Green Asset Management Toolkit

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Green Asset Management Toolkit

  1. 1. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing Green Communities Initiative c/o Enterprise 10227 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500 Columbia, MD 21044 Telephone: 410.715.7433 www.enterprisecommunity.org www.greencommunitiesonline.org
  2. 2. Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction 4 4.23 Recycling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1.1 Looking to Go Green? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.24 No Smoking Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 1.2 Green Asset Management Process Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.25 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.26 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Section 2: Why Greening Operations Make Sense 6 4.27 Unit Turnover Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4.28 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.1 The Case for Green Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.29 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.30 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Section 3: Establishing A Foundation And Framework 10 3.1 Choosing an Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Section 5: Developing A Plan For Building Upgrades 58 3.2 Easy fixes/ Energy Tune-ups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1 Selecting Upgrade Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.3 Prescriptive Retrofits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.4 Performance-Based Substantial Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . 11 5.3 Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Equipment. . . 62 3.5 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.4 Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.6 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.5 Lighting and Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.7 Steps in green asset management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.6 Photovoltaic Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.8 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.7 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.9 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.8 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.10 Methods of Cost Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.9 Indentifying Financial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.11 Non-Monetary Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.10 Green Financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.12 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.11 Low Income Housing Tax Credits and Bond Financing . . . . 70 3.13 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.12 Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.14 Specifying Green Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.13 Government Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.15 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.14 Utility and Public Incentive Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.16 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.15 Utility Allowances – Options for Energy Efficiency . . . . . . 72 3.17 Building Professionals and Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . 32 5.16 Federal Energy Efficiency and Solar Tax Credits and Deductions . 73 3.18 Building Performance (Energy and Water) Consultant . . . . 33 5.17 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.19 Green Building Consultant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.18 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.20 Architect/Design Consultant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.19 Information Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.21 Engineering Consultant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.20 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.22 Hiring a Contractor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.21 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.23 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Section 6: Case Studies And Best Practices 77 Section 4: Operations and Maintenance 38 6.1 Tips for Green Asset Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.1 Mechanical Systems and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.2 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.2 Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.3 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.3 Heating and Cooling Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.4 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Section 7: List Of Additional Resources 83 4.5 Landscape and Site Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.1 Government Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.6 Plant Choice and Landscape Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.2 Energy-Efficiency Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.7 Plant Disposal and Composting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.3 Building and Energy-Efficiency News . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4.8 Soil Procurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.9 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Fertilization . . . . . 43 Section 8: Appendix 87 4.10 Irrigation and Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix A: Audit Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.11 Maintenance: Mowing & Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix B: Data Release Authorization Form . . . . . . . . 89 4.12 Outdoor Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix C: The Central Park Energy Flyover . . . . . . . . . 90 4.13 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix D: Sample View of Building Information 4.14 Green Cleaning and Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Using Portfolio Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.15 Cleaning Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.16 Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4.17 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 Table of Figures 4.19 Resident Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig 1: Green Asset Management Process Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.20 Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig 2: Pollution Emissions of Lawn Mowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.21 Water Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig 3: Residential Indoor Water Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 4.22 Cleaning Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  3. 3. Five Easy Ways To Begin Saving Money, Energy, and Water Want to start now to save money and resources? Here are five quick steps that make a big impact. 1. Replace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs or low- emitting diodes (LED), and add motion sensors on common space and exterior lighting, except where safety and security are an issue. ENERGY STAR® qualified CFLs use approximately 25 percent of the energy incandescent bulbs use and last up to 10 times as long.1 The wide variety of available sizes and shapes will fit almost any indoor or outdoor fixture. 