THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
    INTERVENTIONS ON PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT OF
         C.I.T. PROPERTY CONSULTANTS...
The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property
                          ...
Patima Jeerapaet



focusing on the underlying drivers of        should be practiced by every manager in
performance. Perf...
The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property
                          ...
Patima Jeerapaet



motivation       theory.      Immediate        workers involved with growing the
recognition can be a ...
The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property
                          ...
Patima Jeerapaet



                                              structured. These initial questions
                    ...
The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property
                          ...
Patima Jeerapaet



Design/Development of OD                        2. lack of teamwork, and
Interventions                ...
The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property
                          ...
Patima Jeerapaet



     business performance                  de Waal, A. A. (2003). Behavioral
     measurement. Measuri...
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  1. 1. THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS ON PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT OF C.I.T. PROPERTY CONSULTANTS CO., LTD.: A CASE STUDY By Patima Jeerapaet1 ABSTRACT Good performance management systems can have a significant impact upon the operations and success of any organization. The broad objectives of this article are to identify the problematic areas in the company and identify ways to improve staff performance, employee motivation and involvement. The specific research objectives are to describe and analyse the current situation of the company and to conduct a 3-phase diagnosis: Phase 1, identification of problematic areas which need improvement; Phase 2 development and implementation of intervention techniques; Phase 3 monitoring and evaluation of results after the intervention to determine the impact on the company performance. Both the qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis were used which included interview, observation and questionnaires. The findings are that after the ODI, staff performance improved. This improvement has led to better performance of the organization at three levels. At the individual level—staff perceived more motivation and that their competencies at work increased. At the team level—staff perceived that there was an improvement in team effort. At the corporate level—the findings suggest that improved corporate performance is linked to improved individual and team level processes. Key Words: Performance management, Employee motivation, Employee involvement, Teamwork 1  Patima Jeerapaet is the Managing Director of C.I.T. Property Consultants Co., Ltd, a property consultant company. He is also a chairman of the Joint Foreign Chamber of Commerce in Thailand (JFCCT).
  2. 2. The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property Consultants Co.,Ltd.: A Case Study Introduction It is recognised that human resource Performance Management management of considerable importance The competitive advantage of an in the management of organizations organization in a global economy (Singh, 1992, p. 116). Mendonca & depends on how well its human Kanungo (1996) analysed that “the resources are managed. Of course, the competitive advantage of an financial, technological, and other organization depends on how well its material resources are unquestionably human resources are managed”. also critical to the organization’s success Performance can be measured as an in the competitive global market, but outcome of both organizational and these resources are generated by people, human activities. The objective of this and it is their skill that also ensures that dissertation was to apply these theories these resources are effectively deployed. in practice, using C.I.T as a case study. Therefore, the importance of the human What it aimed to do is to analyse the resources function is increasingly being corporate performance of C.I.T, identify recognized. Developments in human the problem areas, and to find ways to resource management techniques and rectify the identified problems which, in practices to encourage work motivation the C.I.T case, was employee motivation, particularly through performance employee involvement and teamwork. management, work design, reward The type and manifestation of systems, employee supervision, and problems vary from one organization to organization development and change another. Therefore, methods used to strategies, have enabled organizations to study and suggest solutions to these create conditions which encourage, problems also differ from one support, and reinforce employee organization to another. effectiveness. These techniques and C.I.T’s corporate performance when it practices give organizations the first took over from Pasupat was not at competitive edge both in the short and all impressive. There was no unity long term, as well as in their domestic among staff members and there was a and international markets. high rate of staff turn-over. Staff de Waal (2003) mentioned that performance was rather poor or sub- “Performance can be considered an standard. CIT stakeholders were not outcome of both organizational and satisfied with the corporate performance human activities”. Performance because its revenue was not high as it management has much wider should be. implications than that of simply