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KnowMan.pps (pps/1841kb) KnowMan.pps (pps/1841kb) Presentation Transcript

    • knowledge management
    Knowledge is power, it is that which can be acted upon The secret of joy in work is contained in one word – excellence To know how to do something well is to enjoy it Pearl S. Buck Next >
  • Knowledge management - course introduction
    • This is a presentation that attempts to set a foundation of understanding to higher level processes that are contributory factors to managing knowledge and deriving greater benefits from that accumulated knowledge. In some sections it delves deeper to give practical guidance, strategies or ‘good practice’ in general terms about how to manage these factors and stay on top of this information deluge so that processes may become more productive and efficient
    • It is a modern day imperative to take control of this very important subject for many reasons, most importantly:
      • the quantity of information that is necessary to continue operations has increased and will continue to
      • To benefit from the effort of accumulating data, the data has to be directed to the subject matter (concise), as complete as possible, locatable (quickly) and comprehensible
      • retained knowledge of individuals, that if not transcribed, becomes lost or less available when they depart,
      • improve productivity, lower inefficiencies and eliminate doubt about how to proceed
    • Purists, Academics and Philosophers may dispute the categorisation or nomenclature or even the content of parts of this presentation. In writing this presentation with so many acronyms, overlapping or inadequate definitions and coverage it was difficult make clear distinctions between subject areas. In it’s final form it was written to be a practical guide to the various subject areas, to show inter-relationships or dependencies, trying to demystify what can be quite dense material, forgive me if I may have stepped on academic sensibilities
    • Much will seem self-evident, obvious (having thought about it) but it all has to be said to put it all into context and in a form that can be actioned
    • There are several discrete sections to this presentation and they are all accessed from the following menu
    Next > « Start
  • menu
    • Knowledge
      • forms and dimensions
      • communicating
      • transfer
      • referencing
      • capturing
    • Knowledge Management
      • reasons to employ
      • applications
      • data capture techniques
      • technologies
    • Intellectual property
      • copyright
      • Digital Object Identifiers
      • Digital Object Identifiers – in practice
    • Rights management
      • protecting physical media
      • digital content protection
      • digital content protection - technologies
      • Digital Rights Management
    • Information management
      • paper
      • Digital
      • digital – email
      • digital – email archiving
      • analogue
    • digital assets
      • digital asset management
    • systems management
      • data and applications
      • data backups
      • databases
      • backup strategies
      • server fault tolerance
      • security and access
      • threats to continuity
      • auditing
    • digital preservation
      • strategies
    • digital publishing
      • internet
      • how internet browsers work
      • copy prevention strategies
      • Image, video and sound watermarking
      • source code protection
    • what next? where next?
      • basic options – pros and cons
      • considerations about content of documentation systems
      • getting organised
      • saving space
      • document construction
      • libraries and paper
      • departmental guides
      • searches
    • credits
    • references
    « Start
  • knowledge - a definition
    • the Oxford English dictionary defines knowledge as:
      • The facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject
      • what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information
      • awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation
    • The Collins English dictionary has:
      • The facts or experiences known by a person or group of people
      • The state of knowing
      • Specific information about a subject
    • It can also mean the informed understanding, possessing or showing much understanding of a subject
    • There is no single universally agreed definition of knowledge
    • Various theories have been proposed throughout history and will continue to be proposed
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge - forms and dimensions
    • Some philosophers on the subject have proposed that there are various forms of knowledge
      • Situated: knowledge that pertains to a situation. Methods such as trial and error or experience generate this form and are encountered in traditions, language and culture
      • Partial: it often impossible to have a complete understanding of a subject or informational domain therefore knowledge is ‘partial’. However using that knowledge, taking account of the context and the problem, it may be solved
      • Scientific method: a range of techniques used to investigate a phenomena or subject as a means of gaining new knowledge, integrating existing bodies of knowledge or correcting existing. It is generally based on the gathering of empirical, observable and measurable evidence and experimentation to prove or formulate theories and hypotheses
    • Some philosophies define dimensions of knowledge
      • Tacit knowledge:
        • is subconscious, internal and individual
        • The individual may or may not be conscious of what they know or how they have accomplished particular results
      • Explicit knowledge:
        • is knowledge an individual is conscious of, is in mental focus and which the individual communicates to others
        • Is knowledge that has been transcribed to some medium, like documents, papers, books, drawing or created as video and image
    • In brief tacit knowledge is what is in our heads and explicit has been put down onto some medium or communicated in some manner
    • Again little consensus exists amongst academics
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge - communicating
    • We commonly use writing to store meanings, although drawings, images, sound and movies can also be used and perhaps the most powerful representation is the combination of various these techniques to convey a meaning
    • knowledge can be captured, transferred or communicated using any or all of these techniques
    • The symbolical representation (writing) or visual material is the ‘data’, whereas information is the interpretation derived from viewing or reworking the ‘data’
    • Knowledge is contextual to the material, hence ancillary explanations or information are usually necessary to derive appropriate interpretations of the source material. A well enough known proverb is “A picture is worth a thousand words”. While indeed this is true, it often takes words to convey the context (surrounding influences or circumstances) to the image
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge - transfer
    • Throughout history knowledge transfer has existed in one form or another
    • Examples being:
      • on-the-job learning and apprenticeships
      • Discussions, conferences, symposia and forums
      • Libraries, publications and media categories
      • training and mentoring
    • With the rise of pervasive computing, specific IT applications such as knowledge bases, expert systems, knowledge repositories have further aided the process of knowledge transfer and sharing
    • The Internet too has enabled many new possibilities, with new technologies like search engines, web sites, e-learning, web conferencing, new breeds of collaborative softwares, content management systems, etc which can exponentially expand the level of inquiry available to a knowledge worker
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge - referencing
    • Knowledge may be referenced before, during or after some activity
    • Access to knowledge
      • Prior to an activity
        • may be as research into good practices, identify prior experience from similar activities, inform and learn, preparation and planning
      • During an activity
        • may be to seek advice or guidance on issues or problems encountered
      • Afterwards
        • may be to review activities, create feedback, finalise documentation, undertake post activity actions or closure and completion
    • Additionally
      • perhaps supplementary to the above, is for individuals to seek expert or management guidance as needed (before, during or after)
        • critically the guidance is given in the context of the problem and often fertile
        • however the disadvantages are availability (limited or non-availability) of that expert, failings of memory and at no stage does it capture the insight and experience in a tangible form
      • Other technologies, like the internet provide a huge resource for inquiry
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge - capturing
    • Identification and capture of knowledge is a blurry and difficult region
      • Information Management says it’s getting the right information to the right person at the right place at the right time. This characterisation omits the definition of what is the ‘right information’
      • Informational Management says 'Knowing what information to gather, knowing what to do with information when you get it, knowing what information to pass on, and knowing how to value the result'
    • Neither definition is completely satisfactory, however this aspect of capture is critical to having a successful knowledge management system
    • Without controlling or guiding in some manner the capture of data, systems will fill up with all manner of data and rubbish, serving no purpose and reducing to nothing any other stated objective of the system
    • Taking the points from Knowledge Management’s definition and ‘Motivations’ into account, it must be derived that to attain these goals and objectives, the capture and storage of information has to be accurate, concise, interpretable and comprehensive
    • Capture can occur:
      • prior to an activity as a planning, learning or familiarisation
      • during activities to record tasks accomplished and document activities
      • And afterwards to complete documentation, review performance and identify problems in processes
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge management – a definition
    • Knowledge management is a range of practices to identify, generate, represent and distribute knowledge for later use, understanding, distribution, publication, training and learning
    • It’s primary focus is on shared information, improving performance (productivity), setting best practice, creating competitive advantage, spurring innovation and development (including evolution)
    • It’s objective is to convert tacit knowledge to explicit with the aim of successful transfer of knowledge, allowing correct and individually meaningful interpretations of information to be gained by subsequent users. Furthermore it should provide structure within which to put explicit material
    • No single universally accepted definition for Knowledge Management exists nor is one likely to
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge management – reasons to employ
    • The reasons for employing Knowledge Management practices may include any combination of the following:
      • to gain competitive advantage
      • to promote consistency and good or best practices
      • to have better experiences (in contrast to planning disasters)
      • to permit knowledge access across dispersed personnel, organisations or units
      • to make more available, more structured or more easily accessed the existing knowledge content
      • to achieving shorter activity cycles, increase productivity
      • to spur innovation and advancement
      • to leverage existing expertise and facilitate learning, induction of new personnel
      • to take benefit from ‘networking’ personnel, sharing of knowledge, manage dispersion and proliferation of knowledge
      • to allow rapid access to useful and pertinent information and best practice guidelines
      • to manage intellectual capital (intangible intellectual assets that contribute to the valuation of an organisation) and assets (such as expertise and know-how)
      • to increase responsiveness (efficiency) or resilience to changes
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge management - applications
    • Knowledge management applications typically
      • manage the processes of identification, creation, gathering and application of knowledge
      • attempt to unify various policies, thought and practice under a single set of practices aligned to the institutional politic
      • talk of ‘Intellectual capital’, ‘knowledge worker’ (in a) ‘knowledge economy’
      • promote the ideology of a ‘learning organisation’ whereby having undertaken activities, the results are reviewed and this review is used to refine and improve already existing processes, practices, policies and organisational structures or create new ones
      • incorporate technologies or applications like knowledge bases, expert systems, intranets, extranets, content management and document management
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge management - data capture techniques
    • Techniques that may be employed to guide user interactivity in the knowledge capture process
      • Vest in the user the discretion and judgement to decide what is worthy or necessary of inclusion in the system to document an activity.
