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Southend Early Years Conference

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  • 1. Young Children’s Literacy Development in a Digital Age Jackie Marsh University of Sheffield Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 2. Structure of Talk • Digital literacy -definition • The characteristics of children’s digital literacy practices in homes and communities • Embedding these characteristics into early years settings/ classroom practice Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 3. Digital Literacy • Reading and writing that takes place through/ with/ in digital media (on screens - computers, tablets, iPads, smartphones, mobile phones, console games, handheld computers, electronic readers, projected texts on a range of environments) • ‘Reading’ as a term includes decoding/ understanding/ analysing multimodal texts • ‘Writing’/ ‘Authoring’/ ‘Design’/ ‘Production’ all variously used to describe creating texts using a range of modes • ‘Text’ is an inclusive term - ‘any instance of communication in any mode or any combination of modes’ (Kress 2003: 48) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 4. Research questions • What are the key characteristics of children’s digital literacy practices in homes and communities? • How can the characteristics of home uses of digital literacy be embedded effectively in classroom curriculum and pedagogy? Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 5. children’s games and rhymes in a new media age Children’s use of virtual worlds family digital literacy practices Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 6. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular culture Networked Digital literacy practices in the home Playful Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 7. Lubna, aged 3 Farooq, aged 2 Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 8. Grace, aged 4 Sohail, aged 2 Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 9. Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures • Singing, dancing, talking to/ in front of TV/ films on own or with friends and family • Using an electronic toy on own or with siblings and parents (e.g. Arabic script toy, matching words and images) • Using mobile phone to talk to imaginary person • Using mobile phone to talk to family members - language play • Using laptop on own or with siblings and family members to use programs or watch Youtube Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 10. • Using games console, generally with siblings • Using digital camcorder and camera to record family activities • Using CD/ MP3 player, dancing to music • Using mobile phone to take photographs and videos of family members • Playing on phone apps • Using mobile phone to engage in video calls Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 11. Farooq Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 12. • School-related activity (e.g. homework, forms and letters from school, playing school) • Daily living routines (e.g. maintaining the social organisation of the family, shopping, cooking, paying bills) • Work (e.g. related to family employment) • Participating in ‘information networks’ (e.g. to find out what was happening in areas of interest e.g. reading sports pages of newspapers) • Religion (e.g. reading holy books) • Literacy for the sake of teaching/ learning literacy (e.g.phonics/ phonological awareness activities using books) • Interpersonal communication (e.g. letters, birthday cards) • Entertainment (e.g. reading books, comics) • Storybook time (adult-child reading of picture books) (Teale, 1986) Purposes for literacy in the home (Teale, 1986) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 13. • Daily living routines (e.g. emails; ebay; online supermarket sites) • Work (e.g. word processing; emails) • Participating in ‘information networks’ (e.g. chat forums; Facebook) • Religion (e.g. online religious communities) • Literacy for the sake of teaching/ learning literacy (e.g. tablet apps based on phonics). • Interpersonal communication (e.g. emails; text messages) • Entertainment (e.g. console games; electronic books; websites) • Storybook time (electronic books) Purposes for digital literacy in the home Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 14. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 15. • Understanding of the affordances of different modes • Ability to understand the salience of visual images and icons • Ability to manipulate images to achieve specific purposes • Ability to navigate within and across screens • Use gesture/ sound appropriately for purpose and audience multimodal skills developed Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 16. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 17. CBeebies: Everything’s rosie Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 18. TRANSMEDIA INTERTEXTUALITY (KINDER, 1991) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 19. 1928 1930s... Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 25. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 26. Mobile Devices 52% of 0-8 year-olds in US had access to mobile device such as smartphone/ ipod or ipad; 38% of 0-8 year olds used them (Common Sense Media, 2011) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 27. App Gap? (Common Sense Media, 2011) 47% v 14% Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 28. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 29. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 30. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 31. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 32. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 33. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular culture Networked Digital literacy practices in the home Playful Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 34. Online/ offline blurred Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 35. Virtual worlds for children • Persistent space that offers a range of environments that are navigable through maps • Customisable avatar • Home for avatar • Free chat and safe-chat servers • Games which earn in-world currency, generally played individually • In-world goods that can be purchased • Moderators • Information for parents on website Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 38. Reading postcards Writing and reading public chat Reading game instructions Writing submissions to the in-world newspaper Reading in-world texts e.g. newspapers/ books/ catalogues Reading in-world text e.g. signs, challenges posed by producers Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 39. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 40. Class 2 Offline J (B) Online L (G) C (B) G (G) B (B) L (G) K (B) J (B) R (B) A (B) J (B) B (B) A (G) J (B) K (B) B (B) C (B) G (G) H (B) T (B) T (B) M (B)B (G) L (B) I (G) O (G) N (G) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 41. Apptivity - Hot Wheels Augmented reality Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 42. Disney Dream Play Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 43. Online/ offline practices in homes • Purposes for reading similar across online and offline spaces • Children engage in literacy practices online that relate to offline practices e.g. social networking with friends • Offline public spaces increasingly related to online e.g. use of QR codes in toy shops, cinemas Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 45. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular culture Networked Digital literacy practices in the home Playful Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 46. Intergenerational Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 47. Intergenerational Digital Literacy Practices in Homes • Communicating via email, texting, Facebook etc. • Accessing the internet together on PCs, smartphones and tablets • Sharing e-books • Playing online/ tablet games together, or using Console games (e.g. Wii) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 48. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular culture Networked Digital literacy practices in the home Playful Digital literacy in engaged classrooms Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 49. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 50. Aims of project: To involve pre- and in-service teachers, teacher educators and pupils in: • Exploring and sharing the potential of digital technologies • Understanding more about what it means to be digitally literate • Sharing and developing good practice in teaching through development of open educational resources (OERs) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 51. Research question • How can the characteristics of home uses of digital literacy be embedded effectively in classroom curriculum and pedagogy? Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 52. 1 nursery, 4 primary schools, 4 secondary schools, 1 special school Pre-service teachers University researchers Industry partners Local authority Research Tools Photographs Videos Interviews Critical reflections Blogs Twitter Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 53. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular cultureNetworked Digital literacy in engaged classrooms Playful Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 54. CASE STUDY 1: SHARROW NURSERY • Teachers:Zubida Khatoon and Alice Worthington • Nursery children • Using mobile apps for digital story-telling, including iPods and digital video Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 55. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 56. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 57. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 58. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 59. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 60. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 61. Trans-mode/media Farm Blog Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 62. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 63. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 64. MONTENEY PRIMARY SCHOOL Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 67. My monster likes to eat chicken nuggets On Sundays my monster is very dirty, but some days he is very clean Never tell my monster he is dirty, or he will bite you Sometimes my monster is very naughty, but sometimes he’s very well behaved Today is my monster’s birthday, so he’s having a zombie duck party Everyone wants to come to my monster’s party because he’s very cool Rob the zombie duck can’t decide what type of cake to have for his birthday party, but I think he will have chocolate cake this time Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 68. TRANS-MODE/ MEDIA: KEY PRINCIPLES • Reading and writing of alphabetic texts embedded in the digital practices - seamless interface • Children engaged in a wide range of multimodal design activities that enable them to understand and reflect on the affordances of modes • Skills involved learning coding - important for developing agency in relation to digital texts Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 69. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular culture Digital literacy in engaged classrooms PlayfulNetworked Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 70. MUNDELLA PRIMARY SCHOOL Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 71. DAVID HOCKNEY - A BIGGER SPLASH Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 72. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 73. The children showed their parents how to use the iPads Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 78. Blog Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 81. INTERGENERATIONAL PRACTICES: KEY PRINCIPLES • Children engaging with older (and younger) generations outside of the classroom in ‘authentic’ digital literacy practices (through the exhibition, blog, Twitter stream) • Children in role as experts (when teaching parents) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 82. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular cultureNetworked Digital literacy in engaged classrooms Playful Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 83. Online/ offline blurred: Halfway Primary School Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 84. ONLINE/ OFFLINE PRACTICES: KEY PRINCIPLES • Online texts related seamlessly to offline in ways that replicate out-of-school life • Meaningful engagement with communities outside the classroom - local parks and museums (Jim - pupils were, “Learning to write for a real audience rather than for an invented one”) • Learning as distributed and participatory (Lankshear and Knobel, 2011) • Potential for links between older and younger children Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 85. Embedded in the everyday Passion-driven Intergenerational Trans-modes/ media Glocal Online/ offline blurred Mobile - crossing time/ space Shaped by popular cultureNetworked Digital literacy in homes/communities AND engaged classrooms Playful Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 86. FINAL THOUGHTS • Engaged pedagogies do not have to replicate exactly home experiences, but should draw on some of the main characteristics in the early years setting/ classroom in ways that are meaningful and authentic. • We should recognise that children’s home experiences will be very different and not assume knowledge of all digital literacy texts/ practices. • Children’s skills and knowledge should be built upon and extended, not left as they are in home contexts. • We need to anticipate future developments and identify how they might be used effectively in early years teaching. Friday, 4 October 2013
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  • 90. Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 91. Kirobo Alone together? (Turkle, 2011) Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 92. Watch for a nascent culture of virtual reality that underscores the ways in which we construct gender and the self, the ways in which we become what we play, argue about, and build. And watch for a culture that leaves new space for the idea that he or she who plays, argues, and builds might be doing so with a machine. (Turkle, 1994 p167) 92 Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 93. http://www.digitalfutures.org/ Friday, 4 October 2013
  • 94. http://www.digitalfutures.org/ Thank you! Friday, 4 October 2013