The researcher, as the Managing improving individual performance and Director of the company, took this providing a basis for performance- opportunity to apply the knowledge he related pay. It is also concerned with learnt from the course, to identify the three key features of organizational life: problem areas, strategically initiated human resource management (HRM), ODI activities based on information continuous development, and other authors wrote in this field, and teamworking (Armstrong, 1994, p. 26). analyse the results of the ODI he Poor performance has a negative impact implemented. It was expected that the on company revenues along the same ODI activities would improve staff lines as downtime. There is a negative performance, resulting in improved effect either through lost opportunities, corporate performance which would lost revenue (Brady, 2002, p. 4). There is satisfy CIT stakeholders and a growing trend towards managing shareholders. performance improvement through 2
  3. 3. Patima Jeerapaet focusing on the underlying drivers of should be practiced by every manager in performance. Performance management the organization (Armstrong, 1994, p. is a term widely used within HR and has 26). a specific meaning associated with The organization has operated reviewing and managing an individuals’ successful because of good performance performance. However, there is also a management systems. The Performance growing concern in performance Management is the fruit of an measurement that measuring organizational structure, its teamwork, performance is not enough. its employee motivation and its Measurement has to lead to insight and employee involvement. insight to action – hence the term corporate performance management has Teamwork been used to differentiate between Armstrong (1994) found that management at the level of the performance management is a matter individual and the corporation. More between managers and the subordinates. recently, the concept of multiple It also improve teamwork by asking stakeholders has come to the fore. teams to identify interdependencies and Companies can no longer be satisfied set team objectives and by getting their with only considering shareholders and members jointly to review progress in customers. Employees are also seen as achieving them. Teamwork can also be important stakeholders, as are suppliers, enhanced by setting overlapping regulators and the community at large objectives for different members of a and these have adopted different team (. Brumback (2003) also found that approaches to this challenge (Bourne, “in a team-based organization, the Franco & Wilkes, 2003, p. 16). For as performance not only of the teams as a long as one person has been engaged in whole but also of their individual furthering the aims of another, the members needs to be managed and employer has been concerned with ways managed very well if tall performance of motivating the employee to maximize (consistently competent, ethical, and the effectiveness of the enterprise. Given motivated behavior that always produces the link between employee behavior, the best results) is to be reached and HRM and company performance, the sustained”. lower employee turnover and greater In most instances, when organizations productivity should be (Roos & say they want teams, what they really Fernstrom, 2004, p. 31). want is teamwork. That is, they want Performance management can assure people within a work area to cooperate a number of the essential aims of HRM, with one another, to make decisions to achieve high levels of performance together, and to work together toward a from the organization’s human resources; common goal or objective (Humphrey & to develop people to achieve their full Stokes, 2000, p. 59). In the end capacity and their potential; to reinforce teamwork will gain greater performance or to change the organizational culture. results because people are working Performance management is also together rather than independently of concerned with the interrelated processes each other. of work, management, development and There are a number of characteristics reward. It can become a powerful that are often observed when a group of integrating force, ensure that these individuals works as a team: shared job processes are linked together properly as duties, cross-over of skills, flexibility in a fundamental part of the human substitution, desire to involve everyone, resource management approach which equal sacrifice and commitment, 3
  4. 4. The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property Consultants Co.,Ltd.: A Case Study understood and supported overarching involvement. Motivation consists of a purpose. variety of forces that direct behavior In order to be successful, the leaders toward a goal (Garrison & Bly, 1997). need to encourage and support your As the trend continues to change frontline employees to work together, to toward self-managing teams, employees be unified in purpose and action. The cannot be anticipated to change into word synergy is often associated with motivated self-managers suddenly; they teamwork, because as the people in a need to be given the appropriate tools group develop an environment of giving through development and training and receiving and as they share ideas programs. When employees appear to be develop working together relationship, unmotivated, managers will need to size their combined action produces results up the leadership situation, identify and that are greater than they could achieve understand what is happening, and if each were working alone (Humphrey formulate a response. Knowledge about & Stokes, 2000, pp. 59-60). the theories of