Global Talent Management: The Third Generation


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  • What is talent management? According to Rhea Duttagupta of PricewaterhouseCoopers, "In the broadest possible terms, it is the strategic management of the flow of talent through an organization. Its purpose is to assure that the supply of talent is available to align the right people with the right jobs at the right time based on strategic business objectives." Duttagupta emphasizes that proper talent management is "holistic and integrated" throughout the organization and integral to organizational culture. ( IP Value 2005 [Duttagupta]. Obtained January 27, 2006)
  • Recruitment, retention, professional development, leadership and high-potential talent development, performance management, workforce planning, corporate culture initiatives, feedback opportunities, and measurement are identified as the components of talent management by Integrated and Integrative Talent Management: A Strategic HR Framework, a report written by Lynne Morton and published by The Conference Board. The report is based on survey responses from 75 executives in charge of talent management, along with interviews and group discussions with survey respondents. ( Integrated and Integrative Talent Management: A Strategic HR Framework [Morton], 2004, p. 6)
  • "This war for talent imagery overlooks the fact that it is often the case that effective teams often outperform even more talented collections of individuals...,"
  • “ The key to our massive institutional failure is that we haven’t learned to mold, bend and transform our centuries-old collective patterns of thinking and institutionalizing to fit the realities of today.” Otto Scharmer
  • that premodern cultures possessed two complementary and indispensable ways of thinking, speaking and knowing: mythos and logos. Mythos was concerned with meaning; it "provided people with a context that made sense of their day-to-day lives; it directed their attention to the eternal and the universal." Logos, on the other hand, dealt with practical matters. It forged ahead, elaborating on old insights, mastering the environment, and creating fresh and new things. Armstrong argues that modern Western society has lost the sense of mythos and enshrined logos as its foundation. Mythical narratives and the rituals and meanings attached to them have ceded authority to that which is rational, pragmatic and scientific - but which does not assuage human pain or sorrow, and cannot answer questions about the ultimate value of human life. However, far from embarking on a wholesale rejection of the modern emphasis in favour of the old balance, the author contends, religious fundamentalists unwittingly turn the mythos of their faith into logos. Fundamentalism is a child of modernity, and fundamentalists are fundamentally modern. [1]
  • ("I think, therefore I am") is a philosophical statement by, which became a foundational element of Western philosophy. " Cogito ergo sum " is a translation of Descartes' original French statement:
  • Building world class Companies in Developing countries by Tarun Khanna and Krishna G. Palepu HBR 10.06
  • Unlike IQ, which computers have, and EQ, which exists in higher mammals, SQ is is uniquely human and, the authors argue, the most fundamental of the three. It is linked to humanity's need for meaning, an issue very much at the forefront of of people's minds as the century draws to a close. SQ is what we use to develop our longing and capacity for meaning, vision and value. It allows us to dream and to strive. It underlies the things we believe in and the role our beliefs and values play in the actions that we take and the shape we give to our lives. This book goes on to explore the scientific evidence for SQ and shows how to test for SQ and how to improve and develop it. Rewiring the Corporate BrainThe Quantum SelfThe Quantum SocietyWho's Afraid of Schrödinger's Cat?Spiritual Intelligence is.....Our access to and use of meaning, vision and value in the way that we think and the decisions that we make. The intelligence that makes us whole, that gives us our integrity. The soul's intelligence, the intelligence of the deep self. It is the intelligence with which we ask fundamental questions and with which we reframe our answers. Our transformative intelligence. -