2. Add demand controls to the hot water recirculation loop, insulate all exposed hot water piping, and turn down water heater/boiler thermostats to the minimum temperature required for accommodating hot water needs. 3. Upgrade laundry equipment, refrigerators, and dishwashers to ENERGY STAR® appliances and reduce energy usage and water consumption by 10 to 50 percent. 4. Repair leaks and install sink aerators, low-flow shower heads, and toilet tank flappers to reduce the amount of water used. 5. Repair and aim sprinklers to deliver water only to where it is needed, and add weather-based irrigation controls to limit overwatering when rain is expected. Resident behavior is an important part of the efficiency equation. ENERGY STAR® and your local utility companies (energy and water) can provide tips, resources, and incentives to pass along to residents, promoting energy and water conservation through behavioral change and savvy consumerism. Ask your local energy and water utilities for more information about their consumer education resources, and visit the ENERGY STAR® website. You can also encourage recycling through offering information on recycling centers and providing recycling bins. ENERGY STAR® lighting, www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lighting.pr_lighting 1 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 3
  4. 4. SEcTIon 1: InTroducTIon communities across the nation. Enterprise has Section 1 InTroducTIon introduced neighborhood solutions through public- 1.1 Looking to go green? private partnerships with financial institutions, Then you’ve come to the right place. If you governments, community organizations and others are interested in what this toolkit has to offer, that share our vision. chances are you are associated with a housing Whether you are just getting started or already site as an owner, asset manager or maintenance have plenty of experience, you should be able to staff person and you’re looking to make some find the level of help you need in this guide. We green changes to your management practices. have included information on quick and easy We want to congratulate you on your decision to projects that can be implemented with minimal make a difference and extend a welcoming and effort, more robust measures that can be carried out helping hand. Enterprise launched the Green on a one-off basis as you replace failing equipment Communities initiative in 2004, building on or address individual building issues, and more more than two decades of creating decent, quality, challenging rehabilitation projects that involve a affordable homes and communities for low-income holistic approach to renovating a building with families. As of October 2009, Enterprise has green goals in mind. You’ll also find tips on putting successfully supported the preservation or creation together a team of professionals to take on the job of almost 16,000 green affordable homes. We’ve of planning, implementing and monitoring the also trained over 4,000 housing professionals in success of your green projects, choosing the correct green development. Throughout the process we financial tools for estimating costs and benefits, have benefited greatly from lessons learned, and identifying funding sources, benchmarking and this toolkit is our way of sharing some of these tracking your progress, and many other relevant with you. A national leader in investment capital topics. Whatever your goals and needs, chances and development solutions for affordable housing are you will find the right range of information, and community revitalization, Enterprise has advice and practical tools for the projects you have invested more than $10 billion since 1982 to help in mind. finance more than 250,000 affordable homes in 4 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  5. 5. SEcTIon 1: InTroducTIon Along with providing practical advice for evolving offer information to pass along to others who will your housing asset into a green living space, we’ve undoubtedly be inspired by your efforts. designed this manual to support your decision- 1.2 green Asset MAnAgeMent Process DiAgrAM making process. That’s why we’ve decided to start The Green Asset Management Flow Diagram can with a review of the many reasons why going green guide you to the appropriate sections, depending on makes good sense. We hope it will help answer where you are in the process. your questions and confirm your choices, as well as Intention to Reduce Energy, Water and Resource Costs Evaluate Current Establish and Train Define Green Practices and Staff a Green Asset Goals and This process is meant to be a continuous loop, Skills Management Objectives always returning to benchmarking, tracking Team energy and water use, reevaluating your goals and action plan, and reducing resource use through operations and maintenance and Develop an Energy building upgrades. and Water Efficiency Management Plan Benchmark Building Energy and Water Use Track and Monitor Building Energy and Water Use Follow Green Identify System tune- Third Party Operations and ups, equipment Verification Update Goals and Maintenance Plan upgrades, controls, Plan weatherization, etc. Prescriptive Identify Energy • Simple Payback Replacement of Efficiency Equipment • Lifecycle Cost Failed, Worn or Replacement or System Analysis Inefficient Upgrades Hire Cost Analysis • Return on Contractor Implement Equipment Investment (ROI) and Measure to Install the plan Selection • Internal Rate of Upgrades Substantial Rehab Conduct Energy Audit Return (IRR) and Diagnostic Testing • Net Present Value (NPV) Use an ESCO to Manage, Finance and Implement All or Part of the Plan Figure 1 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 5
  6. 6. S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E you achieve greater success with your property on a Section 2 Why GrEEn number of different fronts. opEraTIonS MakE SEnSE A major focus in green asset management is the The simple truth is that green asset management is way in which maintenance is handled, and going a powerful tool for improving housing performance. green means instituting maintenance practices that While popular perception often paints a picture work best over the long term. No matter how a of green building focused programs as laden property was originally designed and constructed, with obstacles that weigh down the management its performance can be significantly improved process, growing when ongoing evidence of the Growing evidence as to the maintenance effectiveness effectiveness of green asset is carried out of green asset management consistently with health, management points to the fact that a sustainability and consistently points green approach improves efficiency in mind. to the opposite: housing performance in a a green approach number of important ways. Monitoring energy improves housing and water usage performance in is as important a number of important ways. With green asset a component of asset management as the proper management, operating costs go down, tax credit operation and maintenance of equipment. opportunities go up, environmental hazards are This toolkit provides resources for enhancing reduced, resident utility savings improve, and performance in these key areas, including: potential residents are drawn to the attractiveness • Reducing energy and water consumption of a healthy, green living environment. Simply • Lowering greenhouse gas emissions translated, this means that whatever your role; asset manager, property manager, housing director, • Improving indoor air quality executive director, investor or owner going green • Lengthening the lifespan of equipment and can make your job easier in the long run, and help systems 6 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  7. 