Verbals 3rd


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Verbals 3rd

  1. 1. 1.The frightened cat scratched my eye. 2.Running seems tiresome at first. 3.Sometimes I like to swing and sometimes I like to slide at the park.
  2. 2. <ul><li>A verbal is a verb that is being used as another part of speech rather than a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The frightened cat scratched my eye. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running seems tiresome at first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes I like to swing and sometimes I like to slide at the park. </li></ul></ul>Gerund Participle Infinitive
  3. 3. Verbals English II
  4. 4. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? <ul><li>Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to see how the word is being used. </li></ul><ul><li>In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL </li></ul>
  5. 5. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our butler waxed the floors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done. </li></ul><ul><li>In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL ? <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The same thing is true here as in the other example. </li></ul><ul><li>The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basic Information on Verbals <ul><li>Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Basic Information on Verbals <ul><li>There are three different kinds of verbals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerund </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>An Infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “ to ” plus a verb form and functioning as a noun , adjective , or adverb . </li></ul><ul><li>To wait seemed foolish when action was required. (subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone wanted to go . (direct object) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>These are some common verbs that are often followed by infinitives: </li></ul>Want                Hope               Decide             Seem Need                Expect             Promise           Appear Would like       Plan                 Offer               Pretend Would love      Intend              Agree              Forget  Try                  Mean               Refuse             Learn          Afford             Wait
  12. 12. <ul><li>His ambition is to fly . (subject complement) </li></ul><ul><li>He lacked the strength to resist . (adjective modifying strength) </li></ul><ul><li>We must study to learn . (adverb modifying must study) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of “to” plus a verb form —with a prepositional phrase beginning with “to”, which consists of “to” plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong </li></ul>Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases
  14. 14. <ul><li>Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address </li></ul>
  15. 15. Infinitives <ul><li>An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To steal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To have been stolen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To speak </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. To Dream the Impossible Dream
  17. 17. Infinitives <ul><li>In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done for clarity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help him (to) move the sofa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Infinitives <ul><li>The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Infinitives <ul><li>An infinitive has three possible functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an adverb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Infinitives <ul><li>As a noun : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I hate to go . (direct object) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To steal is a crime. (subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an adjective : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s time to go . (modify time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are jobs to be done (modify jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an adverb : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He always plays to win . (modify plays) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>We intended to leave early </li></ul><ul><li>The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended . to leave (infinitive) early (adverb) </li></ul><ul><li>I have a paper to write before class . </li></ul><ul><li>The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper . to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Phil agreed to give me a ride. </li></ul><ul><li>The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed . to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of the infinitive) a ride (direct object of the infinitive) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Infinitives <ul><li>Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements . </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Infinitive Punctuation <ul><li>If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase, unless it is used as an appositive that is non-essential. </li></ul><ul><li>To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Infinitives <ul><li>Be careful not to create “split” infinitives. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To boldly go…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To strenuously object… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To always comply… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is bad structure for this to be formed. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Infinitive Phrase <ul><li>An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Points to Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>*An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>*An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s) and/or prepositional phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>*An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a sentence (and sometimes as no-essential appositives). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Participles <ul><li>Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles. </li></ul><ul><li>They will have two forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present (ending in “-ing ”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en ”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The crying baby had a wet diaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaken , he walked away from the wrecked car. </li></ul><ul><li>The burning log fell off the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Smiling , she hugged the panting dog. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Participles <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking gun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snoring spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buzzing noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winning touchdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking track </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>A participle is a verbal that acts as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The crying woman left the movie theater. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The frustrated child ran away from home. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>A participle is a form of a verb that acts as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The crying woman left the movie theater. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The frustrated child ran away from home. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The sliding cat crashed into the cans.
  34. 34. DON’T CONFUSE PARTICIPLES AND VERBS! <ul><li>Participles AREN’T preceded by helping verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The sputtering sedan wrenched down the boulevard. (participle) </li></ul><ul><li>The sedan was sputtering down the boulevard. (verb) </li></ul>
  35. 35. The girl, eating the chocolate buttery croissant, got a stomach ache. My tummy hurts!
  36. 36. Participles <ul><li>Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Participle phrases can also be made from single participles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running along the path </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>A Participle Phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and modifier(s) and/or direct object(s), indirect object(s), and/or prepositional phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river. </li></ul><ul><li>The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack . </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Removing (participle) his coat (direct object) </li></ul><ul><li>Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline . </li></ul><ul><li>The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin . walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb) </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>When a participle phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Arriving at the store , I found that it was closed. </li></ul><ul><li>If the participle or participle phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. </li></ul>Participle Punctuation
  40. 40. <ul><li>Sid, watching an old movie , drifted in and out of sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>The girl swimming in the pool is my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>If a participle phrase comes at the end and directly follows the word it modifies, you should not use a comma. </li></ul><ul><li>The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Participles <ul><li>Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>A participle is a verbal ending in -ing or -ed , -en , -d , -t , or -n that functions as an adjective , modifying a noun or pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>A participle phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s),prepositional pharases, and/or complement(s). </li></ul>Points to Remember
  43. 43. <ul><li>Participles and participle phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated. </li></ul><ul><li>A participle phrase is set off with commas when it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) comes at the beginning of a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Gerunds <ul><li>A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.” </li></ul><ul><li>However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>To determine whether a word ending in –ing is a verb, participle, or gerund, you must see how the word is used in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>First find the simple subject and the simple predicate. They will help you know whether a word is a gerund. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Cora and Andy are running in tomorrow’s big race. (Running is part of the verb phrase are running) </li></ul><ul><li>The running water overflowed. (Running is a participle, modifying the subject water) </li></ul><ul><li>Running is both a fun and healthful exercise. (Running is the subject of this sentence. It is a gerund) </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>In a sentence a gerund can function in all of the ways that a noun does. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Reading is my favorite activity. </li></ul><ul><li>D.O. : I enjoy reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Object of Preposition: Today is a good day for reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate Noun: My favorite activity is reading. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Gerunds as a Subject <ul><li>Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sentence we see that traveling is the subject of satisfy </li></ul>
  49. 49. Gerund as a Direct Object <ul><li>They appreciate my singing. </li></ul><ul><li>Singing is used as a direct object because it answers the question of the verb (what are they appreciating? Singing) </li></ul>GERUNDS are super! Without them, verbs couldn’t be nouns!
  50. 50. Gerunds as a Subject Complement <ul><li>My mom’s favorite activity is running . </li></ul><ul><li>Running is explaining the subject in this sentence (what activity? Running.) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Gerunds as an Object of Preposition <ul><li>The police arrested him for speeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Speeding is the object of for in this example because it is explaining the prepostion (for what? For speeding.) </li></ul>
  52. 52. What Hurts The Most
  53. 53. Gerunds <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I liked eating at the new restaurant . (direct object) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without running very hard I won the race. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject) </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Gerund, functioning as subject </li></ul><ul><li>*Reading is my most beneficial summer activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund, functioning as direct object </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>*James enjoys swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund, functioning as object of preposition </li></ul><ul><li>*You will get good grades by studying. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund phrase, functioning as subject </li></ul><ul><li>*Eating on the run is one of the most unhealthy American habits. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Gerund phrase, functioning as direct object </li></ul><ul><li>*The teacher simply cannot excuse sleeping during class. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund phrase, functioning as object of preposition </li></ul><ul><li>We found the keys by looking on the ground next to the car. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>*SUBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>They do not appreciate singing. </li></ul><ul><li>* DIRECT OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>My cat's favorite activity is sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>*SUBJECT COMPLEMENT </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>The police arrested him for speeding. </li></ul><ul><li>*OBJECT OF PREPOSITION </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Find each gerund in these sentences. Is it used as a subject, D.O. , object of a preposition, or a predicate noun? </li></ul><ul><li>Sketching is fun for me. </li></ul><ul><li>Marya exercises everyday by swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Her other leisure activity is painting. </li></ul><ul><li>She and I are singing in the chorus tonight. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>5. Of all my interests, I care most about reading. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Traveling comes second or third on my list of favorites. </li></ul><ul><li>7. What is the most interesting hobby for you? </li></ul><ul><li>8. A hobby can be anything from fishing to painting. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Few things are better for relaxing than a satisfying hobby. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>10. Some people enjoy gardening whereas others prefer reading. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Gardening gloves protect the hands of those who do yard work. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Many people find pleasure in painting, sculpting, or carving. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Practical hobbies include sewing, building, and cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Skating, skiing, and swimming are some healthful hobbies. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>15. Reading about faraway places is satisfying to many people. </li></ul><ul><li>16. People of all ages relax and get in shape by jogging. </li></ul><ul><li>17. In fact, running has become a hobby as much as an exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>18. Winston Churchill, a former Prime Minister of Great Britain, liked painting and writing. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>19. Collecting was President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s hobby, and he acquired an amazing stamp collection. </li></ul><ul><li>20. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s favorite kind of exercise was golfing. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Points to Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>*A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>*A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). </li></ul><ul><li>*Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Practice: <ul><li>You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the word or phrases as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerund </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Practice: <ul><li>Sleeping soundly in his bed , Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house. </li></ul><ul><li>I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring. </li></ul><ul><li>The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Practice: <ul><li>4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway , was a nuisance. </li></ul><ul><li>5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Practice : <ul><li>7. Charging wildly down the street , the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona . </li></ul><ul><li>8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying. </li></ul><ul><li>9. To sleep , perchance to dream. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Practice : <ul><li>10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying , five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree. </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>A Gerund Phrase is a group of words beginning with a gerund and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases. </li></ul>
  71. 71. SUBJECT <ul><li>The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action) in a haystack (prepositional phrase) </li></ul>
  72. 72. DIRECT OBJECT <ul><li>The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>My teacher likes questioning us on our math skills. </li></ul><ul><li>questioning (gerund) </li></ul><ul><li>us (direct object of action) </li></ul><ul><li>On our math skills (prepositional phrase) </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it. </li></ul><ul><li>An exception would be: </li></ul><ul><li>a gerund set off by commas because it is an appositive, not because it is a gerund. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: My favorite sport, running track , is great exercise. </li></ul>Gerund Punctuation