  • Spiritual Intelligence, first published in 2000, is another milestone publication about how the mind works. It is an unusual book, deceptively easy to read, considering its content, and may owe its relatively undeserved obscurity to inadequate promotion. Spiritual intelligence is described as "the intelligence with which we address and solve problems of meaning and value, the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider, richer, meaning-giving context, the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than another." The authors contend that in the early part of the twentieth century IQ, or rational intelligence was the big issue. More recently, emotional intelligence (EQ) has been identified as a requirement for the effective use of IQ. Now there exists much scientific data that points to the presence of a spiritual intelligence (SQ), the ultimate intelligence that serves as a necessary foundation for the effective functioning of both IQ and EQ. There are five parts to this book: What is SQ? introduces the concept as an expansion of psychology as a science, and posits the need for a new psychological model of the human self and of human personality. In doing just that, the authors draw on mystical and mythological structures found within human spiritual thought, both ancient and modern, carefully pointing out that SQ is not necessarily about being religious, but rather it is an internal and innate ability of the human brain and psyche. How SQ is used is described; what indicates when it is highly developed, and how to improve its level. The Scientific Evidence for SQ deals with the anatomy and functioning of the brain. It summarizes present knowledge of the subject, including the studies in neural oscillations that point to a third kind of thinking of which the brain is capable - unitive thinking. A fulsome chapter is devoted to the significance of the brain's 40 Hz neural oscillations; what different brain wave patterns mean, and the more profound question of where does consciousness come from. The chapter dealing with the 'God spot' in the brain, identified by neurobiologists Persinger and Ramachandran, and the varieties of spiritual experiences emanating therefrom, lead the authors to make some intriguing connections with human behaviors. A New Model of the Self utilizes the lotus symbol "as the ultimate symbol of the spiritually intelligent self…the obvious way to combine the great Eastern and Western traditions of the self with the latest insights from science." Each layer of petals depicts one of the three basic human intelligences: the outer petals representing six ego types; the middle layer representing the associative conscious and unconscious components, and at the center the Deep Self which is the main focus of this book. Using SQ describes how we become, or as a Western society have become, spiritually stunted, and the symptoms of that condition. It gives guidance about the recovery of SQ and using it to be able to live with uncertainty yet find inner poise. "Uncertainty can inspire us because it creates conditions in which we must make a choice. It gives us our freedom and sets the conditions for our responsibility." Our SQ serves as an inner compass. Can We Improve Our SQ? uses the Lotus of the Self symbol to lay out six spiritual paths that any one of us might follow in living a life with greater heart - and you might be on more than one path at any one time. It lays out seven steps one can take to greater Spiritual Intelligence; ways to assess one's own SQ, and concludes with a helpful chapter on how to be, become, or remain spiritually intelligent in what is for the most part a spiritually dumb culture.
  • Look at 2 dimensions: the level of AGREEMENT around high priority issues, what needs to be done, how to go about it, etc... and the level of CERTAINTY about the environment, the factors driving the change, or strategy. Collectively, and generally speaking, people in the organization can be more or less close to agreeing, or far from agreeing, and the level of certainty about the market, the trends etc can be more or less high. When agreement and certainty are relatively high, the most effective and efficient way of going about change is to make a step-by-step plan, to implement it, follow it up etc.. It is useful to have some well defined processes, and standards; things are relatively predictable, the need for finding new, creative, “out-of-the box” solutions may be less critical. When there is too much uncertainty, and too many different views, the (social) system (the organization) can fall apart ("Chaos"). But if the people in an organization can "surf" on this border between "certainty-agreement PLUS" and "certainty-Agreement MINUS" so to speak, then this organization is agile, constantly ready to adapt and change, and it can move fast. However, uncertainty and somewhat low agreement tend to create ANXIETY in people (especially the leaders of the organization). Anxiety per se is not a bad thing, but when its level is too high, people are no longer working at their best, and they look for ways to create more certainty, often by creating more structure, or formalizing processes or introducing principles or rules, anything that allows them to PREDICT and CONTROL (even if it is an illusion of control and predictability). NOKIA has been able so far to "surf" on this boundary between stability and instability, and it is precisely this ability that has been one of the keys to its success. But I think we should be mindful about the current tendency towards formalizing, centralizing and standardizing (common NOKIA-wide processes and tools). The challenge is to create just enough "structure" (common standard processes and tools) to bring the anxiety level down a little, but not too much, so that the organization remains agile, ready to adapt and change rapidly.