7. S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E While such measures are commonplace in of new research which, combined with recent properties that were designed and built to be green consumer demand for green housing, has helped from the start, this manual specifically targets bring innovation to the marketplace. buildings with little or no history of green building priorities in their past. The tools we’ve included 2.1 tHe cAse for green Asset MAnAgeMent are tailored to meet the needs of those seeking to There are many benefits to be realized from green move traditional building management practices in asset management, particularly for your project’s a greener direction. bottom line. As noted in the article “Sustainable What is Green Asset Management? O&M Practices,” these can include: Green asset management builds on standard • Reduced solid and hazardous waste generation property management approaches, taking them a • Lower levels of air pollution step further to promote sustainability and healthy • Extended service life for equipment and living. This means that in addition to conventional building materials management goals, new objectives are established • Reduced utility bills that make a priority of the health, economic and • Fewer employee sick days and a reduction in environmental performance of a housing property. worker’s compensation claims Traditionally, asset management has aimed to • Better indoor air quality and associated occupant thermal comfort sustain the durability of properties so that they • Fewer occupant complaints1 perform well over an extended life cycle. Thus, housing professionals have typically focused on maximizing the financial, physical and regulatory Reducing a building’s energy and water condition of a portfolio, as well as monitoring consumption will help compliance with operating agreements and the mitigate the impact of owner’s goals. sudden increases in costs. Green asset management expands this focus, Altogether, these advantages add up to an attractive particularly in the area of a building’s physical and progressive housing package for tenants, condition, to encompass new strategies, tools, managers and owners alike. This reflects one techniques and products for promoting durability of the key factors behind the success of green and longevity while increasing energy and water asset management – everyone benefits. Owners, conservation and maintaining a healthy indoor managers and investors profit from lower costs environment. Some of the measures described in and minimized risks; tenants and employees this manual will have originated from time-tested enjoy improved health and comfort levels; best practices in the industry. Others are the result 1 “Sustainable O&M Practices,” Whole Building Design Guide, available at www.wbdg.org/resources/sustainableom.php Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 7
  8. 8. S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E and the community gains from more positive in moisture that can lead to mold or rodents. environmental conditions. Addressing such factors can significantly mitigate insurance risk. Reducing a building’s energy and More generally, a green asset management water consumption will help mitigate the impact of approach can help your portfolio achieve a high sudden increases in costs. level of performance in a number of areas. These advantages are described in detail below. Lower Costs Green asset management reduces expenses. As Environmental Benef its the cost of resources such as oil, natural gas and Green asset management makes a significant water continue to increase over time, the use of impact on both the immediate environment and these resources results in ever-rising operating the wider surrounding area. Solid and hazardous expenses. However, buildings that are energy and waste generation is significantly reduced, benefiting water efficient can help control such spiraling local landfills. Air and water pollution are expenditures, keeping operating costs lower than minimized, greenhouse gas emissions are lowered, those of comparable buildings that do not have and the reduction in energy and water use means green asset management practices in place. And natural resources are conserved. of course, lower operating costs can contribute to increases in net operating income. Resident Marketing and Retention Greener buildings cost less to operate, use fewer As an example, meeting the Enterprise Green harmful products and cleaners, and are healthier Communities Criteria yields striking savings in and more appealing to potential residents. utility costs, especially when compared to the Furthermore, lower operating costs help retain cost of implementing the Criteria’s energy- and residents by providing housing that is more water-conservation measures. These savings make affordable to maintain than comparable non-green the cost of implementing the Criteria ($4,524) homes. A physically and financially comfortable financially attractive. When considering the residence will generate a lower turnover rate. benefits revealed in our study, the average cost per dwelling unit to incorporate the energy and water Risk Mitigation criteria was $1,917, returning $4,851 in predicted Green asset management reduces the risk of lifetime utility cost savings (discounted to 2009 building damage and hazards. It includes a dollars).1 In other words, the energy and water durability plan that considers heat, air flow and conservation measures not only paid for themselves excessive moisture within a building. Green but also produced another $2,900 in projected management plans also focus on addressing aspects lifetime savings per unit.1 of building maintenance that can compromise 1 Incremental Cost, Measurable Savings: Enterprise Green longevity, such as water penetration resulting Communities Criteria, 2009, www.greencommunitiesonline.org. 8 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  9. 