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Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
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Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce

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  • 1. Week 5 Chapters 7 and 8 Appraising and Managing Performance – Training the Workforce © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc., Toronto, Ontario 7- 5
  • 2. The Performance Appraisal Process Three steps: 1. Defining performance expectations 2. Appraising performance 3. Providing feedback to employee regarding performance
  • 3. The Performance Appraisal Process 1. Provides information for promotion and salary decisions 2. Provides opportunity for reinforcement and/or corrective action regarding performance 3. Provides opportunity to review career plans Why Should Performance Be Appraised?
  • 4. The Performance Appraisal Process
    • lack of standards; irrelevant, subjective,
    • unrealistic standards
    • poor measures of performance
    • rater errors
    • poor feedback to employees; eg. arguing
    • failure to use evaluation results for decision
    • making
    Performance Appraisal Problems
  • 5. Step 1: Defining Performance Expectations
    • job description often insufficient to clarify
    • performance expectations
    • measurable standards should be developed
    • for each position
  • 6. Step 2: Appraisal Methods—Who, How Trait: _____ ____ Outstanding ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Improvement Needed ____ Unsatisfactory ____ Not Rated Graphic Rating Scale
  • 7. Appraisal Methods Critical Incident Method
    • keep a record of:
      • uncommonly good
      • undesirable
    • work-related behaviours
    • review with employee at predetermined times
  • 8. Appraisal Methods Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (1 of 2)
    • Generate critical incidents (job experts specify
    • effective and ineffective job-related behaviours)
    • Develop performance dimensions (experts
    • group incidents into clusters)
    • Reallocate incidents (different experts group
      • incidents into same clusters; retain incidents
      • similarly assigned twice)
  • 9. Appraisal Methods Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (2 of 2)
    • Scale the incidents (from effective to
    • ineffective behaviour)
    • Develop final instrument (6-7 incidents
    • used as behavioural anchors for each
    • performance dimension)
  • 10. Appraisal Methods Management by Objectives (MBO)
    • Set the organization’s goals
    • Set departmental goals
    • Discuss departmental goals
    • Define expected results (individual)
    • Performance reviews: measure the results
    • Provide feedback
  • 11. Appraisal Methods Management by Objectives (MBO) Problems 1. Setting unclear, unmeasurable objectives 2. Time consuming 3. Tug of war between manager and employee
  • 12. Appraisal Methods Technology-based Methods New software programs enable employees to check their own performance against prescribed criteria
  • 13. Performance Appraisal: Problems and Solutions
    • validity
    • reliability
    • unclear standards
    Validity and Reliability
  • 14. Performance Appraisal: Problems and Solutions Who Should Do the Appraisal?
    • immediate supervisor
    • peers
    • rating committees
    • self
    • employees/subordinates
    • 360-degree appraisal (all of the above)
  • 15. Dealing with Rater Errors
    • halo effect
    • central tendency
    • leniency or strictness
    • appraisal bias
    • recency effects
    • similar-to-me bias
  • 16. Performance Appraisal: Problems and Solutions Avoiding Appraisal Problems Ensure rater awareness of problems Train supervisors to eliminate rating errors Ensure that appraisals are reviewed by the supervisor’s immediate boss
  • 17. Step 3: Providing Feedback—The Appraisal Interview Appraisal Interview
    • An interview in which the supervisor and
    • employee review the appraisal and make
    • plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce
    • strengths
  • 18. The Appraisal Interview How to Prepare for the Appraisal Interview
    • assemble the data
    • prepare the employee
    • choose the time and place
  • 19. The Appraisal Interview How to Conduct an Appraisal Interview
    • be direct and specific
    • focus on job-related behaviours
    • encourage the person to talk
    • develop an action plan
  • 20. The Appraisal Interview How to Handle a Defensive Employee
    • recognize that defensive behaviour is normal
