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  • The work within the programme has been broken down into 4 areas. <click> Firstly, museums and images. Many museums hold information that could usefully be shared with others for research purposes, and museums are also keen to make more people aware of their collections. Projects are based at university museums in Cambridge and London. Many institutions also hold collections of images and a project in Bristol is investigating how these can be made more available through the use of OAI. E-prints is an area I have already mentioned. Production of research outputs also includes theses and the projects are investigating the sharing of e-prints and electronic theses between institutions. Thirdly, it is important that in making institutional assets available, it is possible to deliver these alongside other information sources, both internal and external. Such delivery might be through either an institutional portal or a virtual learning environment and there are projects in place examining both. And finally, disclosure of any data raises issues of IPR and ownership, and the programme has a key study examining the IPR issues of using OAI to ensure rights are assigned where they need to be. <click>
  • Returning to e-prints, the projects can be split into two groups. Firstly, there are those that are developing data providers. Using OAI allows you to expose your metadata to the wider world via the Internet. In doing so, you become a data provider. <click> The 4 projects listed are investigating many different aspects of disclosing e-prints. The common factor is the establishment or enhancement of an institutional repository. This repository can either be specifically for e-prints, for example TARDis, or for all types of research outputs including e-theses, for example DAEDALUS. Further information on all the projects can be found at the project web sites given. <click> All are also encouraging self-archiving and will be examining various aspects of this, both from the technical and cultural standpoints. <click>
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    1. 1. Digital Preservation & Institutional Repositories Helen Hockx-Yu Programme Manager, JISC
    2. 2. What is an institutional repository <ul><li>Institutional repositories are digital collections that capture and preserve the intellectual output of a single or multi-university community (Crow, 2002, p. 4) </li></ul><ul><li>An insitutional repository stores and makes accessible the educational, research and associated assets of an institution </li></ul><ul><li>Content is not limited to e-prints. Can also include research data, learning resources, image collections and many other different types of content </li></ul>
    3. 3. Repositories are important <ul><li>As an increasingly recognised means to capture, store and access the institutional knowledge base and intellectual assets which are growingly in digital form </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the open access goal of transforming scholarly communication and is becoming a major component in the evolving structure of scholarly communication </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the visibility of and improves access to research outputs; encourages data re-use and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Potentials of repositories are being recognised by funding bodies worldwide and there is an international trend of funding bodies requiring publication of research results through repositories (RCUK, Wellcome Trust, The US National Institute of Health) </li></ul><ul><li>A leading role by JISC in piloting and supporting the development and implementation of institutional repositories to enable the dissemination and sharing of research outputs </li></ul>
    4. 4. The need for preservation <ul><li>“ An institutional repository needs to be a service with continuity behind it ……. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions need to recognize that they are making commitments for the long term.” (Cliff Lynch, RLG DigiNews, 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital information is more vulnerable to potential loss due to dependence on technology – preservation actions required within very short timeframe </li></ul><ul><li>Digital information is easily altered - measures required to ensure its continued integrity & authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantee of long-term preservation gives authors more incentives to deposit content and enhances a repository’s trustworthiness </li></ul>
    5. 5. Understanding the problem <ul><li>Effective Preservation means: </li></ul><ul><li>Data is maintained in the repository without being damaged, lost or maliciously altered </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be found, extracted and served to a user </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be interpreted and understood by the user </li></ul><ul><li>The above can be achieved in the long term </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul Wheatley, Institutional Repositories in the context of Digital Preservation, 2004) </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Functional Model <ul><li>Six high-level functional components within the OAIS environment </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Functional Model <ul><li>Ingest : processes for accepting information submitted by Producers and preparing it for inclusion in the archival store </li></ul><ul><li>Archival Storage : long-term storage and maintenance of digital materials </li></ul><ul><li>Data Management: maintaining descriptive metadata to support search and retrieval of the archived content, and administration of internal operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation Planning: designing preservation strategy against evolving user and technology environment </li></ul><ul><li>Access: processes and services that locate, request, and receive delivery of the content within the archival store. </li></ul><ul><li>Administration: day-to-day operations & coordination of other 5 high-level OAIS services </li></ul>
    8. 8. More about OAIS <ul><li>The OAIS Reference Model defines the basic functional components of a system dedicated to the long-term preservation of digital information but does not specify implementation – a conceptual framework with common terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Not all the functions need to be undertaken by a specific repository; some functions can be fulfilled by external service providers (e.g. remote storage, preservation planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Designated Community is an important concept - the subset of Consumers expected to independently understand the archived information in the form in which it is preserved and made available by the OAIS </li></ul>
    9. 9. Issues and challenges <ul><li>Organisational & managerial </li></ul><ul><li>Digital preservation does not yet form an integral part of the institution’s corporate / information strategy – lack of organisational infrastructure and skilled staff </li></ul><ul><li>Core funding for institutions does not grow in line with information growth; many institutional repositories rely on short-term project funding </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for preservation are in general difficult to calculate and are poorly understood (difficult to segregate costs for preservation from costs for access) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational model – relationship between institutional repositories and external preservation agencies </li></ul><ul><li>What to preserve? Not a choice between all or nothing. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Issues and challenges <ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of repository activities to date is not on preservation; little experience nor commonly agreed best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Standards have just started to emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Little preservation metadata is currently being collected for content within the institutional repositories – lack of technical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Need for new shared services and information infrastructure (e.g. persistent identifiers service & registries of file format, Representation Information) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more automation and tools (e.g. automatic metadata generation/extraction tool; automatic file format recognition and validation) </li></ul>