motivation, discussed in The capability of a group reflects the previous section, should help members’ effectiveness at using their managers identify and understand the skills and experience to accomplish the motivational problems they face. In this work in their area. Maturity reflects section, possible methods to motivate group members’ effectiveness at making employees are described. One reason decisions that consider work needs and these motivation methods are widely employees’ needs and abilities and that used is the fact that they have strong are sound from a practical and business foundations in motivation theory and perspective. Maturity is not reflected by research. For example, empowering a group that makes decisions based on employees is based in part on self- selfish desires or the most convenient efficacy – namely, on the idea that solution. Finally, the drive of a group people differ in their estimates of how reflects members’ motivation and they will perform on a task. Therefore, enthusiasm for learning and achieving building their skills and self-confidence greater performance results (Humphrey by empowering them should bolster their & Stokes, 2000, p. 60). self-efficacy and thus their motivation. Teamwork is essential for competing in today's global arena, where individual 1. Pay for Performance performance is not as desirable as a high Pay for performance is probably the level of collective performance. In first thing that comes to mind when most knowledge based enterprises, teams are people think about motivating the norm rather than the exception. A employees. Pay for performance refers critical feature of team in our company to any compensation method that ties is that employees at the management pay to the quantity or quality of work the level have a significant degree of person produces. Similarly, behavior empowerment, or decision-making modification emphasizes that people will authority. Aside from the required continue behavior that is rewarded, and technical proficiency to enhance pay for performance plans, of course, tie teamwork within the organization rewards directly to behavior (Sims, 2002, p. 64). Employee Motivation Motivation is one of the critical links 2. Recognition between the organization and the Being recognized for a job well done individual. That link is expressed in – and not necessarily just financially – productivity, satisfaction, and personal makes a lot of sense in terms of 4
  5. 5. Patima Jeerapaet motivation theory. Immediate workers involved with growing the recognition can be a powerful reinforcer, company. Although different companies for instance, and can provide some may define employee involvement immediate outcomes to counterbalance somewhat differently and use various the employees’ inputs or efforts. means to obtain it, many employee Recognition also underscores the involvement efforts involve the for- performance-reward-expectancy link, mation of natural work teams. and it helps appeal to and satisfy the need people have to achieve and be As employee involvement efforts recognized for their achievement (Sims, take on team like dynamics, supervisors 2002, p. 69). must have the skills necessary to build and grow teams. Frontline leaders will recognize the difference between a 3.Empowering Employees group of people and a real team. They Today, organizations are increasingly will actively grow their teams, empowering their work teams. understanding the stages every team will Empowering does not just mean experience and knowing how to develop assigning broad responsibilities. Teams individuals into members of a high- also need the training, skills, and tools to performance work team (Humphrey & allow them to do their jobs, such as in Stokes, 2000, p. 58-59). consensus decision making. Firms like Saturn also make sure their managers actually let their people do their jobs as Empowerment and Delegation Globalization that has occurred since assigned (Sims, 2002, p. 72). the beginning of the 21st century makes the world become more dynamic and 4. Goal-Setting move at a faster pace. Due to increased Managers and employees need to economic integration and reduced trade understand each other’s goals. In barriers, globalization creates greater addition, movement of people, capital, ideas, and managers are responsible for helping goods. Bigger markets can mean bigger their employees in setting goals or profits if companies /organizations make objectives. With a clear understanding of every effort to capitalize on them. clear goals or objectives, the managers Global competition is so strong that and the employees can work together to organizations will require making achieve specific outcomes. Sims (2002) adjustments to the way they do analyzed and found that some attributes businesses as well as to their of goals are especially important for management styles in order to keep pace performance improvement: goal with the rapid change. Therefore it is a specification and goal recognition. real challenge in how to manage the organizational behaviour to meet strong Motivation is the force that drives field of global competition. employees towards a common objective. To be successful in global Employees are motivated with competition, organizations not only performance incentives, team spirits, should respond positively to the achievement recognition, open line competition in the international communication, respect, trust and marketplace but they must also be more involvement. responsive to ethnic, religious, and Employee Involvement gender diversity as well as personal Today an increasing number of integrity in the workforce (Nelson, 2006, organizations see the potential p. 15). advantages of having more frontline 5