9. S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E When it comes to lowering costs, many factors management involves the careful monitoring of can impact your bottom line results. Depending energy and water usage, allowing management on the scope of your goals, you will find differing to act quickly when systems are under- or levels of trade-off between the amount you invest over-performing. Consequently, there is close up front in various green projects, and your long- supervision of indoor temperature conditions and term operational savings. This toolkit will walk you as a result, resident comfort is optimized. through a detailed and accurate planning process so you can proceed with confidence concerning the level of investment that is optimal for you. In addition, we’ve provided a detailed description of useful cost analysis methods in Section 3.10 (p. 25): Methods of Cost Analysis. Increased Comfort and Health for Residents and Employees Green asset management means healthier residents and staff. When the products and materials used in property upkeep are taken into consideration as a matter of procedure, it is easy to identify and give preference to those that are less polluting and healthier than conventional choices. Air quality is a major factor in a building’s overall environment health, and thus green management emphasizes a ventilation system that removes pollutants tracked in from outside, while bringing in ample fresh air. The same measures applied to a building’s envelope and space conditioning in order to maximize energy efficiency also act to improve resident comfort by maintaining consistent and appropriate indoor temperatures. This, in turn, reduces the number of calls from residents about heating and cooling complaints, and can be especially beneficial in senior and special needs housing where residents Hotel Essex, San Francisco, CA are more sensitive to temperature changes. Green Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 9
  10. 10. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Section 3 ESTaBLIShInG a 3.2 easy fixes This list contains ideas for increasing energy FoundaTIon and FraMEWork and water efficiency that require little upfront investment and offer quick payback. These are 3.1 cHoosing an aPProacH steps everyone can take because they don’t require Defining the scale of a green upgrade project is large amounts of time or money – just a little the first step in creating a plan of action specific planning and effort. Many measures that fall to that project. Whether the scope of the project under this category are often considered regular maintenance practices and can be implemented at any time in a building’s lifecycle. But don’t let The best way to their humble scope fool you – over time, the returns provide concrete in terms of financial savings and conservation of evidence that resources can be considerable. your projects and improvements are making a difference Improvements in this category include: is by measuring performance • Switching incandescent light bulbs and fixtures with before, during, and fluorescents or LEDs after implementing • Weatherizing to seal the building envelope the modifications • HVAC tune-ups you have chosen. • Duct sealing • Water heater or boiler tune-ups includes major improvements or quick, low-cost • Adding recirculation controls fixes, there are many options for achieving cost • Replacing pool pumps effective energy and water savings. This section • Adjusting thermostat temperature settings on space and water heating systems defines various approaches to green upgrades, • Insulating water heaters or boilers explaining when each strategy is appropriate, and • Adjusting refrigerator and freezer temperatures offering examples of possible upgrades in the • Installing low-flow showerheads and sink aerators given project category. • Installing toilet tank flappers 10 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  11. 11. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k 3.3 PrescriPtive retrofits In some circumstances, prescriptive measures are taken during other types of building repairs to The failure of older equipment that has become avoid losing the opportunity for an easier, quicker too worn for continued use presents an ideal and thus often cheaper, change of equipment. A opportunity for selecting a more energy efficient few examples are: replacement, and it makes sense to respond with a prescriptive retrofit. A prescriptive approach • Pipe, duct, wall, floor or ceiling insulation is simply replacing equipment on a one-by-one installation when an otherwise inaccessible building cavity is opened basis over time, rather than refitting a whole building at once in order to achieve an immediate • Installation of radiant barrier and/or cool roof products during a roof replacement transformation in its performance level. Prescriptive retrofits are appropriate and effective for any 3.4 Performance-BaseD suBstantiaL portfolio without plans or funds for substantial reHaBiLitation improvements, and are designed to meet time- A performance-based approach to upgrading energy sensitive needs for replacing specific equipment, and water efficiency is the method of choice if you appliances or lighting. While whole-building are planning substantial building improvements approaches take into account the synergistic impact or remodeling. This approach has the capacity to of replacing or upgrading multiple systems, only factor in the interrelationship of various building the savings related to the reduction in energy and components and systems, as well as accommodate water use associated with the replaced equipment is the uniqueness of your specific project. considered in prescriptive retrofit analyses. Prescriptive retrofit measures include, but are not Building Evaluation/Audit limited to, the replacement of: To follow the performance-based approach, you will first need to arrange for an evaluation or audit • Space heating equipment of the building’s performance statistics, such as a • Space cooling equipment building simulation analysis. This will allow you • Water heaters/boilers to base your choice of energy and water upgrade • Recirculation pumps packages on concrete data. To begin this process, • Light fixtures contact an energy consultant to decide how best to • Ceiling fans conduct the audit. One possibility is to have your • Refrigerators green asset management team use a worksheet to • Dishwashers collect information on existing building conditions. • Clothes washers and dryers In this scenario, the team can also use the data • Broken windows collection to become more familiar with the site’s energy and water use. Alternatively, the energy Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 11
