Implementing a Performance Management System: Overview <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Plan </li></ul>...
Preparation <ul><li>Need to gain system buy-in through : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication plan regarding Performance Ma...
Communication Plan answers: <ul><li>What is Performance Management (PM)? </li></ul><ul><li>How does PM fit in our strategy...
Cognitive Biases that affect   communications effectiveness <ul><li>Selective exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Selective percept...
To minimize effects of cognitive biases: <ul><li>A. Consider employees: </li></ul><ul><li>Involve employees in system desi...
To minimize effects of cognitive biases: <ul><li>B. Emphasize the positive </li></ul><ul><li>Use credible communicators </...
To minimize effects of cognitive biases: <ul><li>C. Repeat, document, be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Put it in writing </...
Appeals Process <ul><li>Promote Employee buy-in to PM system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amicable/Non-retaliatory  </li></ul></u...
Appeals Process <ul><li>Employees can question two types of issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgmental  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Appeals Process <ul><li>Level 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR reviews facts, policies, procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR...
Rater Training Programs <ul><li>Content Areas to include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iden...
Content <ul><li>A.   Information - how the system works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for implementing the performance man...
Content <ul><li>B. Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to identify and...
Content <ul><li>C. How to interact with employees when they receive performance information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to c...
Choices of Training Programs <ul><li>Rater Error Training (RET) </li></ul><ul><li>Frame of Reference Training (FOR) </li><...
Rater Error Training (RET) <ul><li>Goals of Rater Error Training (RET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make raters aware of types of...
Intentional rating errors <ul><li>Leniency (inflation) </li></ul><ul><li>Severity (deflation) </li></ul><ul><li>Central te...
Unintentional rating errors <ul><li>Similar to Me </li></ul><ul><li>Halo </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy  </li></ul><ul><li>Firs...
Possible Solutions for Types of Rating Errors <ul><li>Intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on motivation </li></ul></ul...
Frame of Reference Training (FOR) <ul><li>Goal of Frame of Reference Training (FOR)* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raters develop ...
Expected Results of Frame of Reference Training (FOR)  <ul><li>Raters provide consistent, more accurate ratings </li></ul>...
Behavioral Observation Training (BO) <ul><li>Goals of Behavioral Observation Training (BO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize ...
Self-leadership Training (SL) <ul><li>Goals of Self-leadership Training (SL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve rater confidenc...
Pilot Testing <ul><li>Provides ability to   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover potential problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Pilot Testing - benefits <ul><li>Gain information from potential participants </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about difficulties/o...
Implementing a Pilot Test <ul><li>Roll out test version with sample group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff and jobs generalizab...
Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>When system is implemented, decide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to evaluate system...
Evaluation data to collect: <ul><li>Reactions to the system </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments of requirements </li></ul><ul><u...
Indicators to consider <ul><li>Number of individuals evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of performance ratings </li>...
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Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of ...

  1. 1. Implementing a Performance Management System: Overview <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals Process </li></ul><ul><li>Training Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation </li></ul>
  2. 2. Preparation <ul><li>Need to gain system buy-in through : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication plan regarding Performance Management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Including appeals process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training programs for raters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot testing system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ongoing monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication Plan answers: <ul><li>What is Performance Management (PM)? </li></ul><ul><li>How does PM fit in our strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in it for me? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>What are our roles and responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>How does PM relate to other initiatives? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cognitive Biases that affect communications effectiveness <ul><li>Selective exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul><ul><li>Selective retention </li></ul>
  5. 5. To minimize effects of cognitive biases: <ul><li>A. Consider employees: </li></ul><ul><li>Involve employees in system design </li></ul><ul><li>Show how employee needs are met </li></ul>
  6. 6. To minimize effects of cognitive biases: <ul><li>B. Emphasize the positive </li></ul><ul><li>Use credible communicators </li></ul><ul><li>Strike first – create positive attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Provide facts and conclusions </li></ul>
  7. 7. To minimize effects of cognitive biases: <ul><li>C. Repeat, document, be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Put it in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple channels of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Say it, and then – say it again </li></ul>
  8. 8. Appeals Process <ul><li>Promote Employee buy-in to PM system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amicable/Non-retaliatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution of disagreements </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Appeals Process <ul><li>Employees can question two types of issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(validity of evaluation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(whether policies and procedures were followed) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Appeals Process <ul><li>Level 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR reviews facts, policies, procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR reports to supervisor/employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR attempts to negotiate settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrator (panel of peers and managers) and/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-level manager – final decision </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rater Training Programs <ul><li>Content Areas to include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying, Observing, Recording, Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Interact with Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choices of Training Programs to implement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SL </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Content <ul><li>A. Information - how the system works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for implementing the performance management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the appraisal form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>system mechanics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Content <ul><li>B. Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to identify and rank job activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to observe, record, and measure performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to minimize rating errors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Content <ul><li>C. How to interact with employees when they receive performance information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to conduct an appraisal interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to train, counsel, and coach </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Choices of Training Programs <ul><li>Rater Error Training (RET) </li></ul><ul><li>Frame of Reference Training (FOR) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Observation Training (BO) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-leadership Training (SL) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rater Error Training (RET) <ul><li>Goals of Rater Error Training (RET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make raters aware of types of rating errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help raters minimize errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase rating accuracy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Intentional rating errors <ul><li>Leniency (inflation) </li></ul><ul><li>Severity (deflation) </li></ul><ul><li>Central tendency </li></ul>
  18. 18. Unintentional rating errors <ul><li>Similar to Me </li></ul><ul><li>Halo </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy </li></ul><ul><li>First impression </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotype </li></ul><ul><li>Negativity </li></ul><ul><li>Recency </li></ul><ul><li>Spillover </li></ul>
  19. 19. Possible Solutions for Types of Rating Errors <ul><li>Intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate benefits of providing accurate ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unintentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alert raters to different errors and their causes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Frame of Reference Training (FOR) <ul><li>Goal of Frame of Reference Training (FOR)* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raters develop common frame of reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observing performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Most appropriate when PM appraisal system focuses on behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Expected Results of Frame of Reference Training (FOR) <ul><li>Raters provide consistent, more accurate ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Raters help employees design effective development plans </li></ul>
  22. 22. Behavioral Observation Training (BO) <ul><li>Goals of Behavioral Observation Training (BO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize unintentional rating errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve rater skills by focusing on how raters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observe performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Store information about performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall information about performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use information about performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Self-leadership Training (SL) <ul><li>Goals of Self-leadership Training (SL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve rater confidence in ability to manage performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase self-efficacy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Pilot Testing <ul><li>Provides ability to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover potential problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix them </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Pilot Testing - benefits <ul><li>Gain information from potential participants </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about difficulties/obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Collect recommendations on how to improve </li></ul><ul><li>Understand personal reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Get early buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Get higher rate of acceptance </li></ul>
  26. 26. Implementing a Pilot Test <ul><li>Roll out test version with sample group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff and jobs generalizable to organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fully implement planned system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All participants keep records of issues encountered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not record appraisal scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect input from all participants </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>When system is implemented, decide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to evaluate system effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to measure implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to measure results </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Evaluation data to collect: <ul><li>Reactions to the system </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments of requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of performance ratings </li></ul>
  29. 29. Indicators to consider <ul><li>Number of individuals evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of performance ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of information </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of performance discussion meetings </li></ul><ul><li>System satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Unit-level and organization-level performance </li></ul>
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