Declaration of Independence July 4 th 1776 “ All men are created equal”
The Declaration of Independence was based on Enlightenment ideas Natural rights philosophy…….
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Articles of Confederation (1777)
Article of Confederation 1782-1789 Success…… Failure
I will meet you in Phily
The Continental Congress
CONSTITUTION = COMPROMISE
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Articles of Confederation (1777)
U.S. Constitution (1787)
Bill of Rights (1791)
Articles of Confederation ratified 1781 Ratification of the Constitution 1788 “ The Critical Period ” 1776
"Earlier today we heard the beginning of the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States, We the people . It is a very eloquent beginning. But when that document was completed, on the seventeenth of September in 1787, I was not included in that We, the people. I felt somehow for many years that George Washington and Alexander Hamilton just left me out by mistake. But through the process of amendment, interpretation, and court decision I have finally been included in We, the people.
The Congress makes the L aws The President E nforces the laws The courts Interpret the laws L egislative Branch Judicial Branch E xecutive Branch Separation of Powers REVIEW VIDEO
Checks and Balances VIDEO REVIEW
Judicial Review The power of the Courts to declare laws unconstitutional- interpret whether the law is “constitutional”
“ I walk on untrodden ground…” Precedent? VIDEO REVIEW
The “Unwritten Constitution”
The First Political Parties Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans
I will establish a Cabinet and fill it will the top minds of the country!
The Whiskey Rebellion
Shay’s Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion 1786-1787 Massachusetts farmers were upset their property was being seized for failure to pay taxes. Daniel Shay’s lead angry mob during take over of local arsenal Volunteer militia force stops rebellion 1794 Western Pennsylvania farmers opposed Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey. Farmers refused to pay tax and attacked revenue officers President Washington sends 12,000 troops to stop rebellion
United States 1796-1800 Liberty Order
Northern votes for Adams Southern votes for Jefferson “ Sectionalism”
President John Adams leader of the Federalist Party Vice President Thomas Jefferson leader of the Democratic Republicans
Under the threat of war with France, Congress in 1798 passed four laws in an effort to strengthen the Federal government. Known collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts , the legislation sponsored by the Federalists was also intended to quell any political opposition from the Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson.
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 American citizenship requirements raised from 5 –14 years; jail time or fines for anyone expressing opinions damaging to the government; President could deport violators TARGETED : Foreigners (immigrants, French and British radicals), and members of the Democratic - Republicans Jefferson submits Virginia and Kentucky resolutions arguing states have a right to declare federal legislation “null and void” RESULTS: Federal government prosecuted and jailed Republican editors, publishers, and politicians Ben Franklin’s grandson thrown in jail.
Checks and Balances ? ? In 1798 The Federalist party controlled the Executive and Legislative branches The Judicial branch had not shown its true power by 1798, as a result they were unable to declare the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional
The Election of 1800 Introducing President #3……
The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr ran on the same ticket and received equal electoral votes. The House ended up voting on the President
The Real Winner of the Election of 1800…
The United States Expands
“ Our Manifest Destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."
Louisiana Purchase 1803 President Jefferson loosely interprets his Treaty making powers in the Constitution to purchase Louisiana Territory from Napolean
LOOSE INTERPRETION OF THE CONSTITUION As President Washington’s Sect. Of Treasury Hamilton uses the “necessary and proper” clause (elastic) when establishing the first national bank Alexander Hamilton As President Jefferson loosely interprets his treaty making powers to purchase Louisiana from France for 15 million Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson 1791 1803
WEST Economic Activities Sectional Interests? SOUTH Economic Activities Sectional Interests? NORTH Economic Activities Sectional Interests? Sectionalism
The Northern Economy
My invention resulted in the south’s dependence on slave labor
Slavery and the Southern People
“ The pen is mightier than the sword”
Slavery is not the only cause of the Civil War (1860-1865) States Rights vs. National Rights is the issue the Regents exam will test
Unit IV The Gathering Storm
The many faces of the Abolitionist Movement The great irony…all men are created equal”
“ I stand before you today a thief….I stole these limbs, this body, and this head….” Frederick Douglass
. Abolitionist John Brown Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I say, let it be done.” Abolitionist John Brown
Unit IV 1820 1850 1854 1857 1860
Territorial Expansion Anti- Slavery Movement A Clash of Interests
Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott John Brown's Raid Election of 1860 Fort Sumter Civil War
Lincoln and the U.S. Constitution
Increases size of the army without Congressional approval
Withdrew 2 million dollars without authorization
Arrested and jailed anti-Unionists giving no reason for arrest.
Censored some anti-Union newspapers
Set up military courts to try Confederate sympathizers
LINCOLN and THE CONSTITUTION
What questions had to be resolved? The Civil War is over... Now what?
Southern Economy: No more slavery, sharecropping Former Slaves? Assistance from Freedmen’s Bureau Physical Destruction? Rebuild the South RECONSTRUCTION 1865-1877
America has been split apart by three major wars: 1770's the American Revolution 1860’s in the Civil War 1970's the Vietnam War Each war has dramatically changed the generation engaged in battles as well as the generations that followed.
Radical Republicans Andrew Johnson Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan #1 #3 #2
Goals of the Radical Republicans:
#1 Punish the South
#2 “Radical Reconstruction”
Treat the South as conquered territories
Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens
Opposing Reconstruction Plans Stevens and the Radicals President Johnson
After Reconstruction (1865-1877) ended the rights of African Americans in the South were restricted through Jim Crow laws
END OF SLAVERY 14TH AND 15TH AMENDMENTS FREEDMEN'S BUREAU Jim Crow KKK BITTERNESS SHARECROPPING BLACK CODES VOTING DENIED SEGREGATION POSITVE Legacy of Reconstruction 1865-1877 NEGATIVE