  6. 6. The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property Consultants Co.,Ltd.: A Case Study Managing the organizational The ‘Involve them’ management behaviour during changing times is style – “Delegation” and challenging for at least four reasons: (1) “Empowerment.” There are countless the increasing globalization or benefits to be gained by applying them organizations’ operating territory, (2) the to the full. It is very important for the increasing diversity of organizational company to create the atmosphere that workforces, (3) the continuing demand nurtures staff abilities and motivates for higher levels of moral and ethical them to improve their productivity behaviour at workplaces, and (4) through shared knowledge and continuing innovation with its information and empower them to make companion need for skill enhancement. decision based on these shared These are the important issues to address knowledge. Their good work must be in manage people at work (Nelson & recognized and rewarded. Empowered Quick, 2006, p. 18). staff are contented and this flow through Management in the twenty-first to customers. The firm’s success is century has accordingly taken a new based on our ability to produce superior orientation, and is capitalizing on a results for our clients. With strong global different approach to managing competition, increasing number of happy employees than the traditional customers may lead to increasing market disciplinarian, command and control share of the company. philosophies. People are treated as the natural resource and capital asset of the Theoretical Framework organization and the most important The model as depicted in Figure 1 source of sustainable competitive shows that performance is an outcome of advantage (Jamali, Khoury, & Sahyoun, both organizational and human activities 2006, pp. 338-339). but the most important contributing Management through delegation factor is human resources. Motivated creates a more nurturing environment in staff is productive and can perform well. which staff can learn, grow, improve and Therefore, performance management can function effectively. A further satisfy a number of the fundamental development to delegation is aims of HRM, to achieve sustained high empowerment. Staff empowerment levels of performance from the gives employees a sense of trust, organization’s human resources; develop importance, capability and thus creates a people to their full capacity and potential; positive work environment. It also establish an environment in which the enables personal and professional latent potential of employees can be growth. The leader believes that realized. Performance management is empowerment is derived after a period also concerned with the interrelated of time working together. The leader processes of work, management, must be able to judge an employee’s development and reward. It can become capabilities and trust that person with a powerful integrating force, ensure that decision-making in the best interests of these processes are linked together business operations. No doubt the properly as a basic part of the human empowered person will have freedom of resource management approach which choice and action, but there is a ceiling should be accomplished by every in decision making that the empowered manager in the organization. person can undertake. Good leadership is like good parenting: communication, . coaching and monitoring from time to time is required. Corporate Performance Effectiveness 6
  7. 7. Patima Jeerapaet structured. These initial questions changed based on the interaction between the interviewees and the Performance Improvement researcher, as well as based on the emergence of new ideas, and is an accepted qualitative methodological Team Effectiveness process (Yin 1989; Stauss and Corbin Team grown in capacity Individual members learn 1998). This investigation is designed as an action research conducted in the real situations. There are three stages in this Employee Involvement research, 1) the diagnosis stage, 2) the Empowerment / Delegation ODI stage and 3) the evaluation stage. Phase I: Diagnosis Situation Analysis/ Individual Motivation Assessment (Pre-ODI) Goal Setting/Performance Appraisal/ Reward System/ The diagnosed situation assessed here Coaching & Training is the transition of Pasupat Realty Co., Ltd. to C.I.T. Property Consultants Co., Figure 1 Theoretical Framework Ltd. Human Resource Management is considered a priority. This research will analyze the current situation of the Research Methodology company. This research will also analyze The research process is iterative. The the employees’ capabilities, competence processes of data collection, analysis and and attitude. drawing and verifying conclusions are Phase II: Identify, Develop & Implement collapsed into one evolving, reduction ODI (ODI) process (Miles & Huberman, 1994) The research identified, developed enabling insight into employee and implemented the organization motivation. Data in this research consists intervention which are appropriate for of interviews, executive notes of the company. The required interventions interviews, questionnaires, are in terms of teambuilding, Human organizational documents of various development, goal setting, performance types, researcher notes and observations. appraisal, adjusted reward systems, The researcher chose to record notes of coaching and training all interviews which provide the best Phase III: Monitor & Evaluate data for analysis. In this research, such Desired/Expected Results (Post-ODI) data collection provided the best means The interventions were closely of validating the information gathered monitored to determine the level of and in facilitating ongoing reflection and employee involvement, employee assessment (Denzin and Lincoln 1994). motivation after the ODI. Its results The researcher was able to observe would be analyzed and evaluated with some limited, informal and formal job satisfaction, organization’s growth conversations and meetings. While and corporate performance effectiveness. observation did not form an important part of the data collection, it did provide Research Instruments, Tools and additional input. other Data While interviews are typically In this research, there are 3 classified as structured or unstructured, instrumental tools in the forms of interviews in this research were semi- 7