  • Mweatley on Measurement
  • Global Talent Management: The Third Generation

    1. 1. Global Talent Management The Third Generation (3G) December 15, 2006 Dr. Anna A. Tavis
    2. 2. Conversation and Breakfast Napkins to writing down your ideas Our Tools for Today: Follow effective action with quiet reflection. From the quiet reflection will come even more effective action James Levin
    3. 3. “ Because of the high level of uncertainty associated with new ventures, they need adaptive organizational environments to succeed. What we have now is : … the poor fit between new business and old systems. Companies design HR systems to develop executives whose operational skills match the needs of mature businesses - not the strategic , conceptual, and entrepreneurial skills that start ups require . The answer is …. to modify systems so they are less biased against new businesses. “ Meeting the Challenge of corporate entrepreneurship” Davis Garvin and Lynne Levesque HBR , Oct.’06 Why is it so hard to innovate in HR?
    4. 4. Our Blind Spots <ul><li>Downloading, i.e. confirming habitual judgments what you already know </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the Gap : focusing on the difference, actual (facts) and novel ideas unlike your own </li></ul><ul><li>The “AHA” thinking ; thinking from the Future, when you find yourself in a place different from where you started </li></ul>
    5. 5. Testing Assumptions : How we got to the language of wars, shortages, gaps, competition, the rising stars, derailments, and revolutions when we talk about the future talent
    6. 6. The Traps of Over-relying on Talent <ul><li>Organization that is overly reliant on talent can fall into various traps: </li></ul><ul><li>there may be too much focus on individual performance at the expense of teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>performance appraisal systems that label some people as relatively &quot;untalented&quot; can demoralize the workforce; </li></ul><ul><li>some people may develop an arrogant and elitist attitude that, they think, puts them &quot;above&quot; organizational rules; </li></ul><ul><li>there's often a &quot;de-emphasis on fixing the systemic, cultural, and business process issues that are invariably much more important for enhancing performance.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Jeffrey Pfeffer &quot;Fighting the War for Talent Is Hazardous to Your Organization's Health.&quot; </li></ul>
    7. 7. Solving the Problem of the War for Talent & the Leadership Revolution “ Problems that are impossible to solve with one paradigm may be easily solved with a different one.” Joel Barker “ The key to our massive institutional failure is that we haven’t learned to mold, bend and transform our centuries-old collective patterns of thinking and institutionalizing to fit the realities of today.” Otto Scharmer
    8. 8. Mythos and Logos Karen Armstrong Mythos was concerned with meaning; it &quot;provided people with a context that made sense of their day-to-day lives; it directed their attention to the eternal and the universal.&quot; (non-linear) Logos dealt with practical matters. It forged ahead, elaborating on old insights, mastering the environment, and valorizing new things. ( linear )
    9. 9. The Origins of Logos Dominance: from Greek Philosophy to Descartes Cogito Ergo Sum &quot;I think, therefore I am&quot; &quot; Je pense, donc je suis &quot;, René Descartes Discourse on Method (1637) He who can properly define and divide is to be considered a god. Plato. The Dialogues .
    10. 10. How We Got to the Disconnected State of Leadership and Ethics Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince (1513- 1517) How one lives is far removed from how one ought to live that he who abandons what one does for what one ought to do, learns rather his own ruin than his preservation .