  12. 12. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k consultant (or a HERS rater) can come to your site Energy Eff icient Rehab Advisor to conduct the building audit. This option is likely The U.S. Department of Energy has developed this to be more efficient and yield more accurate results. tool for existing multifamily homes to provide easy access to tailored suggestions for energy upgrades. Energy and Measures Analysis Plug in your building characteristics, and a list of Once this audit data is collected, an energy recommended improvements will be presented, consultant will plug it into simulation software complete with estimated costs and payback periods. that will estimate the current energy use of your This tool cannot take the place of a full building building. This establishes a baseline that will then audit and energy simulation, but is useful for be used for comparison with the upgrade options creating a rudimentary guide that can serve as a under consideration. The software simulation starting place for potential next steps. typically involves modeling complex interactions ➜ www.rehabadvisor.pathnet.org/calculator.asp between building systems and components to yield an accurate picture of energy and cost How to Hire an Energy Services Company savings for each upgrade scenario. Using the (ESCO) projected energy savings and estimated upgrade This document, written by the California Energy costs, your asset management team will be able to Commission, explains the purposes and roles of an effectively analyze the options and choose the best Energy Services Company, and stipulates how and improvement package for your project. when an ESCO should be hired. 3.5 tooLs ➜ www.energy.ca.gov/reports/efficiency_handbooks/400-00- 001D.PDF Building Audit Worksheet – Heschong Mahone Group Retro-Commissioning Toolkit – California Commission Collaborative This worksheet provides a tool for documenting This website offers several workbooks, some of your existing building conditions. It can be used which are classified as energy-saving tools and by building mangers, HERS raters or energy others as data analysis tools. The energy-saving consultants to collect the information that will be tools are for use in calculating energy savings plugged into an energy simulation program for related to specific retro-commissioning measures establishing baseline energy use. – i.e., variable flow pumping systems and variable Audit Worksheet: Appendix A (p. 87) volume fan systems. The data analysis tools contain templates for recording, organizing and analyzing information gleaned in the retro-commissioning process. ➜ www.cacx.org/resources/rcxtools/spreadsheet_tools.html 12 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  13. 13. S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K Additional Tools HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines Energy Conservation for Housing – A Workbook: for Multifamily Dwellings Housing and Urban Development (HUD) This guidebook explains how property owners who are considering rehabilitating multifamily buildings This workbook is intended to be a guide for can increase energy efficiency and reduce costs in Housing Authorities (HA) that are interested in the process. It discusses key issues and factors that making energy conservation improvements. It is determine how much energy a multifamily building designed to provide assistance to HA staff with varying degrees of technical proficiency and energy consumes, such as heat flow, air leakage, insulation conservation experience. and heating and cooling systems. ➜ www.abtassoc.com/reports/D19980034.pdf ➜ www.huduser.org/publications/destech/multi.html TREAT – Targeted Residential Energy Analysis Additional Resources Tools: Performance Systems Development RESNET National Standard for Home Energy Audits TREAT is innovative software designed to These criteria have been set by Residential Energy provide support for weatherization programs, Services Network to define and standardize building performance contractors and energy national procedures for home energy ratings. The auditors. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority funded development list provided at the link below defines the accepted of this tool, which creates models of buildings, framework for carrying out a home energy audit. integrates the models with weather and energy ➜ www.resnet.us/standards/audit/National_Energy_Audit_ information and provides appropriate assessments Standard.pdf and recommendations. A Retro-Commissioning Guide for Building ➜ http://treatsoftware.psdconsulting.com/treat_intro.htm Owners: Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. for EPA 3.6 ResouRces This extensive guidebook offers information on how you can use retro-commissioning as a Professional Home Energy Audit cost-effective method for reducing expenses and This site outlines steps for receiving a home energy audit, including preparing for the audit, selecting increasing revenue through improved building a professional and locating resources for home operations. energy audits. ➜ www.peci.org/CxTechnical/resources.html#construction ➜ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/ Green Buildings and Energy Efficiency: Energy energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11180 is the First Step to Green – Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR® Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 13
  14. 14. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Most people would agree that a green building supporting a successful and sustained commitment must be an energy-efficient building, but not to green operations. Whether large or small, your everyone agrees on how to define and quantify team should be made up of committed individuals efficiency. The link below can help ensure your who, as much as possible, represent a cross buildings deliver measurable results. section of the departments involved in property www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=green_buildings. management, development and finance. green_buildings_index The Players 3.7 stePs in green Asset MAnAgeMent A critical aspect of an effective green asset Just as with any other management process, green management team is their level of dedication to asset management is successful when there is an the effort. The skills and commitment of your established structure in place for setting goals, team members will provide the energy to translate tracking performance and evaluating progress. This your plans into action. While outside consultants section outlines steps for building such a structure may come and go, the internal team will remain and implementing a green asset management plan. constant. When looking to build a team supportive of Step 1: Assemble Team and Make a green asset management, a natural place to start Commitment in soliciting input is with the persons responsible All buildings, either new or rehabilitated, are the for the original design of the building. They offer result of specific design choices. Each building’s a continuity of knowledge about the building history is comprised of a unique set of decisions and are likely to made over its Identify those tasks which be motivated to lifetime. For example, while require the involvement of see the building some buildings professionals outside the succeed in the are conceived green asset management long term. This with green team, exper ts such as is especially consultants, contractors, important for priorities in mind, and vendors whose buildings with others are never knowledge and skills are uncommon considered from a essential to the project’s features or systems, green standpoint success. where the original until long after design intent may construction be an essential piece of information in any future is finished. Nonetheless, certain foundational alteration or improvement. The goal of including elements are necessary in every asset management designer input is to gain knowledge of how the scenario because they create an effective base for building was originally designed and how the turning goals into reality. One such element is existing equipment and systems were intended to the establishment of a green asset management be used. team. Creating this team is your first crucial step in 14 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  15. 15. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Another potential source of team members is straightforward, as the strengths and weaknesses property and asset management staff. They are of individual managers are often commonly the ones who will ultimately implement the recognized and good managements skills usually management plan and thus have a significant stake transfer well to new challenges. If you do happen in any decisions that are made. Having a say in to include staff who are less familiar with green the process of developing the plan will no doubt management approaches, keep in mind it will be increase their investment in making sure it is necessary to introduce them to a new mindset carried out consistently and effectively. which takes into consideration a healthy living environment as well as onsite energy, resource and When recruiting candidates for your team, keep water use. in mind that professionals whose jobs involve implementing green building projects on a regular Training the team basis most likely have the right combination Once formed, the team’s first task will be to access of skill, experience and commitment for your training so they can become better acquainted effort. You can find more detailed information with the basic principals and best practices that on professions specifically related to green asset characterize green asset management. Training management in Section 3.17 (p. 32): Building will also help members from a variety of different Professionals and Quality Assurance. roles establish a common language and perspective, It can also be fruitful to look closer to home allowing everyone to operate from the same page. for possible team members. Chances are, you You will find a number of resources are available to will find employees inside the building owner’s address a variety of training needs. own organization who possess not only the Many gas, electric and water utility companies appropriate set of skills and experience, but also across the U.S. offer no- or low-cost workshops have considerable interest in taking part in a green on a variety of green building topics. These classes venture. You may want to consider staff members typically run anywhere from one to eight hours and representing the following disciplines: are a great way to introduce team members to green building practices without having to commit large • Design and engineering amounts of time and money to a more rigorous • Asset management credentialing program. • Property management • Construction management Online webinars and training videos are another • Operations and maintenance inexpensive and flexible way to bring team • Finance members up to speed. A list of organizations offering online training resources is located in Finding the right managers for the team from Section 3.9 (p. 24): Online Training, Building Science within your organization can be relatively and Green Resources. (Continued on page 18) Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 15
  16. 16. S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K Green Communities Retrofit Fund Data Collection Information Requested from Property Owner PROPERTY INFORMATION Name Street Address OWNERSHIP/FINANCIAL INFORMATION Owner program requirements Using replacement reserves to fund rehab? Tax credit year Previous cap needs assessment document? Three (3) largest financing sources Current replacement reserves Planning to refinance and/or resyndicate? Other financial information here? BUILDING INFORMATION Year built Common area square footage Year of most recent rehab Residential area square footage Total number of buildings Number of floors Building type Number of primary building entries Total building square footage UNIT INFORMATION Total number of units Average number of occupants Number of occupied units Unit size (no. of bedrooms) Unit population (e.g. children, elderly, supportive) AVAILABLE INFORMATION As-built drawings Reasonable escorted access to facility/apts Current equipment schedule Contact information for project personnel Recent photographs of building Operations & Maintenance plan, schedule Previous energy or Wx audit Resident manual Previous energy or Wx measures installed UTILITY INFORMATION Electric utility provider & account no. Heating oil provider & account no. Natural gas utility provider & account no. Solid waste (garbage) provider & account no. Water utility provider & account no. Other provider(s) & account no.(s) FUEL MIX/PAYMENT OBLIGATIONS Is electricity central/individually metered Is water central/individually metered Number of meters Number of meters Meter numbers Meter numbers Is gas central/individually metered Heating oil central/individual paid? Number of meters Solid waste (garbage) disposal Meter numbers Other 16 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  17. 17. S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K (Green Communities Retrofit Fund Data Collection, Continued) COMMON AREA AMENITIES Elevators Commercial kitchen Central laundry facility Incinerator Refrigerated vending machines Trash compactor Retail or commercial space Property manager apartment Community space Other amenities (those that may consume electricity and/or water) Offices BUILDING ENVELOPE Ceiling heights Basement/crawl space insulation Roof composition Previous upgrades? Floor composition Windows Attic insulation Doors Exterior wall insulation Tenants complaints about drafts? Basement or crawl space SPACE HEATING Owner or tenant pays? Condition, age of equipment Fuel type(s) Previous upgrades? Equipment type Average indoor air temperature Distribution type Controls Areas serviced Tenant complaints about comfort? SPACE COOLING Owner or tenant pays? Condition, age of equipment Fuel type(s) Previous upgrades? Equipment type Average air temperature Distribution type Controls Areas serviced Tenant complaints about comfort? VENTILATION Does mechanical ventilation exist in building? Ducts sealed, insulated? Equipment type Previous upgrades? Distribution type Controls Areas serviced Bathroom ventilation Condition, age of equipment Range hood ventilation Combustion appliances tested? DOMESTIC HOT WATER Owner or tenant pays? Condition, age of equipment Fuel type(s) Previous upgrades? Equipment type Controls Distribution type Hot water pipes insulated? Areas serviced Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 17