  8. 8. The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property Consultants Co.,Ltd.: A Case Study questionnaires, interview and research differs from the same issue in observations. quantitative research. Consensus amongst qualitative researchers, 1. Questionnaire covered the following however, remains elusive. For example, areas: Denzin and Lincoln (1994), suggest trustworthiness and authenticity are • Employee satisfaction survey, more appropriate than reliability and • Organization Communication, validity, as understood in a positivistic • Team work, sense. It is the credibility of sense- • Employee motivation, making that the researcher seeks. The philosopher, Popper, proposes that the • Employee involvement aim of science is to find “satisfactory (Empowerment & delegation), explanations” (Popper and Miller, 1985 • Employee performance Evaluation p.162), and that these explanations need to meet a number of criteria, including 2. Interview the need for the explanations to properly A second important measurement relate to the matters they purport to technique was the individual or group explain, for the explanation to meet interview. Interviews were the most some minimum standards of truthfulness widely used technique for collecting data and for the explanation to be testable. in OD. They permit the interview to ask Furthermore, the explanations are the respondent direct question. Further satisfactory when they cannot be shown probing and clarification was, therefore, to be false (Popper and Miller, 1985). In possible as the interview proceeds. The this sense verification is linked to flexibility was invaluable for gaining falsifiability, and that this makes good private views and feelings about the science. Popper believes that a theory is organization and for exploring new falsified “only if we discover a issues that emerge during the interview. reproducible effect which refutes the theory” (Popper and Miller, 1985 p.150). 3. Observations So, the action research undertaken in The researcher will observe by this thesis uses intervention to explain walking casually through a work area phenomena in ways acceptable to and looking around or by simply qualitative research scholars. Its counting the occurrences of specific construct validity is manifested via the kinds of behaviours. Observations can multiple sources of evidence used to range from complete participant verify an explanation through the observation, in which the researcher triangulation of data. In this case, it is becomes a member of the group under reasonable to expect another researcher, study, to more detached observation, in working with the same set of data, would which the observer is clearly not part of arrive at a similar explanation. Internal the group or situation itself and may use validity is manifested in the credibility videotape and other methods to record and authenticity of what data arises from behaviours (Cummings & Worley, 2005). interviews, observations, records, questionnaires, etc., as these provide the Tools for Qualitative and Quantitative “truth value” of the data collected. The Analysis researcher is concerned to establish that The researcher did not use the account provided “rings true” (Miles significance testing in the quantitative and Huberman, 1994 p.278 and 279). analysis. Reasons for this are that the issue of verification in qualitative 8
  9. 9. Patima Jeerapaet Design/Development of OD 2. lack of teamwork, and Interventions 3. poor work involvement As a result from Pre-ODI diagnosis, the company realized that at the In consultation with team leaders and individual level, some employees had department heads, the researcher less competency and poor performance. initiated activities which aimed to The ODI tools targeted for improvement improve staff performance, and help are the goal setting, performance rectify the three problems above. These appraisal, reward systems, coaching and included performance appraisal, goal training, career planning and setting, adjusted reward systems, human development. The company expected resource development, teambuilding, Post ODI to provide higher effectiveness coaching and training. These activities and better performance of individual were implemented in the year of 2008. employee. At department (team) level, there was Quantitative findings less motivation and poor team working. Sixty employees in every department The ODI tools targeted for improvement were asked to fill in a questionnaire were more employee involvement as a which was designed to measure the team, the goal setting, performance changes in staff behaviour, attitude, staff appraisal, reward systems, coaching and morale and the level of team work training. The company expected Post before and after the implementation of ODI to provide higher motivation and the ODI activities. The same better team effectiveness. questionnaire was completed in Phase I At the organizational