    11. 11. We do not inherit the Earth from our parents, we borrow it from our children. ⿝ (native American saying) HR Talent Agenda : Planning from the Future
    12. 12. The U-Process : Learning from the Future <ul><li>There are at least two ways of learning : </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from experiences of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from the future as it emerges </li></ul><ul><li>The most impressive Leaders and Master practitioners seem to be operating from a different core process, one that pulls us into future possibilities, creates vision & shares wisdom. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Culture change : </li></ul><ul><li>is the result of daily conversations and </li></ul><ul><li>negotiations between the members of </li></ul><ul><li>an organization. You want to change </li></ul><ul><li>the culture, you need to change all </li></ul><ul><li>these conversations </li></ul>
    14. 14. Humanizing Employment <ul><li>We built organisations that shouldn't even exist. </li></ul><ul><li>We thought we could control people, tell them what to do, then reward them. That's just not appropriate in the world of Linux o r Wikipedia [two companies which use voluntary contributions from a vast number of users]. We are moving to the next phase where organisations are becoming more humane. </li></ul><ul><li>The work of humanising employment is under way: making work fit humans rather than the other way round </li></ul><ul><li>Lynda Gratton of LBS </li></ul><ul><li>(Interview to the Guardian, 3 November, 2006 ) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Multidimentional Point of View on Talent <ul><li>the individual (micro) </li></ul><ul><li>the group (meso) </li></ul><ul><li>the institutional (macro) </li></ul><ul><li>the global level (mundo ) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Integral Talent Management <ul><li>Social Networks ( organic models of organization ) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Talent Pools and what they mean </li></ul><ul><li>( The World is Flat ) </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Intelligence ( Integral Thinking ) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Organizations as Networks OR
    18. 18. The conversation is changing everywhere : from the Integral Medicine to the Integral Enterpise and Integral Talent Management 1000 BC Here, eat this Root AD 1000 The root is pagan. Say this prayer AD 1800 That prayer is pure superstition. Drink this potion AD 1940 This potion is snake oil. Take this pill AD 1980 This pill is ineffective. Take this antibiotic AD 2000 That antibiotic doesn’t work. Take this Root
    19. 19. Organizational Network Analysis Social network analysis [SNA] is the mapping and measuring of relationships and information flows between people, groups, organizations, computers or other information knowledge processing entities. SBA 1 SBA 2 SBA 3 SBA 4 Corporate External Business 1 Business 2 Business 3 Business 4 Business 5 Business 6 Business 7
    20. 20. Social Network Analysis <ul><li>Find emergent leaders in fast growing company </li></ul><ul><li>Improve leadership and team chemistry for sports franchises </li></ul><ul><li>Determine influential journalists and analysts in the IT industry </li></ul><ul><li>Map executive's personal network based on email flows </li></ul><ul><li>Discover the network of Innovators in a regional economy </li></ul><ul><li>Find an organization's go-to people in various knowledge domains </li></ul><ul><li>Map interactions amongst blogs on various topics </li></ul><ul><li>Map national network of professionals involved in a change effort </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the functioning of various project teams </li></ul><ul><li>Map communities of expertise in various medical fields </li></ul><ul><li>Help large organization locate employees in new buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal cross-border knowledge flows based on research needs </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze managers' networks for succession planning </li></ul><ul><li>Locate technical experts and the paths to access them in engineering organization </li></ul>Figure . Social Network Diagram. Robert reaches out to other parts of his organization, positioning himself to generate value in ways that James can’t.
    21. 21. <ul><li>Where People Engage </li></ul><ul><li>Join and commit to people </li></ul><ul><li>Trust accrues in networks of relations </li></ul><ul><li>Where Work Happens </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Informal networks increasingly important </li></ul><ul><li>BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible </li></ul><ul><li>Complements formal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Where Knowledge Lives </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on people for information </li></ul><ul><li>People can provide more than databases </li></ul>Key Reasons Why Organizational Networks Are Important
    22. 22. <ul><li>Central People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are an important source of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May become bottlenecks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are underutilized resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel isolated from the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a higher likelihood of leaving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides balanced and appropriate sources of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds relevant influence with key stakeholders </li></ul></ul> Knowledge Broker; Boundary Spanner  Peripheral Person  Central Person Central Person  <ul><li>Brokers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are critical connectors between diverse information sources and specific kinds of expertise. High leverage points. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect information flow across boundaries (e.g., cross functional, hierarchical, geographical, or expertise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide targeted opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves community leader effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables grass roots network development efforts </li></ul></ul>Fragmentation Point  How to Interpret a Network Diagram