        • Often the default option as this alone requires no further elaboration
        • Information quality is variable, determined specifically by each user
        • Completeness is variable
      • Assistants or Wizards as they are sometimes referred to (programs or add-ins that guide user choices).
        • Often used in applications for various purposes from original installation and configuration to setting up specific activities
        • Information quality is high and is complete, often being checked for validity during the process. Appropriate only in some instances
      • Templates, checklists, datasheets, check sheets and forms provide a framework within which to work or guidance to working in other applications or documents
        • Information quality has the possibility of being satisfactory
        • Use is optional and content is flexible therefore is appropriate to variable circumstances
        • Completeness is variable, as use is optional
      • Workflows, Processes and procedures established to control the flow of events or data
        • Is not specifically data capture
        • is necessary in some circumstances to control activities
        • Ensures (or attempts to) bring to satisfactory conclusions the activity it controls
      • User Manuals, Good practice guides and training which attempt to instil in the user the required knowledge necessary for the correct usage of systems
        • Is not specifically data capture but the content of the manuals, guides or training may incorporate guidance as to what to capture, influencing items 1 and 3
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • knowledge management - technologies
    • From knowledge management’s formulation, technologies included document management systems and organisational yellow pages (expertise locators)
    • In the 1990s came collaborative technologies (the most notable being Lotus Notes)
    • And subsequently Information Management systems, in particular technologies for search and retrieval and tools developed specifically for Knowledge Management such as ‘Communities of practice’
    • Recent innovations include social computing technologies e.g. wikis and blogs giving rise to new forms of communities. The information contained therein is generally unstructured and present difficulties in extracting significant and usable information. However there are shining examples like wikipedia
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • intellectual property
    • Is an umbrella term for the legal entitlements allowing authors exclusive rights in relation to the subject matter of the Intellectual Property (IP) but not the actual intellectual work itself
    • IP laws and enforcement vary widely amongst jurisdictions and efforts have and are being made to harmonise through international treaties but disputes have so far prevented the emergence of a cohesive international system
    • IP laws are designed to protect different forms of subject matter and overlap to some extent
      • Copyright may give the holder the exclusive right to control reproduction or adaptation of creative work for a period of time (typically 75 years)
      • Patents may be granted giving right to prevent others from practicing the invention without a license form the inventor for a period of time (typically 20 years)
      • Trademarks are distinctive signs used to distinguish products or services
      • Industrial design rights protects the form of appearance, style or design of an industrial object
      • Trade secrets are secret, non-public information regarding commercial practice or proprietary knowledge of which disclosure may be illegal
    • Patents, trademarks and design rights can also collectively be known as ‘Industrial Property’ as they are typically created and used for commercial or industrial purposes
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • intellectual property
    • IP supposedly ‘facilitates and encourages the pursuit of innovation and disclosure of information into the public domain for the common good, granting license to authors exclusive rights to exploit their works for a limited period of time’
    • Debate rages over the stated aims, being seen from some points of view as Intellectual Protectionism and legally, comparing unauthorised use to ‘theft’ presents problems. Theft is deprivation of use by rightful owner, whereas unauthorised copying and use of material does not deprive the creator of his own version
    • Generally these rights regulate the unauthorised reproduction or commercial exploitation of the material covered by the rights and are nothing more than the right to sue an infringer, which may have the effect that those wishing to use the material will approach the rights holder for permissions to use
    • Exclusive rights conferred by IP can generally be transferred (with or without monetary considerations), licensed or rented or perhaps even mortgaged to third parties or used as collateral for borrowing
    • IP can be used in valuations (of businesses for instance) under certain circumstances
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • Intellectual property - copyright
    • What is copyrighted:
      • Anything you write, draw, sculpt or create
    • With the exception of:
      • Direct copies of other material
      • Short writings such as words or phrases and simple drawings
      • Facts and ideas
      • Works that have not been fixed in a tangible form of expression
      • Titles, names, short phrases and slogans
      • Ideas, procedures, methods, systems, processes, concepts, principles, discoveries or devices
      • Works consisting entirely of information that is common property and containing no original authorship
    • When is a work copyrighted
      • Immediately, whether it’s on paper, disk or other medium
      • It does not have to be registered to be copyrighted
    • Copyrights do not prevent others from expressing the same idea in a different form , nor using the same form of expression, if they had no knowledge of the original held by the copyright holder
    • While not impossible to pursue copyright infringements through legal means, seldom is there the resources or justification for doing so. It is where copyright has financial implications and profits or potential loses are high that the circumstances become viable. And furthermore since the Internet is global and copyright laws vary widely amongst jurisdictions (or in some places simply don’t exist) it may prove very difficult to pursue
    • Protect what you can at a reasonable cost and that’s that
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • intellectual property – Digital Object Identifiers
    • An emerging standard that allows the registration of digital assets to uniquely identify them is the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) with also the stated aim of protecting that digital asset
    • This standard has emerged through the promotion by publishers of scientific, medical and technology journals that would allow them to identify granular digital assets like chapters, articles, single audio tracks and images
    • DOI came about because ISBN (Int’l Standard Book Number) for books and ISSN (Int’l Standard Serial Number) for periodicals (amongst other Identifiers) have been used to identify publications but have shortcomings, not allowing for the individual identification of articles or chapters within each publication and are not ‘actionable’ (locatable) over the internet
    • To adequately protect published material, the object must be ‘easy to identify’ (described sufficiently to distinguish it from others) and registered (giving unique ID numbers) through an authorised registration agency (fees attached)
    • DOI and it’s processes are modelled on the internet’s URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) and the Bar Code development and process and employ existing standards and technologies
    • DOI is managed and developed by an organisation called International Digital Object Identifier Foundation created by a coalition of publishing organisations (refer www.doi.org )
    • It is in use by hundreds of publishers worldwide and millions of articles have been registered. Each year millions more are added. It is predicted that use of this mechanism will grow exponentially and within 5 years DOI will be used to tag any published material
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • intellectual property – Digital Object Identifiers – in practice
    • What this means in real the real world
      • Some documents or multimedia material (digital assets) produced may merit registration where that material is published
      • DOI is not a copy prevention scheme, once accessed on the internet the content can be copied easily
      • ‘ protection’ is afforded by the registration and description of that digital asset with clearly stated publishing and rights, perhaps making it more feasible to persecute those that make direct copies and publish it elsewhere or derivatives of that digital asset
      • Permits other DOI aware users to locate such material using the article’s DOI (requires resolving the location using a DOI query server)
        • For instance there is a document with the DOI of 10.1000/184 (DOI handbook) that exists
        • Using a web browser in the ‘Address’ type
          • http://dx.doi.org/10.1000/184
        • A request is sent to the server at http://dx.doi.org for resolution of the DOI 10.1000/184
        • The server replies with the URL of the document (internet address)
        • And presented in the browser is the document that has the DOI 10.1000/184
        • If for some reason the DOI is not found and error page is presented in the browser
        • It is not clear what happens when the registered resource (DOI) actually resides within a private network and therefore not directly accessible from the internet
        • See the next slide for an illustration of the resolution process
      • DOI is usable whether that digital asset resides within the institution or is formally published externally
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • intellectual property – Digital Object Identifiers– in practice Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • rights management - protecting physical media
    • Referring to multimedia like Video or Sound whether digital or analogue
    • Primarily is the need to protect access to genuine originals. If unauthorised copies have been made, for whatever motive, it is generally because of poor security
    • All genuine articles and authorised master copies made should be given unique serial or registry numbers.