level, the before the ODI and in Phase III after the company realized the need to have all ODI. Questions asked in the survey were employees’ involvement which was relevant to the three problem areas, but resulted in strength and unity of the particular ones can be used to assess the company. extent of improvement in each of the The Post ODI was expected to result in problem areas. better corporate performance. The results from the two surveys were compared to find the impact of Summary of findings ODI activities (Phase II) carried out throughout the year 2008. The ODI Qualitative findings activities have been successful in The researcher carried out an rectifying the identified problems and interview with seven department heads achieving positive outcomes at the three and eight managers to ascertain possible levels:- causes of poor corporate performance. In addition to the interviews, the researcher (a) Individual level – staff felt more observed staff behaviour and the motivated and their competencies interactions between employees, as a increased. They were satisfied with the means to understand staff behaviour and revised reward systems, coaching and attitudes as a reflection of morale. training the company provided to them. It was found from the interviews and They knew the career path they want to the researcher’s observation that the pursue. Their communication skills causes of poor corporate performance improved not only among the colleagues, were poor staff performance, the root but also in effective upward and causes of which were:- downward communication processes 1. un-motivated staff and low between supervisors and subordinates morale respectively. 9
  10. 10. The Impact of Organization Development Intervention on Performance Management of C.I.T.Property Consultants Co.,Ltd.: A Case Study (b) Team level – staff felt that there Bourne, M., Franco, M., & Wilkes, J. was an improvement in team work. (2003). Corporate performance Department heads reported that the management. Measuring Business quality of work of their staff improved Excellence, 7(3), pp. 15-21. and they were more willing to help their Brady, J. (2002). A strategy for colleagues. Staff was more cooperative managing performance. Retrieved when they were asked to complete a task. August 22, 2007, from There were increasing number of http://www.sun.com/blueprints/1202 brainstorming sessions and department /817-0836.pdf heads observed that their staff Brumback, G. B. (2003). Blending contributed more in discussions. “we/me” in performance Because of the more frequent and management. Team Performance changed nature of communication Management, 7(8), pp. 167-173. between people, work progressed Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. smoothly. They shared the same goals (2005). Organization development and as a team tried to achieve the target. & change (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Staff was more satisfied, after receiving Thomson/South-Western. appropriate coaching and training, Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994) especially with empowerment and Handbook of Qualitative Research delegation bestowed upon them. (1st ed.). London: Sage. Garrison, M., & Bly, M. A. (1997). (c) Corporate level – this dissertation Human relations: Productive argues that improved corporate approaches for the workplace. performance is linked to improved Boston: Allyn and Bacon. individual and team level processes. Humphrey, B., & Stokes, J. (2000). The Corporate performance improvement is 21st century supervisor: nine measured by an 85% increase in the essential skills for frontline leaders. company income between 2007 and San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. 2008. Jamali, D., Khoury, G., & Sahyoun, H. (2006). From bureaucratic Conclusion organizations to learning With the 85% increase in the company organizations: An evolutionary income, the researcher suggests this is roadmap. The Learning due to the ODI activities initiated that Organization, 13(4), pp. 337-352. were largely effective and successful. Mendonca, M., & Kanungo, R. N. There were no major areas that are left (1996). Impact of culture on unanswered or unresolved. The findings performance management in emerge from using both qualitative and developing countries. International quantitative analysis and confirmed that Journal of Manpower, 17(4/5), pp. the ODI matched with the conceptual 65-75. framework. There was a significant Miles, M.B. & Huberman, M.A. (1994). difference between pre and post ODI in Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd ed.) all three areas: employee motivation, Thousand Oaks: Sage. better teamwork and employee Nelson, D. L., & Quick, J. C. (2006). involvement. Organizational behavior: Foundations, realities, and References challenges (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Armstrong, M. (1994). Performance Thomson/South-Western. management. London: Kogan Page. Roos, G., & Fernstrom, L. (2004). Human resource management and 10
  11. 11. Patima Jeerapaet business performance de Waal, A. A. (2003). Behavioral measurement. Measuring Business factors important for the success Excellence, 8(1), pp. 28-37. implementation and use of Sims, R. R. (2002). Managing performance management systems. organizational behavior. Westport, Management Decision, 41(8), pp. CT: Quorum Books. 688-697. Singh, R. (1992). Human resources Yin, R K. (1989). Case Study Research: management: The key to Design and Methods (5th ed.). competitive advantage. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Engineering Management Journal, 2(3), pp. 116-120. 11

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