    23. 23. 21 Century: Global Complexity Relationships The Western mind is focused more on individuals and their distinctions and the Eastern mind on relationships (connecting the opposites) between individuals. The Geography of Thought: How Westerners and Asians Think Differently and Why . Richard Nesbitt (Free Press, 2004)
    24. 24. Emerging global competitors <ul><li>Brazil’s AmBev (merged with Belgium’s Interbrew) </li></ul><ul><li>Chile’s S.A.C.I. Falabella </li></ul><ul><li>China’s Baosteel, Galanz, Lenovo, Huawei electronics </li></ul><ul><li>India’s Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Infosys, NIIT, Ranbaxy, Satyam, Tata Group, Wipro </li></ul><ul><li>Israel’s Teva Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico’s Cemex </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines’ Jollibee Foods </li></ul><ul><li>S. African : SABMiller </li></ul>
    25. 25. Emerging Giants Four Tier Structure of Markets: Products, Resources, Talent GLOBAL GLOCAL LOCAL BOTTOM Multinational corporations typically compete for consumers and talent only in the global tier . Smart local companies dominate the local tier, Move into the glocal tier and create breakthrough products and services Emerging Giants by Tarun Khanna and Krishna Palepu, HBR 10.06
    26. 26. Connecting to higher intelligence : IQ, EQ, SQ <ul><li>“ The intelligence with which we address and solve problems of meaning and value, the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider, richer, meaning-giving context, the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than another. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Summary Intent of WLQs <ul><li>Think like an “intrapreneur”. Build pride in your team. Foster “employeeship” </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilise your resources. Have the humility to seek help and advice. Don’t try to launch a missile from a canoe </li></ul><ul><li>Energise your thinking and the thinking of your team </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously question status-quo and look forward to change with excitement, not anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Organise your network of friends, colleagues, experts </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonise conflicts. Resolve them and convert resistance into support </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to integrate yourselves with the cultures you operate in. Speak the language of the land ( like English in the US ) and not in your own language even with your colleagues, who might be from the same town at home </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for your own growth </li></ul>
    28. 28. IN Conclusion <ul><li>Our Questions to Ask of the </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation of Talent Management </li></ul>
    29. 29. Thank you
    30. 30. Backup Slides
    31. 31. Integrated Talent Management <ul><li>・ There is a move toward folding talent management, performance management, and training and development together. &quot;The learning function's activities and impact are becoming more transparent and integrated with other performance improvement strategies. We see many learning functions expanding their mandate to include comprehensive performance analysis and involvement in non-learning performance solutions such as process improvement and talent management,&quot; indicates the ASTD's 2005 State of the Industry report, which is based on a triple-tiered survey process involving 334 companies overall, some U.S.-based and some multinational. ( State of the Industry [Sugrue and Rivera], 2005, p. 5) ・ 
 </li></ul><ul><li>・ Performance management and recruitment are the aspects of talent management that are most likely to be integrated, according to Integrated and Integrative Talent Management: A Strategic HR Framework , a survey of 75 executives in charge of talent management at multinational corporations conducted by The Conference Board. Thirty-one percent of respondents indicated that recruitment was fully integrated or &quot;comprehensive/defined&quot; at their organizations; a similar 31.5% rated performance management as integrated or comprehensive. Culture (29%) and leadership and high-potential development (27%) were next most likely to be well integrated. The least integrated processes were workforce planning (9.5%) and retention (15.5%). ( Integrated and Integrative Talent Management: A Strategic HR Framework [Morton], 2004, p. 10) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Planned and emergent change Working with the Future Far from agreement Close to agreement Close to certainty Far from certainty SELF-ORGANIZING, EMERGENT CHANGE MANAGED CHANGE BOUNDED INSTABILITY Efficiency Economies of scale AGREEM ENT CERTAINTY STABILITY Agility Speed Innovation
    33. 33. Blue Ocean Talent Strategy
    34. 34. America is in
the midst of a huge メ w ake up call モ about what is the cost to the rest of the
world for us to be living the life we are living. It isn ユ t about terrorist activity;
it ユ s about noticing that we put an extraordinary demand on the rest of the
world for resources and energy, and that our way of life does not work well
for most other people because of the demands we put on them. So that ユ s what
 I ユ v e been feeling about メ d oing no harm モム w e don ユ t even know what we ユ r e
doing that ユ s causing harm.
