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  1. 1. USING 360 DEGREE EVALUATION METHODS IN EMPLOYEE EVALUATIONS Susan M. Cypert Associate VP for Human Resources, SLU
  3. 3. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction / overview </li></ul><ul><li>What is the 360 method? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>How to do a 360 </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Samples </li></ul><ul><li>Questions - Wrap-up </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why we shouldn’t be surprised that this is a challenging issue- <ul><li>How good are we at honest evaluation? Candid feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>In our homes? </li></ul><ul><li>In schools? </li></ul><ul><li>In relationships? </li></ul><ul><li>Politics? </li></ul><ul><li>Social organizations? </li></ul><ul><li>So why would we expect to be any better at work? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Opinions range … <ul><li>from, zero support for performance evaluations … to … traditional must-do annual evals </li></ul><ul><li>Not really in conflict – all opinions agree that feedback to employees is needed – HOW it is done makes the difference </li></ul>
  6. 6. Continued … <ul><li>Call it </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching – developmental feedback- </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive criticism – </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation – appraisal – </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed is fair – regular – frequent enough to be effective – honest, positive when possible </li></ul>
  7. 7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS When done as a cooperative conversation between supervisor and employee
  8. 8. Performance evals continued … <ul><li>Provide a basis for coaching to improve employee performance </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in setting goals for employee development </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in making systematic judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback to the employee from multiple sources </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in realigning the culture of a department or organization </li></ul>
  9. 9. WHAT WORKS? <ul><li>Mutual goal setting rather than criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Day to day coaching rather than “flu shot” </li></ul><ul><li>Participation by the employee (self evaluation, mutual development of process) = greater ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Setting specific goals which are better than vague or general ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Vague: Improve customer service. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Specific: Send out confirmation reports daily. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include a time dimension for goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals should be challenging but reachable </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT DOESN’T WORK? <ul><ul><ul><li>Straight criticism, especially without agreement on WHAT is important, or without examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An evaluation that has poor credibility will = defensiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct tie to salary [surveys tell us $$ has little or short term impact] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROCESS What is it? <ul><li>NOTE: 360* [degree] feedback* is a registered trademark of TEAMS, Inc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The 360 – what is it? <ul><li>The 360 degree evaluation process provides information to an employee from multiple sources </li></ul><ul><li>- a circle of stakeholders – </li></ul><ul><li>peers – supervisor – direct reports – higher mg levels – internal customers – external customers – vendors – consultants –others </li></ul><ul><li>= “360”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two lines of thought: Use the 360 for <ul><li>1) Developmental purposes only. The information is gathered by neutral entity – not the supervisor – and shared only with the employee. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>2) Evaluation. The supervisor is involved in designing, gathering information, and in communication with the employee. </li></ul>
  14. 14. CONSIDER THIS… <ul><li>Because a good evaluation IS about development – if done correctly a 360 is good for both development and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Because a good evaluation should focus on developing strengths a 360 can be a very good approach because the information gathered is from so many sources. </li></ul>
  15. 15. IN MULTISOURCE EVALUATIONS - <ul><li>Peers and direct reports: will see how things are going </li></ul><ul><li>PLUS </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor: will see what is being done </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>The 360 provides a way to integrate the two views </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys show employees prefer multi-source feedback to supervisor only feedback Edwards & Ewen, pgs. 182-183 </li></ul>
  16. 16. PROS AND CONS RE THE 360 PROCESS from Jones & Bearley, pg. 11 <ul><li>Shaver (1995, p. 13) points out that the 360° assessment helps people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uncover expectations, strengths, and weaknesses that are news to them… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadens the perspective on evaluating an individual by using multiple data sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides ratings that can become benchmarks in the feedback recipient’s performance-evaluation process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may promote people becoming increasingly accountable for their own growth and development…. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. PROS with credit to EDWARDS AND EWEN, pgs. 3 - 23 <ul><li>Multisource feedback can get at issues the supervisor might miss </li></ul><ul><li>Peer opinion can change behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Multisource feedback is more diverse: As organizations diversify by gender, ethnicity, age, disability, race, etc., more pts of view are needed for accurate assessment [same principle can apply in using committees or teams in recruitment and selection] </li></ul>
  18. 18. PROS with credit to EDWARDS AND EWEN, pgs. 3 - 23 <ul><li>Can be tailored to the individual’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>In planning the 360 the supervisor and the employee can come to a clearer understanding of what each believes is important, which furthers the process of developing a common language within the department and the organization </li></ul><ul><li>The quiet high performer might not be getting noticed by the supervisor </li></ul>
  19. 19. PROS with credit to EDWARDS AND EWEN, pgs. 3 - 23 <ul><li>The choices regarding what is important to be appraised can be tied into an organization’s goals such as a need for change or new emphases such as safety, diversity, or creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Probably less costly than other methods, though that can depend – but contrast it to getting the evaluation wrong, or to mis-applied training costs </li></ul><ul><li>Involves many stakeholders, valuing their opinions is an important message about their importance [customers, vendors, unions] </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interviews <ul><li>The questions should be developed based on what has been identified as important. </li></ul><ul><li>Will the interviewer be trained and open-minded? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will process the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Collins in Thin Book recommends: get examples of good work to illustrate the qualities you want to understand better </li></ul>
  21. 21. Validity concerns: <ul><li>Rater bias and fear can lead to inflation – raters are afraid to be truly candid </li></ul><ul><li>In a truly anonymous situation with good safeguards the fear is reduced and the bias of friends and enemies can cancel each other out as potential inflation and deflation. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Ratings are relative, open to interpretation. A “good”, doesn’t mean the same to everyone: but for most people there is internal consistency. </li></ul>
  22. 22. COMMENTS ON FEEDBACK: <ul><li>Examples are important, but don’t focus on the unusual unless the single event is unusual or very important. Look for patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical incidents – a single event that is outstandingly good or bad, or very important for some reason. </li></ul><ul><li>THE OUTLIER FEEDBACK : There may be one interviewee who has very different responses from everyone else – the “outlier”. Don’t discount the outlier. The feedback of the outlier could be a signal of a new and important but so far uncommon quality, such as risk-taking. Or it could be a sign of concern. </li></ul>
  23. 23. THESE ELEMENTS ARE CRITICAL : <ul><li>Clarity about purpose & process </li></ul><ul><li>Trust - the MOST important element – runs through everything </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency in methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable anonymity and safeguards </li></ul>
  24. 24. FINAL IMPORTANT STEP: <ul><li>Get feedback to the raters – important to maintain their trust in the process </li></ul>
  25. 25. RESOURCES <ul><li>Buckingham, Marcus and Donald O. Clifton, Ph.D., NOW, Discover Your Strengths, The Free Press, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Collins, Michelle LeDuff, Ph.D. The Thin Book of 360 Feedback: A Manager's Guide , Thin Book Publishing Co., 2000 </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Edwards, Mark R. and Ann J. Ewen, 360 Degree Feedback: The Powerful New Model for Employee Assessment & Performance Improvement , amacom – American Management Association, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, John E., Ph.D. and William L. Bearley, Ed.D., 360° Feedback : Strategies, Tactics, and Techniques for Developing Leaders, HRD Press & Lakewood Publications, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Peiperl, Maury A., Getting 360-Degree Feedback Right , Harvard Business Review, January 2001 </li></ul>