Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Verbals 3rd
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Verbals 3rd

2,087

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,087
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
98
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1.The frightened cat scratched my eye. 2.Running seems tiresome at first. 3.Sometimes I like to swing and sometimes I like to slide at the park.
  • 2.
    • A verbal is a verb that is being used as another part of speech rather than a verb.
    • Examples
      • The frightened cat scratched my eye.
      • Running seems tiresome at first.
      • Sometimes I like to swing and sometimes I like to slide at the park.
    Gerund Participle Infinitive
  • 3. Verbals English II
  • 4. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?
    • Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself.
    • You have to see how the word is being used.
    • In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL
  • 5. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?
    • Examples:
      • Waxed
      • Flowing
      • Playing
      • Sleeping
    • These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.
  • 6. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?
    • Examples:
      • Our butler waxed the floors.
      • The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous.
    • In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done.
    • In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective
  • 7. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL ?
    • Examples:
      • Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream.
      • Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy.
    • The same thing is true here as in the other example.
    • The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.
  • 8. Basic Information on Verbals
    • Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following:
      • Noun
      • Adjective
      • Adverb
    • A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.
  • 9. Basic Information on Verbals
    • There are three different kinds of verbals :
      • Infinitive
      • Participle
      • Gerund
    • Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.
  • 10.
    • An Infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “ to ” plus a verb form and functioning as a noun , adjective , or adverb .
    • To wait seemed foolish when action was required. (subject)
    • Everyone wanted to go . (direct object)
  • 11.
    • These are some common verbs that are often followed by infinitives:
    Want                Hope               Decide             Seem Need                Expect             Promise           Appear Would like       Plan                 Offer               Pretend Would love      Intend              Agree              Forget  Try                  Mean               Refuse             Learn          Afford             Wait
  • 12.
    • His ambition is to fly . (subject complement)
    • He lacked the strength to resist . (adjective modifying strength)
    • We must study to learn . (adverb modifying must study)
  • 13.
    • Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of “to” plus a verb form —with a prepositional phrase beginning with “to”, which consists of “to” plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.
    • Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
    Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases
  • 14.
    • Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address
  • 15. Infinitives
    • An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.”
      • To play
      • To sleep
      • To be seen
      • To steal
      • To have been stolen
      • To speak
  • 16. To Dream the Impossible Dream
  • 17. Infinitives
    • In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted.
    • This is done for clarity.
      • Help him (to) move the sofa.
      • Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook.
  • 18. Infinitives
    • The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are:
      • See
      • Hear
      • Feel
      • Help
      • Let
      • Make
      • Watch
  • 19. Infinitives
    • An infinitive has three possible functions:
      • As a noun
      • As an adjective
      • As an adverb
    • Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear.
  • 20. Infinitives
    • As a noun :
      • I hate to go . (direct object)
      • To steal is a crime. (subject)
    • As an adjective :
      • It’s time to go . (modify time)
      • There are jobs to be done (modify jobs)
    • As an adverb :
      • He always plays to win . (modify plays)
  • 21.
    • We intended to leave early
    • The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended . to leave (infinitive) early (adverb)
    • I have a paper to write before class .
    • The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper . to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase)
  • 22.
    • Phil agreed to give me a ride.
    • The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed . to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of the infinitive) a ride (direct object of the infinitive)
  • 23. Infinitives
    • Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements .
    • This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement.
  • 24. Infinitive Punctuation
    • If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase, unless it is used as an appositive that is non-essential.
    • To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.
  • 25. Infinitives
    • Be careful not to create “split” infinitives.
    • This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form.
      • To boldly go….
      • To strenuously object…
      • To always comply…
    • It is bad structure for this to be formed.
  • 26. Infinitive Phrase
    • An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases.
  • 27.
    • Points to Remember:
    • *An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
    • *An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s) and/or prepositional phrases.
    • *An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a sentence (and sometimes as no-essential appositives).
  • 28. Participles
    • Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles.
    • They will have two forms:
      • Present (ending in “-ing ”)
      • Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en ”)
    • These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.
  • 29.
    • The crying baby had a wet diaper.
    • Shaken , he walked away from the wrecked car.
    • The burning log fell off the fire.
    • Smiling , she hugged the panting dog.
  • 30. Participles
    • Examples:
      • Smoking gun
      • Snoring spouse
      • Broken window
      • Elected official
      • Streaming video
      • Buzzing noise
      • Winning touchdown
      • Walking track
  • 31.
    • A participle is a verbal that acts as an adjective.
      • The crying woman left the movie theater.
      • The frustrated child ran away from home.
  • 32.
    • A participle is a form of a verb that acts as an adjective.
      • The crying woman left the movie theater.
      • The frustrated child ran away from home.
  • 33. The sliding cat crashed into the cans.
  • 34. DON’T CONFUSE PARTICIPLES AND VERBS!
    • Participles AREN’T preceded by helping verbs.
    • Ex. The sputtering sedan wrenched down the boulevard. (participle)
    • The sedan was sputtering down the boulevard. (verb)
  • 35. The girl, eating the chocolate buttery croissant, got a stomach ache. My tummy hurts!
  • 36. Participles
    • Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject.
    • Participle phrases can also be made from single participles
      • Running along the path
  • 37.
    • A Participle Phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and modifier(s) and/or direct object(s), indirect object(s), and/or prepositional phrases.
    • Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
    • The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack .
  • 38.
    • Removing (participle) his coat (direct object)
    • Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline .
    • The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin . walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)
  • 39.
    • When a participle phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.
    • Arriving at the store , I found that it was closed.
    • If the participle or participle phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
    Participle Punctuation
  • 40.
    • Sid, watching an old movie , drifted in and out of sleep.
    • The girl swimming in the pool is my friend.
    • If a participle phrase comes at the end and directly follows the word it modifies, you should not use a comma.
    • The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets .
  • 41. Participles
    • Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject.
      • Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score.
      • Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.
  • 42.
    • A participle is a verbal ending in -ing or -ed , -en , -d , -t , or -n that functions as an adjective , modifying a noun or pronoun.
    • A participle phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s),prepositional pharases, and/or complement(s).
    Points to Remember
  • 43.
    • Participles and participle phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.
    • A participle phrase is set off with commas when it:
      • a) comes at the beginning of a sentence
      • b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element
  • 44. Gerunds
    • A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.”
    • However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun.
    • Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.
  • 45.
    • To determine whether a word ending in –ing is a verb, participle, or gerund, you must see how the word is used in the sentence.
    • First find the simple subject and the simple predicate. They will help you know whether a word is a gerund.
  • 46.
    • Cora and Andy are running in tomorrow’s big race. (Running is part of the verb phrase are running)
    • The running water overflowed. (Running is a participle, modifying the subject water)
    • Running is both a fun and healthful exercise. (Running is the subject of this sentence. It is a gerund)
  • 47.
    • In a sentence a gerund can function in all of the ways that a noun does.
    • Subject: Reading is my favorite activity.
    • D.O. : I enjoy reading.
    • Object of Preposition: Today is a good day for reading.
    • Predicate Noun: My favorite activity is reading.
  • 48. Gerunds as a Subject
    • Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
    • In this sentence we see that traveling is the subject of satisfy
  • 49. Gerund as a Direct Object
    • They appreciate my singing.
    • Singing is used as a direct object because it answers the question of the verb (what are they appreciating? Singing)
    GERUNDS are super! Without them, verbs couldn’t be nouns!
  • 50. Gerunds as a Subject Complement
    • My mom’s favorite activity is running .
    • Running is explaining the subject in this sentence (what activity? Running.)
  • 51. Gerunds as an Object of Preposition
    • The police arrested him for speeding.
    • Speeding is the object of for in this example because it is explaining the prepostion (for what? For speeding.)
  • 52. What Hurts The Most
  • 53. Gerunds
    • Examples:
      • Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject)
      • I liked eating at the new restaurant . (direct object)
      • Without running very hard I won the race.
      • Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject)
  • 54.
    • Gerund, functioning as subject
    • *Reading is my most beneficial summer activity.
    • Gerund, functioning as direct object
  • 55.
    • *James enjoys swimming
    • Gerund, functioning as object of preposition
    • *You will get good grades by studying.
    • Gerund phrase, functioning as subject
    • *Eating on the run is one of the most unhealthy American habits.
  • 56.
    • Gerund phrase, functioning as direct object
    • *The teacher simply cannot excuse sleeping during class.
    • Gerund phrase, functioning as object of preposition
    • We found the keys by looking on the ground next to the car.
  • 57.
    • Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
    • *SUBJECT
    • They do not appreciate singing.
    • * DIRECT OBJECT
    • My cat's favorite activity is sleeping
    • *SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
  • 58.
    • The police arrested him for speeding.
    • *OBJECT OF PREPOSITION
  • 59.
    • Find each gerund in these sentences. Is it used as a subject, D.O. , object of a preposition, or a predicate noun?
    • Sketching is fun for me.
    • Marya exercises everyday by swimming.
    • Her other leisure activity is painting.
    • She and I are singing in the chorus tonight.
  • 60.
    • 5. Of all my interests, I care most about reading.
    • 6. Traveling comes second or third on my list of favorites.
    • 7. What is the most interesting hobby for you?
    • 8. A hobby can be anything from fishing to painting.
    • 9. Few things are better for relaxing than a satisfying hobby.
  • 61.
    • 10. Some people enjoy gardening whereas others prefer reading.
    • 11. Gardening gloves protect the hands of those who do yard work.
    • 12. Many people find pleasure in painting, sculpting, or carving.
    • 13. Practical hobbies include sewing, building, and cooking.
    • 14. Skating, skiing, and swimming are some healthful hobbies.
  • 62.
    • 15. Reading about faraway places is satisfying to many people.
    • 16. People of all ages relax and get in shape by jogging.
    • 17. In fact, running has become a hobby as much as an exercise.
    • 18. Winston Churchill, a former Prime Minister of Great Britain, liked painting and writing.
  • 63.
    • 19. Collecting was President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s hobby, and he acquired an amazing stamp collection.
    • 20. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s favorite kind of exercise was golfing.
  • 64.
    • Points to Remember:
    • *A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.
    • *A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
    • *Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.
  • 65. Practice:
    • You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined.
    • Identify the word or phrases as:
      • Infinitive
      • Participle
      • Gerund
  • 66. Practice:
    • Sleeping soundly in his bed , Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house.
    • I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring.
    • The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting.
  • 67. Practice:
    • 4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway , was a nuisance.
    • 5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging.
    • 6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible.
  • 68. Practice :
    • 7. Charging wildly down the street , the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona .
    • 8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying.
    • 9. To sleep , perchance to dream.
  • 69. Practice :
    • 10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying , five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree.
  • 70.
    • A Gerund Phrase is a group of words beginning with a gerund and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases.
  • 71. SUBJECT
    • The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
    • Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.
    • Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action) in a haystack (prepositional phrase)
  • 72. DIRECT OBJECT
    • The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the sentence.
    • My teacher likes questioning us on our math skills.
    • questioning (gerund)
    • us (direct object of action)
    • On our math skills (prepositional phrase)
  • 73.
    • A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it.
    • An exception would be:
    • a gerund set off by commas because it is an appositive, not because it is a gerund.
    • Ex: My favorite sport, running track , is great exercise.
    Gerund Punctuation
  • 74.  
  • 75.  

×