    • Physical media copies for distribution should be marked as being such and the content watermarked showing attribution and rights. Electronic files for distribution should be watermarked showing attribution and rights
    • Alongside marking genuine or authorised copies with numbers or codes is the need to register them in some form of database with secured access and permissions
    • No paper copies of the registry should be left outside of secure filing, nor digital database or document or backups outside of secure storage
    • Be aware of magnetic or electro-magnetic sources close to magnetic media, they tend to destroy the content. Equally the ambient environment has to be controlled or at least kept fresh and dry to ensure longevity of media
    • Media, electronic or analogue are not considered as indestructible, permanent mediums. For instance early CDs have suffered from CD Rot, an oxidisation which made the disk unreadable. Care has to be taken in storage, handling and use. Periodically content has to be migrated to new media
    • Use only suitable pens or labels for marking media (serial numbers, labels, etc). Pencil for instance can render disks unusable (depends on physical construction of media)
    • Processes should be developed for accession, lending, security and process auditing. Responsibilities should be split between various personnel or departments. It would be negligent to assign all responsibilities to one or two persons. Procedural security will lessen possibilities of unauthorised copying
    • When lending media, the responsibilities of the borrower should be made clear in a contract for lending as regards security, handling and storage and copying (see Rights Management – Copy Protection)
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • rights management - digital content protection
    • More specifically ‘Copy Prevention’ or ‘Copy Protection’ is a mine field. Technology has made it so easy to copy material
    • Major players in the entertainment industries (movie studios and music) are ‘spooked’ by the ease of copying, condemning the ‘wholesale theft’ of copyrighted material and lobby ferociously to restrict users rights and technology that permits copying
    • Open source advocates denounce efforts to transform the internet into a tightly controlled digital marketplace
    • Hackers, crackers and peer-to-peer advocates stress the impossibility of preventing sharing and personal use, insisting that such activities do not significantly impact revenues and that users have already been ripped off by the media giants
    • Constitutionalists argue that the current laws undermine the long-held balance between creators interests and public interest and ‘fair use’
    • And then there is the escalating battle between industries developing more and more sophisticated content protection systems and those that quickly crack them
    • Having said all this, there are sometimes legitimate needs to prevent copying to protect the copyright holders interests
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • rights management - digital content protection technologies
    • The principal technologies that have been developed to protect digital content are summarised as:
      • CSS: [Content Scrambling System]
        • used to encrypt DVD video content
      • CPPM: [Content Protection for Pre-recorded Media]
        • used to encrypt DVD audio content
      • RPC: [Regional Playback Control]
        • used to restrict in which world region content is sold or played
      • CPRM: [Content Protection for Recordable Media]
        • used to restrict writable DVD drives from indiscriminate copying of CP material
      • CGMS-A: [Copy Generation Management System]
        • is the Macrovision DVD Copy Protection System
      • Verance:
        • used to prevent analogue output being captured by either digital or analogue devices. Is a DVD audio watermarking technology
      • DTCP: [Digital Transmission Content Protection]
        • used to prevent digital output being captured by digital devices
      • HDCP: [High bandwidth Digital Content Protection]
        • Used to protect DVI (digital video interface) connections
      • Video Watermarking:
        • Currently as there is no means to prevent the VGA monitor signal being intercepted, video watermarking is being developed to prevent this vulnerability
      • CPSA: [Content Protection System Architecture]
        • Used to co-ordinate these technologies under a formal architecture
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu
  • rights management – digital content protection technologies
    • Many of these previously cited technologies have been defeated soon after release
    • The basic justification for their use is to deter ad hoc copying
    • A copy-protection scheme does not become ineffective when circumvented by a determined hacker
    • A copy-protection scheme does however become ineffective when the ‘crack’ is so well distributed and used that it gains popular appeal
    • CDs have no native copy protection mechanisms, however some publishers, from 2002 produced modified CD that did incorporate copy-protection violating the ‘Red Book’ specification (CD Format spec) hence do not bear the Compact Disc logo
    • VHS and earlier technologies likewise have no native copy-protection technology as part of it’s specification however Macrovision do have a protection scheme
    • What does this mean in the real world
      • If digital or analogue content merits protection at the technological level then
        • If digital video
          • If medium is DVD, SD flash memory or ATAPI storage (hard disks) > Use CPRM
        • If digital audio
          • If medium id DVD > Use CPPM
        • If analogue
          • If medium is VHS > Use Macrovision Copy Protection
          • If medium is DVD > Use Macrovision DVD Copy Protection
      • Other media types should be investigated to determine if there are viable copy protection technologies available to the specific format
      • These are licensed technologies and would require specialist advice and services to create protected copies of the media
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  • digital rights management
    • Digital Rights Management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to several technologies used by publishers or copyright holders to control access to and usage of digital data or hardware, and to restrictions associated with a specific instance of a digital work or device
    • The term is often confused with copy protection and technical protection measures both which refer to technologies that control or restrict the use and access of digital content on devices with the technology installed, possibly acting as components of a DRM scheme (see Rights Management – Digital Content Protection)
    • DRM is highly controversial. Advocates argue it is necessary to prevent unauthorised copying and ensure revenue streams. Critics argue that it goes beyond the statutory, common law. Some say it’s anti-competitive and flawed by design because it is not time limited as is copyright. Currently there are no mechanisms to remove the DRM schemes once a copyright term expires. Copyright does not restrict the resale of an item provided a copy is not retained and under the doctrine of ‘fair use’ a user is allowed to make a backup copy or compilations. Such legal rights are denied under DRM schemes
    • There is a long history of objection to copying technology of any kind, starting with the piano roll and later audio tape recording, video recording, digital audio tape (DAT), CDs and DVDs
    • As opposed to analogue data that degenerates with copying and sometimes even with use, digital is a perfect master copy each time
    • With the advent of PCs and read/write removable media (CDs/DVDs/Tapes), the ease of ‘ripping’ a CD, radio broadcasts, combined with the Internet and file sharing tools on peer to peer networks, have increased sharing digital files (referred to as digital piracy) further increasing the worries of copyrighted content holders and publishers
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  • information management
    • Outside of the data generated by daily activity, information arrives in various forms, some of it requiring action, some simply notification, some requiring filing
    • At the individuals’ discretion various decisions or actions maybe made
      • What is the information that is useful, that should be committed to storage? And to where or how?
      • What is it that needs to be done?
      • What needs to be communicated?