  18. 18. S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K (Green Communities Retrofit Fund Data Collection, Continued) WATER USAGE Owner or tenant pays? Plumbing fixtures Equipment type(s) Previous upgrades? Condition, age of equipment Landscaping LIGHTING Interior common area fixtures and bulb type Operating schedule Operating schedule Controls Controls Previous upgrades? Exterior fixtures and bulb type COMMON AREA APPLIANCES Refrigerators Laundry Ranges Previous upgrades? INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OCCUPANT HEALTH & SAFETY (from Healthy Housing inspection manual) Client health questionnaire Changed heating filters every 3 months Tenant synopsis Radon mitigation/venting Carbon monoxide measurement in ambient air HVAC equipment serviced within past year Combustion gas Leak testing Presence of pests (e.g. mice, rats, bugs) Inspect for mold and moisture damage Pest control mechanisms Identify potential fire hazards Where are pets allowed to go? Inspect for faulty, inadequate or dangerous wiring Lead paint tested smoke alarms, CO monitors Asbestos Verify pressure relief valves on hot water tanks and boilers Tobacco smoke Record and properly document test results and observations Cleaning practices and frequency (e.g. sweep, vacuum) If you are looking for a more in-depth approach certification also provides a gateway to additional to training, the Credential for Green Property programs and resources. For example, CGPM Management (CGPM) program is offered by is required for participation in HUD’s Green the National Apartment Association (NAA) and Initiative program. It also supplies management the National Affordable Housing Management companies and owners participating in the Association (NAHMA). Those trained through green Mark-to-Market (M2M) program with a this set of courses will learn the latest techniques mechanism for meeting the initial and ongoing and technologies for making cost-saving green training requirements of the HUD Office of improvements at their properties, and receive Affordable Housing Preservation (OAHP). instruction on a variety of green building operations and management topics. CGPM staff 18 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  19. 19. S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K Once basic training is completed, the team will over a period of time so that an accurate picture can need to learn about data collection and analysis. be captured. These skills are critical to your team’s success. The To create a profile of your building, pull together best way to provide concrete evidence that your a spreadsheet or database of the information projects and improvements are making a difference contained in the text box below over the span of 12 is by measuring performance before, during and months (and three years is ideal): after implementing the modifications you have chosen. These measurements, and the appropriate The second category, management practices, interpretation of them, will require your team to involves a number of different factors. You will collect relevant data, document it and statistically need to include information on the following analyze any change. If the change is positive, then factors pertaining to performance over the period your team will have data-supported validation for of 12 months for this part of your baseline profile: the investments that have been made; if there is no • Utilities – specifically energy and water change, or the change is in a negative direction, the consumption team will have detailed information on what needs to • Waste be adjusted in order to achieve your desired results. • Turnover Perhaps the most important of these factors is Step 2: Understand Existing Conditions and Assess Performance energy and water consumption, since these account Tracking such change reflects recent trends for a large portion of building operating costs and in green housing, as the field becomes more thus offer some of the highest cost savings potential. anchored in data-driven validation of the benefits At minimum, all energy and water sources should be inherent in a green approach. You can contribute accounted for, including electric, natural gas, propane to documentation of the effectiveness of green and onsite generation (such as electricity generation management practices by making sure you through photovoltaic1 systems or wind turbines). consistently assess performance. This involves There are several approaches to collecting data the precise measurement of improvement or and establishing a baseline for energy and deterioration in areas such as resource consumption, water consumption. An energy and water audit indoor air quality and waste management. collects information about existing building and mechanical system characteristics. This The first step is to establish a baseline against information can be used to identify cost-effective which you can measure future change at your site, upgrades that will improve overall performance. A and thus you will need to start by documenting the more complete discussion on the topic of audits existing status of (a) building characteristics and can be found in Section 3.4 (p. 11): Performance- (b) management practices. This involves collecting Based Substantial Rehabilitation. Benchmarking data that records performance in these three areas 1 The use of solar cells in converting sunlight into electricity Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 19
  20. 20. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k buildings is useful in comparing water and energy • Collect data by fuel type and from sub-meters, performance among buildings within a complex or if feasible. a portfolio, identifying under-performing buildings • Use actual – not estimated – data whenever possible. and prioritizing energy and water investments. • Use the most current data available, preferably The “Benchmarking” subsection, Section 4.28 one year or more of monthly data. (p. 54) offfers more information on the subject of This data set should improve your understanding Benchmarking. of the property’s energy and water use as it In any case, you will need to collect cost contributes to operational costs, as well as provide information related to energy and water usage for a solid base of information on which to base future a period of at least 12 months. Utility bills are the decisions concerning improvements to the building most basic form of energy and water useage data and the site. In order to pinpoint which building and can often be made available at both a property- components and practices are contributing most to wide and a household-by-household level. Master- 1 energy and water use, and which upgrades will be metered energy and water use data is the most most cost effective, you can arrange for technical widely accessible and is audits of various systems most likely to impact and equipment that will The key to effectively operational costs when managing utility provide the supplemental utility bills are paid by costs lies in deciding information you need. the building owner or which upgrades management. More yield true savings. Once energy and water consumption data detailed data from sub- have been collected meters can reveal where specific use is occurring. and a baseline established, the next step is to set In individually metered multifamily buildings, up a monitoring system to track performance collecting resident utility bills will require obtaining moving forward. This will provide the means for resident utility release forms. See Appendix B (p. measuring improvement and progress toward 89) for an example release form. Because of this, green management goals. Be sure to use a tracking you may find that in such situations the data set for system that can easily generate periodical reports a whole building or complex may not be complete. profiling energy and water performance. An ideal Having a sample of data from a subset of individual performance tracking system would include: units is still useful when starting out. Some tips for data collection include: • Energy Use Intensity (EUI) (annual energy per square foot) • Have residents sign a utility release form when • Energy cost per square foot, separated out by they sign the lease. fuel type (e.g., gas vs. electric) 1 www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=assess_performance. gather_data 20 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
