Manifest Destiny/ Imperialistic Expansion Domestic / Global Industrialization Spanish American War 1898 (Territorial Acquisitions: Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines) Open Door Policy 1899 - China Boxer Rebellion 1900 - China The Philippine Insurrection 1900- 1903 Panama Canal 1903-1914 Roosevelt Corollary, 1904
A Filipino independence movement grew in the 19th century and Filipinos fought on the side of the Americans in 1898 during the Spanish-American War. When the Spanish were defeated, General Aguinaldo declared the Philippines independent. The USA, however, had other plans, and promptly purchased the islands from the Spanish for US$20 million.
. The Philippines, a collection of 7,000 islands represent a gateway to the markets of Asia..$$$$$$$
MCKINNLEY’S DILEMMA #1 Give territory back to Spain (cowardly and dishonorable?) #2 Turn them over to France or Germany, our commercial rivals in the Orient – that would be bad business. #3 We can not leave them to themselves – they were unfit for self government and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than when Spain ruling.
Before you go I would say just a word about the Philippine business. … The truth is I didn’t want the Philippines, and when they came to us as a gift from the gods, I didn’t know what to do with them…I walked the floor of the White House night after night until midnight; and I am not ashamed to tell you gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night. And one night late it came to me this way – I don’t know how it was but it came:
MCKINNLEY’S DECISION . There is nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow men for whom Christ also died. And then I went to bed and went to sleep and slept soundly
Emilio Aguinaldo "the George Washington of the Philippines" . led a nationalist revolt in 1899 against American War. This revolt was a direct result of the invasion of the U.S
Jose Marti Cuba (1895) Emilio Aquinaldo Philippines (1899-1901) The Boxers China, 1900 Exiled Cuban Poet and journalist organized resistance against Spain using guerrilla tactics; Opposed U.S. occupation of Cuba Fought with U.S. in war against Spain (1898) lead Filipino insurrection against U.S. occupation 1899-1901 Chinese secret society that revolted to drive out “foreign devils” Responses to Imperialism – A Familiar Theme?
… we have destroyed their fields; burned their villages; …we have acquired property.. And hoisted our protective flag…And so, by these ‘Providences of God’… we are World Power” Mark Twain
ANTI-IMPERIALISM Many prominent Americans were against imperialism, they felt we should settle race issues at home before taking on problems elsewhere!
Uplifting the Filipinos? During the Philippine-American War the U.S. losses were 268 killed and 750 wounded. The Filipino loss was 3,227 killed and 694 wounded