    • Are decisions that are necessary during documenting activities that will be faced by each individual
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  • information management - paper
    • Paper is a principal form in which information arrives
      • With a piece of paper one should ask the following questions to determine if there is anything that should go to permanent storage
      • Does this paper require an action or actions?
      • Is it recent enough to be of value? (it contains relevant up-to-date information? And is not of historical sequence interest)
      • Is it the only copy or form in which it exists? Would it be difficult to get again? (duplicates are not necessary in paper form)
      • Are there any legal implications or other consequences of not having it?
      • Are there specific uses for the paper?
      • What are the worst scenarios of not having it?
      • Does it simply advise of something or does it contain actionable information?
    • Based on the outcome to these questions, there is a decision to keep or throw out the paper
    • If the decision is to keep it, then ask does it require an action or actions. If actionable then initiate what is necessary to complete what is required. If not actionable then file it as a reference document
    • The paper or papers should be filed in an appropriate location, and cross-referenced to others where necessary or prudent
    • It may be necessary to update data in electronic file systems with the received information (to make more complete)
    • Paper filing should have basic physical security, i.e. locks to prevent unauthorised access
    • Some 80% of paper can be thrown out immediately as it will never be referred to or used again
    • Be more ruthless in the determination of the above questions, the filing system will benefit and there will be less dead-weight and as a consequence it will be easier to find what you’re looking for and fewer resources and space will be required to house the filing
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  • information management - digital
    • Increasingly information arrives in a digital form and is a major source of information
    • The same types of questions as paper should be asked to determine the validity and usefulness of the information contained in a document or documents
    • On some occasions the information contained should be copied out to other documents or systems (particularly emails that tend to contain only small bits or several bits of information) so as to complete the information contained within those other documents or vice versa
    • Finally, if the decision is to keep a document, whether edited or not, it should be filed in an appropriate location, given an appropriate name and cross-referenced to others where necessary or prudent
    • Assure that there are no other duplicates already on the file system
    • Likewise that no other ‘versions’ of a file or files exist otherwise determine if this newly received document should become part of a version sequence and act appropriately
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  • information management - digital - email
    • Email is so pervasive and each day more so. A lot of information is transferred in this manner as it is ‘asynchronous’ (not requiring the others to receive it at the same moment) and it is immediate (task done, move to the next)
    • Email remains a major concern for most organisations as it represents a great communication medium but also one that is quite dangerous
    • Sometimes it is necessary (for legal reasons) to maintain mails as an audit trail of events and data, in many instances this is not a requirement
    • Email tends to suffer even worse than paper for hoarding. Many simply leave the inbox accumulating mails or create folders under a few generic names and migrate the emails to the corresponding folder. It’s a problem in several senses: capacity (some users can have gigabytes of mail), and it’s locked information (only the owner/receiver generally has access to it and relies on their memory to locate information
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  • information management - digital - email archiving
    • Strategies for archiving email
    • it is best to export a mail to a plain text form, either as plain text, html file or in some cases RTF (Rich Text Format).
      • The exported documents will retain their email ‘headers’ (which is the sender, receiver, dates, etc, they can then be treated and manipulated as a standard text document,
      • can be opened by many more programs that exist by default on any system and can be indexed by indexing systems for word searches (if implemented)
        • As opposed to exporting as an email format, which unfortunately is, in many instances, a ‘proprietary’ format (unreadable by other email clients)
        • nor readable by word processors
        • and the email client may not be installed on all workstations
    • Aggregate where possible, in chronological order, the individual emails into a single file and name appropriately, file in an appropriate location on the file system. Taking into account that when ‘Reply’ is used this automatically creates the ‘email chain’
    • Once exported remove from the email from the system unless (for instance) there were a requirement to have access to it remotely
    • Discipline is required, for each email ask the same questions as for paper, if there’s reason to keep it, export it as indicated above, action any points raised by the mail and respond as necessary. Extract the useful information and update any other files or databases. If there are no reasonable grounds to keep it, delete it
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  • information management - analogue
    • Like video VHS or audio cassette or other older analogue forms of media storage
    • Presumably this will be of some archival value. If relating to an artwork follow the procedures outlined for accession and security of genuine articles (see protecting physical media )
    • Consider the migration strategy for digital preservation as a means of protecting the content and have a digital form more readily accessible on the file system (given that you have the right(s) to do this) and no other technical reasons intervene or prevent
    • However this would also have to be with consideration of a risk analysis of the technology that comprises an artwork and the artist’s intent (assuming that the content actually pertains to an artwork)
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  • digital assets - a definition
    • Digital assets are the content or medium that is binary to which includes the right to use it. Conversely it is not an asset without the rights to use it
    • In the real world this means
      • the assembled collection of information and data stored digitally in your computer or other electronic systems and to which you have access and the right to use, reuse, publish, re-purpose, transfer or benefit monetarily
      • It generally means an investment of hundreds or thousands of man hours of work
      • It means your collective know-how and experience. While this may not include trade secrets, patented products, represent a competitive advantage, or other highly valuable intellectual property developed for commercial gain, your data is a huge investment in time (and money) and worthy of protection and possibly when re-purposed for publication or reuse in some form e.g. symposia, conferences, catalogues, published research, etc
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  • digital asset management
    • Comprises the policies, programmes, tasks and decisions surrounding the compilation, organisation, storage and retrieval of digital assets
    • Should be adapted to follow internal polices, infrastructure and nature of the material being handled
    • Should be adopted to streamline the handling of increasing quantities of data, increase productivity, reduce errors and raise standards or create new baseline standards
    • Should incorporate systems security, access security, fault tolerance, backup and restoration programmes and auditing (see Systems Management )
      • Systems security is summarised as physical security for both servers and workstations and digital data that exists outside of this equipment e.g. backup tapes, copies of whatever nature
      • Access Security is permissions based access to data and what level of editing capability is granted over a file
      • Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to withstand component failure (particularly servers but perhaps workstations dedicated to specific roles and functions)
      • Backup and Restoration programmes are cyclical backup copies of data to a separate medium (normally tape, but can be other network resources e.g. another server) with processes to test the ability of the system to restore data. This is critical to disaster recovery programmes)
      • Threat assessments to identify likely or possible threats to continuity
      • Auditing is a sequence of periodic review to identify weaknesses in the system, and more frequently to identify possibly intrusion attempts or successes
    • Note:
      • A narrower definition of digital asset management exists and refers to managing those digital assets that are of commercial value or used in commercial activities, ignoring other types of data
      • This presentation uses the wider definition of digital asset to mean ‘data’, i.e. any resource that is digital to which you have the rights over
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  • systems management
    • Is the administration of computer systems (in the context of this presentation) that support business processes and is responsible for creating, administering and maintaining the working environment and providing the platform upon which business activities can happen
    • Systems management refers specifically to the hardware, networking or other infrastructure, software and applications used to build a ‘system’ or ‘systems’ and the logical configuration to support and provide security within that ‘system’ (accounts, groups, permissions, privileges, facilities, et al)
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  • systems management - data and applications
    • All institutional, departmental, project or workgroup data should be kept on the server(s) i.e. all data other than temporary or user data (but even this data may be centralised and incorporated in the backup strategies)
      • Having a single focus for all work related data is the simplest management model for backup strategies.
