Verbals 3rd
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Verbals 3rd

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Verbals 3rd Verbals 3rd Presentation Transcript

  • 1.The frightened cat scratched my eye. 2.Running seems tiresome at first. 3.Sometimes I like to swing and sometimes I like to slide at the park.
    • A verbal is a verb that is being used as another part of speech rather than a verb.
    • Examples
      • The frightened cat scratched my eye.
      • Running seems tiresome at first.
      • Sometimes I like to swing and sometimes I like to slide at the park.
    Gerund Participle Infinitive
  • Verbals English II
  • Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?
    • Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself.
    • You have to see how the word is being used.
    • In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL
  • Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?
    • Examples:
      • Waxed
      • Flowing
      • Playing
      • Sleeping
    • These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.
  • Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?
    • Examples:
      • Our butler waxed the floors.
      • The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous.
    • In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done.
    • In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective
  • Is it a VERB or a VERBAL ?
    • Examples:
      • Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream.
      • Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy.
    • The same thing is true here as in the other example.
    • The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.
  • Basic Information on Verbals
    • Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following:
      • Noun
      • Adjective
      • Adverb
    • A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.
  • Basic Information on Verbals
    • There are three different kinds of verbals :
      • Infinitive
      • Participle
      • Gerund
    • Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.
    • An Infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “ to ” plus a verb form and functioning as a noun , adjective , or adverb .
    • To wait seemed foolish when action was required. (subject)
    • Everyone wanted to go . (direct object)
    • These are some common verbs that are often followed by infinitives:
    Want                Hope               Decide             Seem Need                Expect             Promise           Appear Would like       Plan                 Offer               Pretend Would love      Intend              Agree              Forget  Try                  Mean               Refuse             Learn          Afford             Wait
    • His ambition is to fly . (subject complement)
    • He lacked the strength to resist . (adjective modifying strength)
    • We must study to learn . (adverb modifying must study)
    • Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of “to” plus a verb form —with a prepositional phrase beginning with “to”, which consists of “to” plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.
    • Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
    Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases
    • Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address
  • Infinitives
    • An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.”
      • To play
      • To sleep
      • To be seen
      • To steal
      • To have been stolen
      • To speak
  • To Dream the Impossible Dream
  • Infinitives
    • In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted.
    • This is done for clarity.
      • Help him (to) move the sofa.
      • Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook.
  • Infinitives
    • The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are:
      • See
      • Hear
      • Feel
      • Help
      • Let
      • Make
      • Watch
  • Infinitives
    • An infinitive has three possible functions:
      • As a noun
      • As an adjective
      • As an adverb
    • Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear.
  • Infinitives
    • As a noun :
      • I hate to go . (direct object)
      • To steal is a crime. (subject)
    • As an adjective :
      • It’s time to go . (modify time)
      • There are jobs to be done (modify jobs)
    • As an adverb :
      • He always plays to win . (modify plays)
    • We intended to leave early
    • The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended . to leave (infinitive) early (adverb)
    • I have a paper to write before class .
    • The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper . to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase)
    • Phil agreed to give me a ride.
    • The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed . to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of the infinitive) a ride (direct object of the infinitive)
  • Infinitives
    • Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements .
    • This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement.
  • Infinitive Punctuation
    • If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase, unless it is used as an appositive that is non-essential.
    • To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.
  • Infinitives
    • Be careful not to create “split” infinitives.
    • This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form.
      • To boldly go….
      • To strenuously object…
      • To always comply…
    • It is bad structure for this to be formed.
  • Infinitive Phrase
    • An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases.
    • Points to Remember:
    • *An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
    • *An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s) and/or prepositional phrases.
    • *An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a sentence (and sometimes as no-essential appositives).
  • Participles
    • Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles.
    • They will have two forms:
      • Present (ending in “-ing ”)
      • Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en ”)
    • These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.
    • The crying baby had a wet diaper.
    • Shaken , he walked away from the wrecked car.
    • The burning log fell off the fire.
    • Smiling , she hugged the panting dog.
  • Participles
    • Examples:
      • Smoking gun
      • Snoring spouse
      • Broken window
      • Elected official
      • Streaming video
      • Buzzing noise
      • Winning touchdown
      • Walking track
    • A participle is a verbal that acts as an adjective.
      • The crying woman left the movie theater.
      • The frustrated child ran away from home.
    • A participle is a form of a verb that acts as an adjective.
      • The crying woman left the movie theater.
      • The frustrated child ran away from home.
  • The sliding cat crashed into the cans.
  • DON’T CONFUSE PARTICIPLES AND VERBS!
    • Participles AREN’T preceded by helping verbs.
    • Ex. The sputtering sedan wrenched down the boulevard. (participle)
    • The sedan was sputtering down the boulevard. (verb)
  • The girl, eating the chocolate buttery croissant, got a stomach ache. My tummy hurts!
  • Participles
    • Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject.
    • Participle phrases can also be made from single participles
      • Running along the path
    • A Participle Phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and modifier(s) and/or direct object(s), indirect object(s), and/or prepositional phrases.
    • Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
    • The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack .
    • Removing (participle) his coat (direct object)
    • Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline .
    • The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin . walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)
    • When a participle phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.
    • Arriving at the store , I found that it was closed.
    • If the participle or participle phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
    Participle Punctuation
    • Sid, watching an old movie , drifted in and out of sleep.
    • The girl swimming in the pool is my friend.
    • If a participle phrase comes at the end and directly follows the word it modifies, you should not use a comma.
    • The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets .
  • Participles
    • Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject.
      • Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score.
      • Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.
    • A participle is a verbal ending in -ing or -ed , -en , -d , -t , or -n that functions as an adjective , modifying a noun or pronoun.
    • A participle phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s),prepositional pharases, and/or complement(s).
    Points to Remember
    • Participles and participle phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.
    • A participle phrase is set off with commas when it:
      • a) comes at the beginning of a sentence
      • b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element
  • Gerunds
    • A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.”
    • However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun.
    • Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.
    • To determine whether a word ending in –ing is a verb, participle, or gerund, you must see how the word is used in the sentence.
    • First find the simple subject and the simple predicate. They will help you know whether a word is a gerund.
    • Cora and Andy are running in tomorrow’s big race. (Running is part of the verb phrase are running)
    • The running water overflowed. (Running is a participle, modifying the subject water)
    • Running is both a fun and healthful exercise. (Running is the subject of this sentence. It is a gerund)
    • In a sentence a gerund can function in all of the ways that a noun does.
    • Subject: Reading is my favorite activity.
    • D.O. : I enjoy reading.
    • Object of Preposition: Today is a good day for reading.
    • Predicate Noun: My favorite activity is reading.
  • Gerunds as a Subject
    • Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
    • In this sentence we see that traveling is the subject of satisfy
  • Gerund as a Direct Object
    • They appreciate my singing.
    • Singing is used as a direct object because it answers the question of the verb (what are they appreciating? Singing)
    GERUNDS are super! Without them, verbs couldn’t be nouns!
  • Gerunds as a Subject Complement
    • My mom’s favorite activity is running .
    • Running is explaining the subject in this sentence (what activity? Running.)
  • Gerunds as an Object of Preposition
    • The police arrested him for speeding.
    • Speeding is the object of for in this example because it is explaining the prepostion (for what? For speeding.)
  • What Hurts The Most
  • Gerunds
    • Examples:
      • Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject)
      • I liked eating at the new restaurant . (direct object)
      • Without running very hard I won the race.
      • Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject)
    • Gerund, functioning as subject
    • *Reading is my most beneficial summer activity.
    • Gerund, functioning as direct object
    • *James enjoys swimming
    • Gerund, functioning as object of preposition
    • *You will get good grades by studying.
    • Gerund phrase, functioning as subject
    • *Eating on the run is one of the most unhealthy American habits.
    • Gerund phrase, functioning as direct object
    • *The teacher simply cannot excuse sleeping during class.
    • Gerund phrase, functioning as object of preposition
    • We found the keys by looking on the ground next to the car.
    • Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
    • *SUBJECT
    • They do not appreciate singing.
    • * DIRECT OBJECT
    • My cat's favorite activity is sleeping
    • *SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
    • The police arrested him for speeding.
    • *OBJECT OF PREPOSITION
    • Find each gerund in these sentences. Is it used as a subject, D.O. , object of a preposition, or a predicate noun?
    • Sketching is fun for me.
    • Marya exercises everyday by swimming.
    • Her other leisure activity is painting.
    • She and I are singing in the chorus tonight.
    • 5. Of all my interests, I care most about reading.
    • 6. Traveling comes second or third on my list of favorites.
    • 7. What is the most interesting hobby for you?
    • 8. A hobby can be anything from fishing to painting.
    • 9. Few things are better for relaxing than a satisfying hobby.
    • 10. Some people enjoy gardening whereas others prefer reading.
    • 11. Gardening gloves protect the hands of those who do yard work.
    • 12. Many people find pleasure in painting, sculpting, or carving.
    • 13. Practical hobbies include sewing, building, and cooking.
    • 14. Skating, skiing, and swimming are some healthful hobbies.
    • 15. Reading about faraway places is satisfying to many people.
    • 16. People of all ages relax and get in shape by jogging.
    • 17. In fact, running has become a hobby as much as an exercise.
    • 18. Winston Churchill, a former Prime Minister of Great Britain, liked painting and writing.
    • 19. Collecting was President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s hobby, and he acquired an amazing stamp collection.
    • 20. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s favorite kind of exercise was golfing.
    • Points to Remember:
    • *A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.
    • *A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
    • *Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.
  • Practice:
    • You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined.
    • Identify the word or phrases as:
      • Infinitive
      • Participle
      • Gerund
  • Practice:
    • Sleeping soundly in his bed , Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house.
    • I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring.
    • The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting.
  • Practice:
    • 4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway , was a nuisance.
    • 5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging.
    • 6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible.
  • Practice :
    • 7. Charging wildly down the street , the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona .
    • 8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying.
    • 9. To sleep , perchance to dream.
  • Practice :
    • 10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying , five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree.
    • A Gerund Phrase is a group of words beginning with a gerund and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases.
  • SUBJECT
    • The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
    • Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.
    • Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action) in a haystack (prepositional phrase)
  • DIRECT OBJECT
    • The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the sentence.
    • My teacher likes questioning us on our math skills.
    • questioning (gerund)
    • us (direct object of action)
    • On our math skills (prepositional phrase)
    • A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it.
    • An exception would be:
    • a gerund set off by commas because it is an appositive, not because it is a gerund.
    • Ex: My favorite sport, running track , is great exercise.
    Gerund Punctuation
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