local community (v) Long term sustainability
  78. 78. RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSAL I) WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE) (A) WASTE TO COMPOST (i) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING (ii) VERMI-COMPOSTING (B) WASTE TO ENERGY (i) REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION (ii) BIO-METHANATION II) RECYCLING OF WASTE III) SANITARY LANDFILLING IV) TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY
  79. 79. INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA  Bio-medical Waste Handling Rules, 1998 - Notified  Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules, 2000 – Notified.  Reforms Agenda (Fiscal, Institutional, Legal)  Technical Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management  Technology Advisory Group on Municipal Solid Waste Management  Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Integrated Plant Nutrient Management from city compost.
  80. 80. INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA  Tax Free Bonds by ULBs permitted by Government of India  Income Tax relief to Waste Management agencies  Public-Private Partnership in SWM  Capacity Building  Urban Reforms Incentive Fund  Guidelines for PSP and setting up of Regulatory Authority  Financial Assistance by Government of India - 12th Finance Commission Grants
  81. 81. Grant Loan Centre State Cities with 4 million plus population 35% 15% 50% Cities with one million plus population but less than 4 million 50% 20% 30% Other cities 80% 10% 10% NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION  Central / state grants are proposed to be provided for solid waste management
  82. 82. Bio-medical Waste Management Issues and Challenges
  83. 83. I. Environmental Legislation  The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981  The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986  The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989  The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995  The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998  The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 83
  84. 84. Implementation of BIO-MEDICAL WASTE RULES 1998  BMW Rules have been adopted and notified with the objective to stop the indiscriminate disposal of hospital waste/ bio-medical waste and ensure that such waste is handled without any adverse effect on the human health and environment. 84
  85. 85. 85 Implementation of BIO-MEDICAL WASTE RULES 1998  Health care waste includes  Waste generated by the health care facilities  Research facilities  Laboratories  Biomedical waste in hospitals  85% are non-infectious  10% are infectious  5% are hazardous
  86. 86. Basic Principles  Segregation and safe containment of waste at the health facility level  Processing and storage for terminal disposal  The containers shall be labeled according to Schedule III (BMW Rules 1998)  Transport waste safely to pick up site  Identify destination for each type of waste and ensure safe disposal  Keep track of usage 86
  87. 87. 87 Basic Principles  Bio-medical waste shall not be mixed with other wastes.  Segregation at source – both at ward and unit level  Color coding to support segregation at source  Bio-medical waste shall be segregated into containers/ bags at the point of generation in accordance with Schedule II (BMW Rules 1998) prior to its storage, transportation, treatment and disposal.
  88. 88. Transportation & Storage of BMW  Untreated biomedical waste shall be transported only in vehicles authorized for the purpose by the competent authority as specified by the government.  Untreated bio-medical waste shall not be kept/stored beyond a period of 48 hours.  If for any reason it becomes necessary to store the waste beyond such period, measures must be taken to ensure that the waste does not adversely affect human health and the environment. 88
  89. 89. Biomedical Waste Management - Issues  Not considered important  Lack of interest from senior management  No ownership of the process  Awareness of problems  Appreciate the need for constant monitoring
  90. 90. Biomedical Waste Management - Issues  Segregation of waste not taken seriously at user level  Non compliance with color coding  Monitoring segregation at source – low budgets allocated – costs are not always known  Cost of color coding, staff, transport and disposal  Quantification of waste generated is not accurately done
  91. 91. Biomedical Waste Management - Issues  Protection of healthcare workers not given adequate thought  Clinical waste dumped with non infectious waste - Risk for healthcare workers and public  Waste disposal not effective, often dumped in open landfills
  92. 92. 92 Biomedical Waste Management - responsibilities  Responsibility for waste disposal – head of facility, but devolved to members of the waste management team  Each healthcare worker – segregation and appropriate disposal  Private companies – from collection point in hospital to disposal  Medical waste segregation awareness and Information should be available in all areas of hospital
  93. 93. Challenges: Need for protocol and policies… To provide protection for  Healthcare workers  Patients  Community at large - from the risk of infections  Compliance with statutory requirements  Government of India -1998 biomedical waste management and handling rules under EPA (compels hospitals, clinics, labs to ensure safe and environmentally sound management of waste generated at their establishments)
  94. 94. 94 Challenges  Establishing robust waste management policies within the organization  Organization wide awareness about the health hazards  Sufficient financial and human resources  Monitoring and control of waste disposal  Clear responsibility for appropriate handling and disposal of waste.
  95. 95. ADRESSING THE ISSUES  Need to build-up of a comprehensive system, address responsibilities, resource allocation, handling and disposal  This is a long-term process, sustained by gradual improvements.  Specific personnel need to be assigned to monitor the bio-medical waste management in the hospital.  Man power needs and other resources for the BMWM of hospital to be addressed.  Quality assessment of bio-medical waste management should be done from time to time. 95
  96. 96. ADRESSING THE ISSUES  Segregated collection and transportation - The use of color coding and labeling of hazardous waste.  Clear directives in the form of a posters and notice to be displayed in all concerned areas in English and local languages.  Safety of handlers.  Raising Awareness about risks related to health-care waste; training staff and HCW on safe practices.  Selection of safe and environmentally friendly management options, to protect people from hazards when collecting, handling, storing, transporting, treating or disposing of waste. 96
  97. 97. ADRESSING THE ISSUES  Issue of all protective clothes such as, gloves, aprons, masks etc. to all HCW.  Regular medical check-up (half-yearly) of staff associated with BMWM.  Maintenance of Record registers for this purpose.  Containers should be robust and leak proof  Tracking of Bio Medical Waste upto point of Disposal.  Proper treatment and final disposal. 97
  98. 98. 98 Option Waste Category Treatment & Disposal Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste (human tissues, organs, body parts) incineration @/deep burial* Category No. 2 Animal Waste (animal tissues, organs, body parts carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood and experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals, colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses) incineration@/deep burial* Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (Wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or micro-organisms live or vaccines, human and animal cell culture used in research and infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins, dishes and devices used for transfer of cultures) local autoclaving/micro- waving/incineration@ Category No. 4 Waste Sharps (needles, syringes, scalpels, blade, glass, etc. that may cause punture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps) disinfection (chemical treatment @@@/auto claving/microwaving and mutilation/shredding## Category No. 5 Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs (Waste comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines) incineration@/destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills Schedule-I CATEGORIES OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE
  99. 99. 99 Category No. 6 Soiled Waste (items contaminated with blood, and body fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, bedding, other material contaminated with blood) incineration@autoclaving/micro waving Category No. 7 Solid Waste (Waste generated from disposal items other than the sharps such a tubings, catheters, intravenous sets etc.) disinfection by chemical treatment@@ autoclaving/microwaving and mutilation/shredding## Category No. 8 Liquid Waste (Waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities) disinfection by chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Ash from incineration of any bio- medical waste) disposal in municipal landfill Category No. 10 Chemical Waste (Chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in disinfection, as insectricides, etc.) chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids Schedule-I CATEGORIES OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE (continued)

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