      • Backing up workstations, which are much more numerous and variable is costly in time and effort and is slow. However this may be necessary where workstations have specific and dedicated uses and this use merits inclusion in backup strategies
    • All users should have drives mapped to the central data volume(s)
    • All workstations should be networked and have the basic programs installed in a standardised configuration that allow them to open and edit the typical types of files that reside on the server(s) or access institutional databases and facilities
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  • systems management - data backups
    • As a barest minimum all servers should have Backup strategies (and Restore) implemented, used and periodically tested
      • This is the most fundamental recovery system in the event of disaster, be it hardware failure, fire, flood, inadvertent or purposeful destruction of data and even a useful way of migrating to new server equipment when they are replaced
    • A backup strategy is a combination of periodicity, programming, hardware and software
      • The backup software is often a suite of programs providing the ability to define what is backed up to which device (tape, disk or DVD/CD) and with what frequency and time of day. Providing also the capability of cataloguing media and restoring specific files or the media in it’s entirety
      • Most often for higher data capacities, tapes specific to the task, are used for backups. Many technologies and varieties exist and each is designed for a particular use, speed and capacity. Dedicated servers and disk storage arrays may be used for backups and for smaller quantities of data DVDs or CDs can be used
      • Backups should run every day or every second day in order to capture data changes in files or databases where data is constantly changing. If for instance certain parts of a system are reference materials, not changing often, then it does not make sense to have a full backup made at the frequency of rapidly changing data
      • Past backups should be kept to ensure that a particular file, at a particular revision level or date can be restored correctly. How many weeks, months or years that is, is highly dependant on quantity of data backed up, resources, staffing, costs and internal policy suffice to say the more options there are the better.
      • Backup copies should be held off-site in secure storage
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  • systems management - databases
    • Databases backup and recovery
      • Databases often have different backup requirements. True Relational Database Management systems (RDBMS) like Oracle, SQL Server and DB2 amongst others are highly specialised applications, requiring that backups are made in different circumstances to standard file backups. Databases are held open for use (by operating system level services), therefore normal file backup routines as described previously don’t actually backup the database or it’s transaction log. Hence one of two basic strategies have to employed to backup the database: shutdown the database and services which support the database (it can now be backed up as a set of files) or using the internal functionality of the database system, create a backup of the database and transaction log, committing any transactions and truncating the log before doing the standard file backup (taking care not to include the actual database and log in the file backup)
      • Databases like Microsoft Access can be treated as a simple file and included in the standard file backup. (The databases should not be in use during backups)
      • Dependent on the nature of the data contained in the database the frequency of the backup may be higher than the standard file backup
      • All of the other considerations for standard file backups remain unchanged for databases
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  • system management - backup strategies
      • A sound backup strategy would make a copy of all data everyday (night times)
        • Weekday backups (Monday to Thursday) overwriting the previous weekday’s backup (i.e. Monday overwrites the previous Monday’s backup and so on)
        • Weekly copies (Friday) are kept during the month on a rolling overwrite similar to weekdays on a five week cycle
        • Monthly backups should be kept permanently for however many years are considered pertinent. Sometimes there are legal requirements e.g. Accounting and Financials require at least 7 years of records to meet legal requirements in many western countries
      • This strategy assures that you can recover a file, any file,
        • from any time within the last x years (as it existed on the month end backup)
        • or any file as it existed on the end of week backup within the last five weeks,
        • or any file as it existed at the end of the day in the last week
      • Given that the file can be restored correctly (which isn’t guaranteed although reliability has improved tremendously) and is the reason for the necessity of testing restore procedures and backup media
      • In the case of tape backup media which form part of the backup rotations (weekdays and end of week), tapes should be overwritten up to a maximum of 20 or 30 times and then replaced
      • Backup media tapes should be held in fire-proof safes, in secure environments with controlled ambient conditions
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  • systems management – server fault tolerance
    • Servers should have some form of ‘fault tolerance’ which is to say the ability to continue operation given failure of internal components. Most basically, the hard disks should have some level of RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) sometimes referred to as an ‘Array’. The fault tolerant levels are:
      • RAID 1: ‘Mirroring’ which is 2 hard disks (both of same capacity) that each contain the same data i.e. one of them is redundant (secondary) but still active. Until such time as the primary disk fails, the secondary then becomes the primary allowing the server to remain operational. The failed disk can then be replaced to re-establish the mirror
        • RAID 1: Effective capacity = single disk capacity (or 50% of total capacity)
      • RAID 5: ‘Stripping with Parity’ which is a minimum of 3 disks (that are of the same capacity) joined logically to form a single disk. Two of the disks contain real data and the third (in a three disk scenario) contains data that can reconstruct the data that would be missing if one of the other two disks failed (albeit at a performance penalty until the failed disk is replaced). RAID 5 can have many more disks and the effective capacity of the system is:
        • RAID 5: Effective capacity = (number of disks – 1) * single disk capacity
      • RAID 5 requires specialised disk controllers internally in order to create and manage the ‘disk array’
    • RAID 10: effectively two RAID 5 ‘arrays’ in a mirrored configuration
    • There are other RAID levels but these are not truly fault tolerant configurations
    • Depending on the specification of the servers (and price of course), power supplies, processors and even memory can be duplicated to provide redundancy in the event of failure of a primary component
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  • systems management – server fault tolerance
    • High performance, high price
      • At the very top end of server fault tolerance systems are ‘clusters’ which are at least two and sometimes more servers that logically appear as one (to a client workstation) and they share the processing load for all clients. Obviously if one fails this is transparent to the client workstations
      • The more advanced fault tolerance systems are used in ‘mission critical’ or ‘24 by 7’ (24 hours, 7 days a week) situations where availability is everything. However it would be hard to justify the expenditure for these high end solutions when the workload is normal business hours with little or no overtime being worked in non-commercial environments
    • Costs of failure
      • It is commonly quoted, at least in the business world, that to lose your IT systems
        • for a day costs at least the number of personnel affected multiplied by the cost to employ them for the day,
        • to lose your systems for a week profits are seriously affected,
        • to lose your systems for a month you’re out of business.
      • The product of man-hours lost multiplied by the associated costs to employ is a crude measure but nevertheless effective and is always more than the cost to buy and maintain these systems that have tested backup strategies and have fault tolerance built into the system
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  • systems management – security and access
    • Servers and networking equipment should always have physical security with restricted access to a limited number of authorised personnel. Server rooms should have managed power supplies i.e. groomed power supplies with UPS backup or generators (Uninterrupted Power Supplies) and be air conditioned to maintain operating temperatures.
    • Servers should be protected at various levels via permissions and privileges
    • Administrative accounts should be limited to a few personnel (at least two persons but not many (depends on organisational size) and should have rigorous passwording policies.
    • Servers under no circumstances should be used ‘as an additional workstation’
    • Logically servers are there to serve and hence the users should have unhindered access to whatever they are permitted to have access to, which is dictated by the policy of the institution or department. However to protect the systems, these same users should not have access nor privileges to access the server console either locally or via remote desktop, should not have privileges to change configurations nor install software on the server, these are administrative functions and sometimes involve having valid licensing
    • General workstations too, are there to be used for work (and perhaps a little of life organisation or personal work) and again these should be not be overly restrictive environments so as to impede legitimate work nor totally open to allow configuration changes. It costs a lot of administrative time and effort to fix failures, uninstall unauthorised software and clean up what was downloaded ‘free’ from the Internet that actually had some form of Trojan, Worm, Virus, key-logger, Adware, nuisance, distasteful content or mal-ware which perhaps unintentionally reduced systems security to nearly nothing or denied use of the machine or systems
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  • systems management – security and access
    • Ideally each user should have an account, a profile (set of permissions and privileges) and be obliged to have strong passwords, have their own ‘home directory’, be connected into all the centralised institutional or departmental data (on an as needed basis) and have all necessary programs available
    • Ideally systems would have a unified password policy but seldom is this the case
      • Passwords are the most vulnerable part of a security configurations, for lots of reasons. Not least because of password fatigue, each individual system having it’s own account username and password, there’s just too many, and each has a different password policy (password length, complexity, numbers only, letters only, etc, etc). If users are forced to change passwords every n days, can’t use variants of the previous, can’t rotate and use a previous, etc then users will write them down on post-its, share them with colleagues, use the kids names, the wife’s name or husband as the case may be, birthdays, anything that is close that’s easy to remember and therefore easy to discover for mal-intentioned activity
      • If this single aspect were to be simplified for users then overall systems security would be raised
    • What is actually permitted on a workstation is a combination a various factors and the permutations of configuration possibilities are enormous. The principal determining factors include but are by no means limited to: workstation OS version, Server security model (Workgroup, Domains, Active Directory, NDS, LDAP, Kerberos, etc), institutional policy or practice or existing infrastructure and need for access or editing.
    • Systems Access management requires administration and well defined procedures to be effective in safeguarding the systems
    • It requires periodic review to maintain the level of security required institutionally or departmentally
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  • systems management – security and access
    • No security model or configuration is perfect
      • Passwords can be discovered or cracked (relatively easily) particularly if the mal-intentioned have physical access to the equipment, are determined, have appropriate skills and software tools.
      • It is more difficult to access systems remotely but not impossible either
      • Network traffic can be eavesdropped
        • unencrypted communication (clear text) require simple tools easily obtainable and no interpretation to compromise network security
        • encryption of communications , can make it more difficult to infiltrate, but not impossible either
    • The security measures implemented should be designed to deter most common lower level attempts at infiltration or minimise the effects of any perceived threat (see next)
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  • systems management – threats to continuity
    • A risk assessment of threats should identify the measures specifically to be implemented to safeguard systems
    • The risks a system are susceptible to may be any combination of the following:
      • Natural disasters, fire, flood
      • Power failures
      • Terrorist attacks
      • Organized or deliberate disruptions, theft, worker strikes
      • System and/or equipment failures
      • Human error
      • Computer viruses or other invasive softwares
      • Legal issues
      • Testing
    • It is more often those inside an organisation that can cause the most damage, whatever the reasons or motivation might be because they have trusted access already
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  • systems management - auditing
    • Auditing is one of several means of determining if unauthorised activity is taking place within the collective IT systems. For some business sectors it is necessary for legal reasons, to comply with legal obligations
    • Auditing (computer systems) is monitoring logons, use of privileges and file access and file activity. Auditing can be for success of operation, failure of operation or both. It creates log files which grow rapidly in size
    • Auditing can generate huge quantities of data and if implemented needs to be constantly monitored on many different levels, to detect any form of misconduct (and there are many possibilities), unauthorised access to restricted or sensitive data, unauthorised changes to systems or data
    • Auditing systems need to be designed (a series of choices about what to monitor) so that only likely threats are logged thereby reducing log file sizes and administrative burdens
    • An auditing system should have a means of filtering and summarising the information for management reports. Management reports should be produced on a periodic basis (weekly or monthly)
    • Reviews should be conducted periodically to determine if all the avenues of infiltration or perceived threat are covered, are effective and actions programmed to incorporate new threats when so determined
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  • digital preservation
    • Is the management of digital information over time
    • May require a significant input of time, money and effort to combat technological and organisational changes
      • For instance various media like diskettes, zip disks et al are no longer available nor supported in modern day PCs or operating systems and organisational changes may have brought in newer applications or systems that require extraction of data from old formats to new
    • For analogue media that degrades over time, then preservation means creating new copies of media and treatment to remove noise and minimise degradation of the content (and perhaps format migration to digital)
    • Is therefore a set of practices, strategies and activities that ensure continued access to the digital information
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  • digital preservation - strategies
    • Several strategies exist to avoid loss of access to data
    • Refreshing: Is copying the data to new media or systems which should be combined with ‘migration’ strategies (see next)
    • Migration: Is transferring data to newer systems or environments which requires format conversion to assure continued ability to read (interpret) the data
    • Replication: Is creating duplicates of the data (backups). Single copies existing in only one location are highly vulnerable to software or hardware failures, inadvertent or intentional modification and environmental disasters like fire, flood, etc. Data is more likely to survive if it is replicated (see Systems Management – data backups )
    • Emulation: is the reproducing the functionality of an older, obsolete system or application for the continued access to the data which may provide an alternative to Migration. Virtualisation is the current day jargon covering this area
    • Standards: use only applications that support and use the more standards based file formats. For instance where possible:
      • Text documents with formatting use RTF (Rich text format)
      • Text documents with no special formatting use TXT (plain text)
      • Database or Spreadsheet data without special formatting use CSV or TSV (comma or tab separated values) when exporting data
    • These formats are near universal formats that most programs can read, open or import, thereby avoiding the need for the ‘migration’ strategy, additionally viruses and other security threats cannot replicate using these formats
      • An emerging standard is the Open Document Format which is an XML based format (plain text). As of this day there are competing variants but the objective of the standard is to have a common document format and description permitting the use of documents in any appropriate application irrespective of developer
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  • digital publishing
    • As a general rule with digital material, if you can read it, you can copy it
    • This gives rise to the possibilities of unauthorised copying of material either you wish to protect against misuse or misinterpretation or you have rights over
    • It is therefore necessary to incorporate measures in the publication that will protect your interests but allow unimpeded access to the same since you are publishing (making public) your material
    • Examples
      • Photography: The copyright to a photo resides with the creator of that work and may not be reproduced in an unlimited way by others unless, of course, the creator has given free license to copy or has relinquished all rights
      • Generally those that create, wish to keep some or all rights to the work, for example attribution (acknowledgement of creator) or commercial rights because that is their work, their income
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  • digital publishing - internet
    • Most visitors to web sites simply have the goal of learning, entertainment, finding information or are curious, however there are some that have the specific objective of taking material for reuse somewhere else
    • Some measures are available to protect web content however if someone is determined enough they will be able to copy the material
    • The internet is full of plagiarised material with each claiming to be the creator of that material or sometimes worse is that they steal your bandwidth (more on this later)
    • Various techniques are available to someone with the desire to copy your material
    • Various techniques exist to protect the content to deter casual copying
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  • digital publishing - how internet browsers work
    • When opening a web page your browser ‘requests’ the page from the web server and it is downloaded to your PC for rendering in your browser. Hence the web page exists now on your PC as various files in the ‘cache’. Bingo, someone now has a copy of the entire content of the page (perhaps without knowing that)
      • If someone wants the source code to a page, it’s as simple as right-click, ‘view source’ and they have the HTML (and possibly scripting code) that makes up the page
      • Streaming Media can be recorded while viewing the video or playing the audio stream
      • Protected content like Flash movies or graphics exist in cache, can be extracted and then edited using the appropriate authoring software. If these were password protected to prevent extraction, there is generally some software on the internet that will crack the password and allow editing or extraction of the material
      • And as a last resort, if the page is protected in some way that prevents copying as text, there is always the print screen button which makes a bitmap file of the current screen which is essentially similar to someone using a photocopier to copy a book
    • It’s a wonder anyone publishes on the Internet because it is just so easy to copy, however many continue to publish and modest protection measures prevent the majority of plagiarisers
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  • digital publishing - copy prevention strategies
    • Determine what needs protecting with the following in mind
      • Copying; implement measures to limit the ability to copy or print and lower the quality of media. Perhaps also implement watermarking
      • Distribution or resale: implement watermarking
      • Attribution and creative ownership; implement watermarking
    • And then to what level should it be protected
      • If it’s sensitive information, has legal implications on being copied or used elsewhere or other circumstances would be complicated where the material be misused then seriously ask whether it should be published
      • If it can be published but you wish or need to retain attribution, mark images or video (visually) as pertaining to you or your institution. If the media is sound then this can be watermarked as well (but generally what can be done in software can also be undone as well = cracked and removed). The only sensible strategy with sound is to lower the audio quality, but not so much as to make it ugly and unbearable. Sound cannot be visually marked for fairly obvious reasons
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  • digital publishing - copy prevention strategies
      • Lower the resolution of images to the lowest acceptable and add some facility on the page where someone would be able to request a higher resolution version under controlled circumstances (e-commerce opportunities). This will also allow a page to load faster.