  21. 21. S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K • Water Use Intensity (WUI) (annual water per goals encourages each individual to develop a square foot) vested interest in achieving them, thus increasing • Water cost per square foot (both indoor and your chances for success. outdoor) The first step in this process is to estimate the • Greenhouse gas emissions (million metric tons of Carbon equivalent) potential for improvement in each area. Once this is established, you can then move on to set targets As mentioned in Section 4.27 (p. 53): Materials, that are: the EPA’s Portfolio Manager is a good option for • Realistic tracking performance data. It is widely used, simple • Specific and free. The reports that are generated will offer • Measurable your team concrete evidence of the result of their • Time dependent efforts, while also providing necessary information As many managers know, setting incremental for identifying areas in which further performance goals can be very helpful in facilitating consistent improvements can be made. The reports can progress, as this process allows the team to also be used to communicate ongoing progress consider both short-term and long-term issues as to building staff and residents, encouraging all they make decisions about implementing various participants to projects. Incremental think about green goals help create an Set targets that are choices, efficiency realistic, specific, overall vision for the and conservation. measurable, and project, encourage An example of time dependent. momentum, and effective and creative ensure immediate communication decisions do not with residents can be found in Appendix C (p.90). hinder opportunities for further improvement “The Central Park Energy Flyover” is intended to and deeper savings. Short-term goals may focus provide residents with an overview of their energy on a specific rehab project or a year of improved usage by unit along with tips for energy reduction operations and maintenance protocols, while long- and key contact information for building-related term goals are broader and address the lifecycle of a issues. building. Long-term goals can address a property’s performance over 5 to 30 years and may include Step 3: Set Goals multiple rehab and retrofit projects, as well as When the team has gained a comprehensive operations, maintenance and tenant behavior. understanding of the property’s current By taking into account factors such as the vintage performance as reflected in the building of the building and its systems and the magnitude performance profiles described above, the next step of any planned rehabilitation, you will be able to is to set parameters and green goals that include identify appropriate goals that correspond with the both usage levels and cost savings. Having the level of resources available to you. For example, if whole team participate in the activity of setting the project is receiving Low-Income Housing Tax Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 21
  22. 22. S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Credit funding for a rehabilitation, a reasonable milestones for measuring progress. The team will short-term goal may be achieving a 15-20 percent then need to develop a communication plan, as improvement in existing levels of energy and/or sharing the progress achieved through everyone’s water use. Enterprise’s 2008 Green Communities hard work is an integral part of creating a sustained Criteria requires that moderate and substantial cooperative effort. These steps are explained in rehabilitation projects achieve a 15 percent more detail in the following section. improvement in energy performance over pre- rehabilitation building performance. If, however, Step 4: Create an Action Plan your project scope does not include an aggressive With goals in place, the team’s next task is rehabilitation approach and your current budget developing a road map for achieving them. You allows for only minor changes, consider a less can begin by identifying some detailed technical aggressive goal, such as “The ENERGY STAR® steps that will take you in the direction of your Challenge,” which is a national call-to-action established goals. Take a look at the data analyses to improve the energy efficiency of America’s you carried out in Steps 2 and 3 and ask which commercial and industrial buildings (including areas are most in need of improvement electricity, multifamily properties) by 10 percent or more. gas, water or perhaps another resource? What measures can help you improve in those areas? Long-term goals, on the other hand, may involve reducing energy or water consumption by 40-60 Once you have decided on these objectives, the next percent over 30 years, or even bringing net energy step is to create a timeline and a system for tracking use to zero by installing renewable energy systems your progress. If the team is working on a specific to fulfill the site’s remaining energy needs after the retrofit or rehabilitation project, Section 5 (p. 59): team has exhausted all available energy efficiency Developing a Plan For Building Upgrades can help options. A consultant specializing in green you define the scope of your project and develop an building, energy or water management can also appropriate action plan. provide helpful guidance concerning what it will At this point, the team will need to assign clear roles take to meet different thresholds of reduction in to individual members and allocate responsibility your specific situation. for achieving each goal. This is a good time to Similar goals can be set for improving indoor air identify those tasks that require the involvement of quality, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and professionals outside the green asset management any other health or resource issue important to team, experts such as consultants, contractors and the team. These goals can be applied to a single vendors whose knowledge and skills are essential residential project or to a portfolio of buildings. to the project’s success. By establishing your own Once the team has identified and agreed upon criteria for evaluating people or companies that specific goals, it’s time to create a schedule and set could potentially fill these roles, you can ensure that appropriate levels of expertise are accessed. 22 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing

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