    35. 35. Being in these workplaces, we also learned that measurement needs to serve the deepest purposes of work. It is only when we connect at the level of purpose that we willingly offer ourselves to the organization. <ul><li>In any living system, feedback differs from measurement in several significant ways:1. Feedback is self-generated. An individual or system notices whatever they determine is important for them. They ignore everything else.2. Feedback depends on context. The critical information is being generated right now. Failing to notice the &quot;now,&quot; or staying stuck in past assumptions, is very dangerous.3. Feedback changes. What an individual or system chooses to notice will change depending on the past, the present, and the future. Looking for information only within rigid categories leads to blindness, which is also dangerous.4. New and surprising information can get in. The boundaries are permeable.5. Feedback is life-sustaining. It provides essential information about how to maintain one's existence. It also indicates when adaptation and growth are necessary.6. Feedback supports movement toward fitness. Through the constant exchange of feedback, the individual and its environment coevolve towards mutual sustainability. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Relationships & Organization <ul><li>Many of our frequent and recurring failures in organizations are a consequence of not comprehending the importance of relationships. ハ We approach major organizational issues--mergers, accountability, knowledge management, implementation and change ム a s if they were engineering issues. ハ If we develop the right plan, work flows, job descriptions and project deadlines, everything will roll out smoothly. ハ This mechanical approach doesn ユ t work with humans, because (big news!) humans are not machines. We ユ v e developed quite a robust mythology that humans are machines who can be bossed around, told what to do, given a minor part to play in a large enterprise, and enticed with external rewards. ハ This is becoming ever more common these days. ハ I hear many people asking of their employers: メ W hy can ユ t they just treat us like human beings? モ 
    37. 37. Relationships <ul><li>The scientific search for the basic building blocks of life has revealed a startling fact: there are none. ハ The deeper that physicists peer into the nature of reality, the only thing they find is relationships. ハ Even sub-atomic particles do not exist alone. One physicist described neutrons, electrons, etc. as メ . . .a set of relationships that reach outward to other things. モハ Although physicists still name them as separate, these particles aren ユ t ever visible until they ユ r e in relationship with other particles. ハ Everything in the Universe is composed of these メ b undles of potentiality モ that only manifest their potential in relationship.

We live in a culture that does not acknowledge this scientific fact. ハ We believe wholeheartedly in the individual and build organizations based on this erroneous idea. ハ We create org charts of separate boxes, with lines connecting the boxes that indicate reporting relationships and alleged channels of communication. ハ But our neatly drawn organizations are as fictitious as building blocks are to physicists. ハ The only form of organization used on this planet is the network ム w ebs of interconnected, interdependent relationships. ハ This is true for human organizations as well. ハ Whatever boxes we stuff staff into, people always reach out to those who will give them information, be their allies, offer support or cheer them up. ハ Those lines and boxes are imaginary. ハ The real organization is always a dense network of relationships.
    38. 38. <ul><li>America is in
the midst of a huge メ w ake up call モ about what is the cost to the rest of the
world for us to be living the life we are living. It isn ユ t about terrorist activity;
it ユ s about noticing that we put an extraordinary demand on the rest of the
world for resources and energy, and that our way of life does not work well
for most other people because of the demands we put on them. So that ユ s what
I ユ v e been feeling about メ d oing no harm モム w e don ユ t even know what we ユ r e
doing that ユ s causing harm. </li></ul>
    39. 39. To conclude <ul><li>メ I t ユ s just our turn to help the world. モハ What I love about this statement is that it reminds us of other times and other people who stepped forward to help create the changes that were necessary. ハ We do live in an extraordinary era when, for the first time, humans have altered the planet ユ s ecology and created consequences which are just beginning to materialize in frightening ways. ハ But throughout human existence, there have always been people willing to step forward to struggle valiantly in the hope that they might reverse the downward course of events. ハ Some succeeded, some did not. ハ But as we face our own time, we need to remember that we stand on very firm and solid shoulders. </li></ul>