    • never attack a person’s defenses
    • postpone action
    • recognize human limitations
  • 21. The Appraisal Interview
    • constructive criticism within a dignified
    • context
    • ensure the interview leads to improved
    • performance
    • consider appropriate use of formal written
    • warnings
  • 22. Legal and Ethical Issues
    • should be the bedrock of a performance
    • appraisal
    • accurate feedback is based on human rights
    • legislation prohibitions
  • 23. Orienting Employees
    • Provides new employees with basic
    • background information about:
      • the organization
      • the job
    • Reality Shock
    • discrepancy between new employee’s
    • expectations and reality
  • 24. Orienting Employees
    • better job performance
    • reduced turnover
    • less disciplinary action
    • fewer grievances
    • reduced number of workplace injuries
    Purpose of Orientation Programs
  • 25. Orienting Employees
    • too much information in a short time
    • too many forms to fill out
    • little or no orientation
    • HR information too broad; supervisory
    • information too detailed
    Problems With Orientation Programs
  • 26. Orienting Employees Employee reaction Evaluation of Orientation Socialization effects Cost/benefit analysis
  • 27. The Training Process Step 5. Evaluation and Follow-up Step 4. Implementation Step 3. Validation Step 2. Instructional Design Step 1. Needs Analysis
  • 28. The Training Process
    • identify required job performance skills
    • analyze audience
    • develop specific measurable objectives
    Step 1: Needs Analysis
  • 29. The Training Process
    • prepare curriculum
    • ensure training materials support learning
    • objectives
    • ensure quality and effectiveness of program
    • elements
    Step 2: Instructional Design
  • 30. The Training Process
    • validate training using representative audience
    • make revisions based on pilot results
    Step 3: Validation
  • 31. The Training Process
    • train-the-trainer workshops
    • focus on presentation as well as content
    Step 4: Implementation
  • 32. The Training Process
    • Reaction
      • document learners’ immediate reactions
    • 2. Learning
      • use feedback devices to measure learning
    Step 5: Evaluation and Follow-up (1 of 2)
  • 33. The Training Process
    • 3. Behaviour
      • note supervisory reactions to learners’
      • performance following training
    • 4. Results
      • measure improvement in learners’ job
      • performance
    Step 5: Evaluation and Follow-up (2 of 2)
  • 34. Training Needs Analysis
    • Task Analysis (for new employees)
    • list tasks
    • when and how often performed
    • quantity and quality of performance
    • conditions under which performed
    • competencies required
    • where best learned
  • 35. Training Needs Analysis
    • Performance Analysis
    • (for existing employees)
    • appraise performance
    • distinguish between “can’t do”
    • and “won’t do”
  • 36. Training Techniques
    • on-the-job
    • apprenticeship
    • job instruction
    • lectures
    • videoconferencing
    • programmed learning
    • vestibule/simulated
    • e-learning
    • computer-based
    • training (CBT)
  • 37. Training Techniques 1. Preparation of learner 2. Presentation of the operation 3. Performance tryout 4. Follow-up On-the-Job Training
  • 38. Training Techniques 1. Present questions, facts or problems to the learner 2. Allow the learner to respond 3. Provide feedback on the accuracy of answers Programmed Learning
  • 39. Training for Special Purposes International business training Diversity training Customer service training AIDS education Literacy training Training for teamwork and empowerment
  • 40. Evaluating the Training Effort Reaction Results Learning Behaviour
  • 41. Management and Executive Development
    • improves managerial performance by:
    • imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or
    • increasing skills
    • may be company-wide, or position-focused
    • includes succession planning
    Management development:
  • 42. Management and Executive Development
    • Developmental Job Rotation
    • Coaching/Understudy Approach
    • Action Learning
    On-the-job Management-development techniques:
  • 43. Management and Executive Development
    • The Case Study Method—Management Games
    • Outside Seminars—Role-playing
    • College/University-related Programs
    • Behaviour Modelling
    • In-house Development Centres
    Off-the-job Management-development techniques: