TransitionsLook at the two groups of sentences below.Which sentences read more smoothly? Click onan answer below. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. He has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. In fact, he has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year.
TransitionsA transition word directly tells the reader thelogical relationship between one idea andanother idea. Transition Idea Idea
The most convincing ideas in the world, expressed in the most beautiful sentences, will move no one unless those ideas are properly connected. Unless readers can move easily from one thought to another, they will surely find something else to read or turn on the television.
Providing transitions between ideas is largely a matter of communicating with your reader. You understand the organization of your essay, but your readers don’t. Your readers need some stepping stones, and be sure to place them in readily accessible and visible spots.
There are essentially four kinds of transitional devices that show the reader the organization of your essay:o Transitional tags (conjunctions) between the paragraphso Paragraph hookso Pronoun referenceso Parallelism
Transitional Tags Transitional tags to more complex run the gamut signals that ideas are from the most somehow connected simple — the little — the conjunctive conjunctions: adverbs and o and, transitional o but, expressions such as o nor, o however, o yet, o moreover, o or, o nevertheless, o (and sometimes) o on the other hand . so —
TIME: Carpenters hammered loudly on the roof. Meanwhile, Dr. Perez sleep soundly in the basement. SPATIAL: A crowd stood patiently on the sidewalk. Inside, the early show was about to finish. CONTRAST: Most flying mammals rest in trees or marshlands. Some, however, prefer more secure resting locations such as caves and the hollows of trees.
RESULT: An unusual cold temperatures below freezing more than two days. As a result, many oranges froze and spoiled. ADDITION: The counselor told us not to swim in the lake or hike by ourselves. Furthermore, we were told not to use the archery range without supervision.
EMPHASIS: We did not want to go to the crowded beach. Indeed, we hoped never to go there again.
Example ;however, Marcos loves to go his parents won’t allowswimming in the ocean. him to do that.The transition, however, tells the reader thatthe logical relationship between the two ideas iscontrast.
TransitionsTransitions are words that help makeyour writing more coherent. They createconnections between: - one clause and another clause - one sentence and another sentence - one group of sentences and the next group of sentences
Joining Two Independent ClausesOne way of joining two independentclauses is with a semicolon, a transition, anda comma. ; furthermore, Marcos is a he’s very good atgreat swimmer scuba diving. Marcos is a great swimmer ;furthermore, he’s very good at scuba diving.
Connecting Two SentencesYou can use a transition and comma to tell thereader the logical relationship between twosentences. In fact,Marcos is very athletic. he plays three sports at school. Marcos is very athletic. In fact, he plays three sports at school.
Placement of TransitionRather than placing the transition at thebeginning of the second sentence, you mayplace it in the middle of the second sentenceafter the subject with two commas. Marcos is very athletic. transition He, in fact, plays three sports at school. subject
Transitions in Longer WritingWhen writing a paragraph or a larger pieceof writing,you can use a transition to showthe reader the logical relationship betweenone group of sentences and another groupof sentences.This is useful when you want to let thereader know that you are changing fromone idea to another idea.
Example- Longer Piece of Writing Transitionconnects Essayideas inparagraph 2 Introductionto ideas inparagraph 1. Body Paragraph 1 Transition connects Body Paragraph 2: In ideas in addition, paragraph 3 to ideas in Body Paragraph 3: paragraph 2. Furthermore, Conclusion:
Types of Transitions Relationship TransitionAddition Moreover Furthermore In addition besidesMarcos loves to ski he likes to fish. ;moreover, ;furthermore, ;in addition, ;besides,
Types of Transitions Relationship TransitionReinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact Marcos plays basketball The transition andsecond clause ;in fact,reemphasize thefirst clause. ;indeed, he plays every Saturday.
Types of Transitions Relationship TransitionExemplification For example For instance In particular Marcos enjoys outdoor sports The second ;for example,clause is morespecific than the ;for instance,first. ;in particular, he likes hiking, skiing, and fishing.
Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Contrast However On the contrary In contrast On the other handMarcos enjoys scuba diving ;on the other hand, $$$ ;however, ;on the contrary, ;in contrast,I think it is an expensive sport.
Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Result or Effect Consequently Accordingly Thus Hence Therefore As a result ;thus,Marcos broke his leg ;consequently, he can’t play basketball. ;therefore, ;hence, ;as a result, ;accordingly,
Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Time Meanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) ;subsequently,Marcos scored a goal his team won the game. ;thereafter, after
Correct!Excellent! This sentence reads more smoothlybecause it contains a transition. Transitionwords connect ideas within and betweensentences. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. In fact, he has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year.
I’m Sorry!These sentence do not read as smoothly.These sentences contain no transitions toconnect the ideas to each other. Go back tolearn more about using transition words.My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic.He has won a scholarship to play football at a universitynext year. No transition words to connect ideas.
References PowerPoint Presentation by Ruth Luman: Modesto Junior College. This project incorporates portions of copyrighted works. These items are included under the fair use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law and have been prepared according to the educational fair use guidelines. They are restricted from further use.