    11. 11. The role of JISC <ul><li>As a central resource helping to promote, support and develop the management & preservation of institutional and community digital resources </li></ul><ul><li>As a partner for the Research Councils and other national & international bodies, in developing services for the sector or cross-sectoral initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>As an institution and role model ensuring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good practice is followed for resources created or managed by JISC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appropriate grant conditions for JISC-funded creation of digital resources </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The JISC continuing access and digital preservation strategy 2002-5 <ul><li>Long-term preservation and access to scholarly and education material is an important strategic area for JISC </li></ul><ul><li>Digital preservation and records management activities guided by the JISC Continuing Access and Digital Preservation Strategy 2002-2005 and its implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of national, perhaps regional and institutional services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of records / information management - lifecycle approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many stakeholders and players not solely a JISC issue – coordination and partnership with others </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Key initiatives <ul><li>Feasibility, scoping studies & implementation of recommended actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-journals, web resources, e-prints, e-science data, e-learning objects and materials, and information on file formats/software documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular 9/02: Supporting Institutional Records Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular 4/04: Supporting Institutional Digital Preservation and Asset Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In planning: UK LOCKSS Pilot Programme </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Key initiatives <ul><li>National services and initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts and Humanities Data Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK Data Archive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Curation Centre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnership activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A member of the Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-funding of the Digital Curation Centre with the UK e-Science Core Programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC as a founder member of the UK Web Archiving Consortium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC / BL partnership – preservation being an important area of cooperation and collaborative projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A member of the European Taskforce for Permanent Access to Records of Science </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Supporting institutional digital preservation and asset management <ul><li>11 projects vary in length from 6 to 24 months, around 3 themes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional management support and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital preservation assessment tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional repository infrastructure development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raise awareness and gain hands-on experience of digital preservation issues within institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage a process of integrating digital preservation into institutional strategies and operations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide practical guidance and help to develop the required skill sets for institutions to develop their own programmes in digital preservation </li></ul>
    16. 16. Preserv and SherpaDP <ul><li>PReservation Eprint SERVices (Preserv) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implements an ingest service based on the OAIS reference model for institutional archives built using Eprints software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapts Eprints software to allow collection and dissemination of preservation metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to the PRONOM file format registry (developed by TNA) for identification and verification of file formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sherpa Digital Preservation (SherpaDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piloting a shared preservation infrastructure for institutional repositories based on the OAIS Reference Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaggregate and share OAIS functions among AHDS and institutional repositories; AHDS acting as the provider of the preservation services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes the need for individual repositories to develop own preservation service </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. UK LOCKSS pilot programme (in planning) <ul><li>Stands for Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe </li></ul><ul><li>A Stanford-based system that allows academic libraries to provide continuing access to licensed e-journals </li></ul><ul><li>LOCKSS software allows institutions to locally collect, store, preserve, and archive authorised content </li></ul><ul><li>Fully functional for e-journal archiving </li></ul><ul><li>Requires very little on-going resources to run </li></ul><ul><li>Does not undermine publishers’ access control systems and has the acceptance of many prominent academic publishers on the licensing and legal front </li></ul>
    18. 18. UK LOCKSS pilot programme (in planning) <ul><li>A two-year programme to raise awareness of LOCKSS in the library community and to build up a self-sustaining base of LOCKSS users who will collectively preserve a major proportion of the e-journals in common use in the JISC community. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the help and support required during the initial set-up process, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-paid and pre-configured LOCKSS hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A LOCKSS Technical Support Service for first line technical support, development of publisher specific plug-ins and training and awareness raising events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher negotiation & legal appraisal of the archiving clauses in the JISC Model licence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A collective LOCKSS Alliance membership for the UK academia </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>Substantial progress by JISC to date </li></ul><ul><li>Information growth trends are global issues and are/will be common to all </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures on information providers for digital preservation and continued access will continue to intensify over time </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps in existing information infrastructure – greater automation, services, tools and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional repositories also provide new opportunities for digital preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Future – digital preservation fully integrated into life-cycle of information management; not a separate activity </li></ul>
    20. 20. Further information (1) <ul><li>The Continuing Access and Digital Preservation Strategy for the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) 2002-5 pres_continuing </li></ul><ul><li>JISC Digital Repositories Programme: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Day, Michael, 2003, Collecting and Preserving the World Wide Web: a feasibility study undertaken for JISC and the Wellcome Trust : </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, Maggie, 2003, Archiving E-Journals Consultancy - Final Report : http:// </li></ul><ul><li>The Digital Cration Centre: h ttp:// </li></ul><ul><li>JISC Briefing Paper on Digital Repositories: http:// = pub_repositories </li></ul>
    21. 21. Further information (2) <ul><li>Lord, Philip, and Macdonald, Alison, 2003, Data curation for e-Science in the UK: an audit to establish requirements for future curation and provision </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>James, Hamish, et al, 2003, Feasibility and Requirements Study on Preservation of E-Prints </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Wheatley, Paul, 2003, Survey and assessment of sources of information on file formats and software documentation : http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Circular 9/02: Supporting Institutional Records Management (closed) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Digital Preservation and Asset Management in Institutions </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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