        • Most PC screens have a resolution of 96 dpi (dots per inch), most printers are 300 or 600 dpi which provide an adequate image quality at smaller reproduction sizes, therefore these should determine what is the maximum resolution at which you will publish on the Internet. Magazines and catalogue resolutions reach 1200 dpi and some photographic type printers are starting to reach this type of quality
      • Nothing can be effectively done to protect textural content. Simply mark pages as copyrighted, some form of Creative Commons license or equivalent and leave it to the integrity of those that copy whether you have some form of acknowledgement for it’s creation but remember copyright covers the expression, not the actual ideas and concepts (see Copyright )
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  • digital publishing - copy prevention strategies
      • Programming techniques can be employed on the web server for ‘redirection’ of images making it impossible (or at least difficult enough) for some other web site to embed your images, sound clips or videos in their pages and thereby ‘steal’ you bandwidth and attribution. This technique only avoids bandwidth theft. A robber can still request the page with it’s image or video and retrieve it from the browser cache on his computer and then insert it to his web page
    • Redirection of image content: How it’s done
      • In the HTML mark-up code for the page, images do not have the typical ‘<IMG SRC=“…”>’ tags, but rather JavaScript code that calls a specific image from an ‘image cache’ that resides on the web server. Direct HTTP requests to the image cache are denied except where the requester is the actual web site, which results in a ‘404’ error (resource not found) at the requester browser
    • Stealing your bandwidth: How it’s done
      • 3 entities are evolved; yourWeb (your web site), robberWeb (those that are immorally and perhaps illegally embedding your content in their pages) and clientWeb (a person requesting a page from robberWeb)
      • Process: clientWeb requests a page, the page text comes from robberWeb but the image content comes from yourWeb. ClientWeb is unaware of this. You don’t get credit or attribution of your work, and worse robberWeb has effectively used your internet bandwidth to serve the image content to clientWeb slowing yourWeb down and improving their performance. Highly immoral but not illegal
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  • digital publishing - copy prevention strategies Image, video and sound watermarking
    • Image and video
      • Identifying image(s) as being yours is a very good deterrent to copying and is effective on sites containing graphic and multimedia material
      • Place watermarks in the image area so as not to obliterate the image but in such a position as to be inside the area of interest and is not croppable without losing something of interest in the image
        • Use your logo, web address or words like ‘sample’ or ‘not for distribution’ (or a combination thereof) in either solid or semi transparent to make it obvious that the material is unlicensed for distribution
      • Watermarking images requires a graphics editor at least to manually watermark images. If there are large numbers of images to mark then applications are available to do the work and is a more viable option
      • Similarly for videos, various programs exist that will do the work of watermarking (each frame in the video needs to be marked)
    • Sound, Image and video
      • Digital Watermarking is the process of embedding identifiable information into a file, typically unique IDs, licensing and/or contact information. It is invisible to browsers, and other graphics programs except to those designed to read this information therefore this technique is no deterrent to copying
      • It theoretically makes it possible to trace originals (and derivatives of the original) however what can be done with software and also be undone with the appropriate tools
  • digital publishing - copy prevention strategies source code protection
    • Source code is the HTML and scripting code (that makes pages more dynamic or provides page functionality)
    • There is nothing native to HTML that allows source code protection
    • Techniques to protect source code are:
      • Encode the source code to make it unreadable without decoding
      • Programming technique: put all the script code into separate files and use ‘includes’ to incorporate the functionalities in the page (web developers will understand this)
      • Remove all the ‘white space’ from the HTML source code which both makes it more difficult to read and understand without cleaning up and beneficially makes the page load faster (because there is less data to transfer)
    • Other techniques exist but tend to be discredited
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  • what next? where next?
    • Much information is necessary to manage installations and as time passes, increasingly this will be so. And much of that information is held in memory of those that carry out the activities of conservation, mounting, transporting, and packaging. Seldom is all of that information made explicit, taking a tangible form (if an electronic file actually has a tangible form). In some cases some of this information is actually written to databases. However many present day databases do not cater to the complexity of installations, and therefore the information would be partial and incomplete. There are wide holes in the information necessary to maintain these works. Conservators still manage to continue working with these artworks however by filling in the information gaps with decisions based on their own experience, by consulting others or by research perhaps with a consequential loss to productivity and/or consistency
    • Given that structuring the documentation practice is an imperative to stay on top and avoid bad or compromised experiences and with the attendant lower productivities the non option is maintain the status quo, that is, leaving documentation as an uncontrolled activity or relying solely on any database solutions that may already exist
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  • basic options – pros and cons
    • The basic options available to resolve document management issues are:
      • Buy of the shelf applications or use open source products
      • Buy consultancy and develop a system
      • Develop systems internally
    • Various permutations exist between these basic options
    • The pros and cons of each
    • Off the shelf solutions (whether open source or licensed) will perhaps solve certain aspects and problems. Image management products abound as do document management solutions. Image management products generally do a fine task of cataloguing image materials (avoid solutions for home use). Document management solutions tend to be aimed at the business sector where workflow and compliance (legalities) are imperatives. Research would have to be undertaken to identify suitable products that serve particular purposes. Disparate products are not likely to be integrated between each other, nor likely to be integrated (to interchange of data with out further system development and programming). Open source solutions certainly would remove licensing costs (they’re free to use) but may come at the expense of longer integration and familiarisation problems nullifying any cost benefit. They may also dictate the use of different operating systems and thereby cause other technical problems
    • Consultancy has the potential to provide a viable system but will come at a cost, and where documentation systems are concerned the sky has no limit (This is not said to frighten simply state facts). Success of the end product is unknown at the outset and requires that internally much work is done; to develop the objectives (the brief) given to providers and developers of Document Management Systems, the contractual aspects of commissioning, liaison, development and deployment, assigning staff resources to tasks to bring together a package, monitoring progress and liaison throughout, piloting and finally introduction, most commonly, with end user training
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  • basic options – pros and cons
    • Developing systems internally is perhaps the most difficult option. Results could live up to expectations or simply disappear into history with as little said as possible. It is quoted in some business arenas that only 25% of development initiatives can be considered genuine successes (of any of the 3 basic options). It may prove costly in terms of time invested, the result may not be based on best practices or technologies and provide highly variable results, unless professional developers are included in development efforts that have constant consultation with Conservators suitability is likely to be compromised
    • Another available option is a Document Management application developed specifically for this project. It is open source, therefore free to use. It is essentially a simple file management tool that provides the capabilities of:
      • adding metadata to files
      • searching the metadata
      • makes available and uses templates designed to capture specific information pertinent to conservation and management of installations (that can be developed further or added to)
      • where files are image data, provides previews (basic common image formats)
      • has some print capabilities
      • it uses the familiar file tree styling of windows explorer
    • In all cases there would have to be familiarisation for the staff when introducing new systems and quite possibly developing processes and procedures to ensure that the system or systems are used effectively
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  • considerations about content of documentation systems
    • In a conservation environment, a typical server file system will have:
      • a very, very large percentage of word processing documents and images (from digital cameras and scanners). There will be a relatively minor percentage (by number, perhaps not so by volume) of spreadsheets, databases, video or sound files. There will also likely be some reference material, manuals, etc perhaps as PDFs and some installable software. Not to mention personal files of users of the system
      • A very small percentage would be specialist data like CAD drawings, 3D mapping data files, data loggers, etc.
    • The vast majority will be standard word processed documents and image files
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  • getting organised
    • Some of the following points may seem blindingly obvious but they have to be said. If not implemented already:
    • Server organisation
      • Co-ordinate all electronic documentation on a server using some organising principal
      • Create folders to separate departmental documents (not specific to artworks) from conservation documentation (specific to artworks) which in turn are separate from databases or any other type of data that is maintained on the server
      • When organising conservation work use the Artwork reference ID or alternatively the Artist name then artwork title below as the folder name(s) and all relating documentation goes into the relevant folder
      • Documents should be grouped in folders relating to their purpose or nature of content and the folder named appropriately
      • Documents should have naming conventions or at least some name as to describe it’s content (Document1.doc is an example of a terrible name)
      • Create a folder for each photographic session using an appropriate folder name. All images should have appropriate names to describe their content (IMG00265.JPG says nothing of what it’s about). Irrelevant, unfocused, dull or badly framed shots should be deleted immediately (unless they tell a critical part of the story and no alternative exists)
      • Delete duplicates
      • Delete temporary working files after use (they simply introduce doubt about which is the most up to date version and waste valuable space)
      • No documents of any departmental value should be left on workstations
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  • getting organised
    • Periodically clean up and re-organise. With changing circumstances comes the need to re-organise and even with diligence file systems fill up with ‘rubbish’. Identify folders that are not used anymore and if appropriate archive them to some other media like DVD or tape. They should however remain reasonably accessible if the need arose to access the data again. Leave the highest level folder on the file system and put a document in the folder indicating what has been archived and where the archived data has been stored. This will allow users to discover that the data still exists and where to find it.
    • A simple high level folder structure on a server might be
            • Applications: applications that may be run from the server
            • e.g. databases or installable software
            • Conservation: artwork conservation documentation
            • Department: used for departmental matters
            • Projects: project documentation and planning
            • Reference: reference materials
            • Users: folders for each person
            • Temp: temporary working space
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  • saving space
    • Implement disk compression on the server volume. Most files with the exception of TIFF and JPEG image files compress well, sometimes saving up to 30-40%. This can liberate megabytes of space. The downside is that it will tax the server a little more and response times will be a little slower.
      • Compression can be implemented at the volume level or at any folder level
      • Gains may be limited if there are large numbers of TIFF and JPEG images because they do not compress in the file system, they are image formats that are ALREADY compressed
      • DO NOT implement compression on database files
    • Only use bitmaps (BMP) when inserting images to word documents and powerpoint presentations. Use images scaled to the page size with resolutions less than 300dpi because printers or screens will not show any greater resolution (OK well printers that can print at 600dpi will). Why, because embedding, for instance, a JPEG image in a document is 3 times larger than the equivalent sized bitmap (BMP). Documents and presentations will load much, much faster as a consequence
    • The only reason to use high or higher quality JPG or TIFF in documents is when reproduction is by offset printing or a document is to be printed at a size greater than A4
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  • document construction
    • Create a set of templates, available to all word processors on all workstations for basic documentation tasks and perhaps even for presentation software
    • Templates have institutional standards and aesthetics embedded into them (fonts and formatting, logos in headers, dates as a minimum) even for internal use. This gives some context to the document contents and creates all the right impressions. It will also save time for those creating documents
    • Simple and to-the-point document designs will work the best and not blind readers to the content or cause epileptic fits
    • Complex documents should have a table describing editions/revisions/versions of the document, introductions, authors, references and bibliographies, appendices and indexes
    • The true and highly sophisticated capabilities of word processors are almost never used. For instance Word by default, is setup for a user such that all they have to do is type the content, then print and save. However with a little extra work preparing templates, real benefits can be achieved and the quality of documentation raised
    Next > < Previous « Start … Menu Some templates have already been created and can be developed further for use These have been created as part of the Document Manager Application included with this project. A separate package (ZIP file) has been created for the templates and can be downloaded (independently of the application) under the Networking Section of the Inside Installations web site
  • libraries and paper
    • Create libraries for physical items, primarily books but may also include DVDs of interviews, documentaries and other media content whatever their physical format. A cataloguing system is required, preferably a database that allows querying and reporting and each media has to be identified with a unique internal reference
    • Paper needs to be filed where it can then be found again (remember some 80% of paper will never be referred to again) or alternatively it could be scanned and become part of the file system, conforming to the guidelines as outlined above (unless of legal value where originals are the only valid form)
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  • departmental guides
    • Creating a departmental guide outlining a set of processes and procedures that are to be used is beneficial. The document is not an attempt to regiment all activities, it would never work as intended, simply to provide guidance where some procedural aspect were not known (useful for induction of new staff) and set base line standards, good practice in other words. It is a living document, added to and changing over time.
    • First it is appropriate to distinguish between process and procedure.
      • A process is an overview of an activity that has some finality/end (the ‘what’ of an activity)
      • A procedure is a structured sequence of events to achieve the finality (the ‘how’ of an activity) written in a language that is imperative (Click this, do that, etc)
    • Start with high level processes (descriptions of activities) and where appropriate write procedures to accompany the process that will detail the activity
    • For instance formalising the above sections regarding use of the server, document construction and image management would be a useful first additions to the guide
    • All of the above must to be communicated to the staff using the office systems often enough and in different ways such that it becomes part of the departmental psychology and daily activity. Simple little posters dotted around workstations can communicate short messages. The guide should be located on the server (perhaps under the Department folder) or even more effectively as part of an intranet. And of course everyone needs to know how to find it
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  • searches
    • It can not be stressed enough the ability to locate relevant information fast. Whatever the nature of the material, finding it fast is critical to productivity and consistency of action. Any systems that are developed for whatever type of media, must have search and retrieval integral to it’s design
    • For electronic files on a file system there are the basic search capabilities on file names, file size, dates. These searches by default do not search the content of a file and indeed for image files this is not possible with current technologies (this technology is currently being developed but will be some years away before introduction and availability in mainstream commercial products. Therefore for images other technologies or techniques have to be employed to search and locate relevant image material
    • Searching of content in text based files is possible in two ways. Open a document and use the search facilities of the application host which tends to be prohibitive in time utilisation or by ‘indexing’ the data. There is a relatively mature functionality available in most operating systems that allow the maintenance of indexes which are catalogues of word searches that allow the searching of phrases or words (search criteria) and extraction of lists of files that contain the search criteria. From Windows 2000 onwards this may already be installed, functional and available in Windows Explorer. Web sites may have indexed word searches using as indexing server
    • For paper, search and retrieval is a manual process. Locally maintained indexes (list of documents) maybe maintained but more often than not are not created or maintained therefore retrieval speed relies highly on familiarity with the filing organising principal and the decisions made by those persons charged with maintaining that filing system
    • For books, printed material etcetera, generally items are marked with references and an index is maintained that facilitates retrieval where visual searches fail hence tend to function better (than paper). The same maybe true of libraries of media
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  • Credits
    • This presentation was written by Craig Gordon, under the B5 Activity – Knowledge Management and Information Exchange of the Inside Installations project
    • As part of the European research project
      • Inside Installations: Preservation and Presentation of Installation Art
    • Inside Installations is supported by the Culture 2000 programme of the European Union
    • The project was made possible by project co-organisers across the EU and their partner museums Co-organisers:
      • Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage / ICN, Amsterdam
      • Restaurierungszentrum der Landeshauptstadt, Düsseldorf
      • Tate, London
      • Stedelijk Museum voor Aktuele Kunst / S.M.A.K., Ghent
      • Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid
      • Foundation for the Conservation of Modern Art / SBMK, Netherlands
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  • References
    • The presentation was researched and summarised from a range of sources
      • Wikipedia
        • Knowledge
        • Knowledge Management
        • Digital Asset Management
        • Information Management
        • Digital Preservation
        • Intellectual Property
        • Copyright
      • IDF – the International Digital Object Identifier Foundation
      • www.extremetech.com An article named Digital Content Protection (humourous in parts and quite informative)
      • Internet Copy Prevention techniques
      • Personal experience and belief
    • Internet related reading
      • David Dorward's Protecting Webpages
      • Rosemarie Wise's Don't Disable Right Click!
      • Dan Tobias's &quot;How Do I Force...?&quot;
      • LemurZone's Hiding Content
      • James Huggins' How Do I Stop People From Downloading My Graphics?
      • MicroDrive's No Right Click Script Examples
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