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  • 1. Performance Appraisals Evaluating how well employees are working
  • 2.  
  • 3. Performance Appraisals
    • What are Performance Appraisals (a.k.a. Evaluations)?
    • What is the purpose of Performance Evaluations?
      • Validation of Selection
      • Training Requirements
      • Employee Improvement
      • Pay, Promotion, and other decisions
  • 4. Performance Criteria
    • Need to have a standard by which to compare “good” behavior
    • Recall Predictors and Criteria
      • Predictors: what we are looking for when we hire
      • Criteria: the “evidence” of a good employee
        • Theoretical (ideal) vs. actual criteria
    • QG: What happens if performance evaluations are not fair or accurate?
  • 5. Issues with Criteria
    • Criterion Relevance
      • Is the actual criteria close to the theoretical criteria
    • Criterion Contamination
      • Biases and unrealiability
    • Criterion Deficiency
      • Problems with content validity
    • Criterion Usefulness
    • QG: Examples of these in your job
  • 6. Types of Appraisals
    • Objective
      • Behaviors
        • Absences, lateness, accidents
      • Production
        • Quantity and Quality of Output
        • Electronic Monitoring
    • May have problems of criterion deficiency
  • 7. Types of Appraisals
    • Subjective
      • Rankings of employees and ratings of performance
    • May have problems with criterion contamination and criterion relevance
    • QG: What are objective and subjective criteria in your jobs?
  • 8. Where do appraisals come from?
    • Self-appraisals
    • Peer appraisals
    • Supervisor appraisals
    • 360 degree feedback
      • From all around the employee
      • Inter-rater reliability/more fair
      • Leadership focused
  • 9. Specific appraisals: Comparative
    • Ranking
      • Supervisors rank employees
      • Problems
    • Forced Distribution
      • GE’s Top and Bottom 10%
  • 10. Specific appraisals: Individual
    • Graphic Rating Scales
      • Rating of dimensions from job analyses
      • Very subjective
    • QG: Example of Teacher Rating Scale
      • Strengths and weaknesses as a performance evaluation tool
      • Turn in!
  • 11. Specific appraisals: Individual
    • Behaviorally Anchored Rating scales (BARS)
      • Uses actual listing of behaviors of poor and good performance
      • Think back to our job analysis and critical incidents technique
    • Behavioral observation scores (BOS)
      • How often they perform this behavior
  • 12. Sources of Error in Appraisals
    • Severity, Average or Leniency Rating Error
    • Halo Effect
      • Both positive and negative
    • Recency Effect
  • 13. Sources of Error in Appraisals
    • Causal Attribution Errors
      • Extreme ratings for perceived effort over perceived ability
      • Actor-observer bias
        • Comes from the fundamental attribution error
        • Actor “blames” environment for failures and credits self for successes. Observer does the opposite
  • 14. Sources of Error in Appraisals
    • Personal Biases
      • Discrimination
      • Pregnancy
        • You’d be surprised
      • Friendship
      • Organizational training programs
        • Legal issues
        • Reverse discrimination
  • 15.  
  • 16. Purpose of Feedback
    • Performance appraisals help employee learn about strengths and weaknesses
    • Employees want to know what they’re being evaluated on
    • Performance appraisals should motivate employees to improve
    • QG: What happens when employees don’t get feedback or get poor feedback?
  • 17. Improving the appraisal process
    • Improve performance appraisal techniques
    • Train the appraisers
      • Should know biases
    • Multiple evaluations
      • Inter-rater reliability!
    • Appraise the appraisers
    • Performance appraisals should be regular and often
    • Review and revise performance appraisals
  • 18. How to give feedback
    • Sandwich!!
    • Employees participate in process
    • Appraiser positive, constructive, supportive
    • Focus on specific job problems
    • Employee and supervisor jointly reach goals
    • Employee can challenge evaluation
    • Salary and Rank discussions linked