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Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce
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Appraising and Managing Performance - Training the Workforce

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  1. Week 5 Chapters 7 and 8 Appraising and Managing Performance – Training the Workforce © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc., Toronto, Ontario 7- 5
  2. The Performance Appraisal Process Three steps: 1. Defining performance expectations 2. Appraising performance 3. Providing feedback to employee regarding performance
  3. The Performance Appraisal Process 1. Provides information for promotion and salary decisions 2. Provides opportunity for reinforcement and/or corrective action regarding performance 3. Provides opportunity to review career plans Why Should Performance Be Appraised?
  4. The Performance Appraisal Process <ul><li>lack of standards; irrelevant, subjective, </li></ul><ul><li>unrealistic standards </li></ul><ul><li>poor measures of performance </li></ul><ul><li>rater errors </li></ul><ul><li>poor feedback to employees; eg. arguing </li></ul><ul><li>failure to use evaluation results for decision </li></ul><ul><li>making </li></ul>Performance Appraisal Problems
  5. Step 1: Defining Performance Expectations <ul><li>job description often insufficient to clarify </li></ul><ul><li>performance expectations </li></ul><ul><li>measurable standards should be developed </li></ul><ul><li>for each position </li></ul>
  6. Step 2: Appraisal Methods—Who, How Trait: _____ ____ Outstanding ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Improvement Needed ____ Unsatisfactory ____ Not Rated Graphic Rating Scale
  7. Appraisal Methods Critical Incident Method <ul><li>keep a record of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uncommonly good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>undesirable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>work-related behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>review with employee at predetermined times </li></ul>
  8. Appraisal Methods Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (1 of 2) <ul><li>Generate critical incidents (job experts specify </li></ul><ul><li>effective and ineffective job-related behaviours) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop performance dimensions (experts </li></ul><ul><li>group incidents into clusters) </li></ul><ul><li>Reallocate incidents (different experts group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incidents into same clusters; retain incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similarly assigned twice) </li></ul></ul>
  9. Appraisal Methods Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (2 of 2) <ul><li>Scale the incidents (from effective to </li></ul><ul><li>ineffective behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop final instrument (6-7 incidents </li></ul><ul><li>used as behavioural anchors for each </li></ul><ul><li>performance dimension) </li></ul>
  10. Appraisal Methods Management by Objectives (MBO) <ul><li>Set the organization’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>Set departmental goals </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss departmental goals </li></ul><ul><li>Define expected results (individual) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance reviews: measure the results </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul>
  11. Appraisal Methods Management by Objectives (MBO) Problems 1. Setting unclear, unmeasurable objectives 2. Time consuming 3. Tug of war between manager and employee
  12. Appraisal Methods Technology-based Methods New software programs enable employees to check their own performance against prescribed criteria
  13. Performance Appraisal: Problems and Solutions <ul><li>validity </li></ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul><ul><li>unclear standards </li></ul>Validity and Reliability
  14. Performance Appraisal: Problems and Solutions Who Should Do the Appraisal? <ul><li>immediate supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>peers </li></ul><ul><li>rating committees </li></ul><ul><li>self </li></ul><ul><li>employees/subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>360-degree appraisal (all of the above) </li></ul>
  15. Dealing with Rater Errors <ul><li>halo effect </li></ul><ul><li>central tendency </li></ul><ul><li>leniency or strictness </li></ul><ul><li>appraisal bias </li></ul><ul><li>recency effects </li></ul><ul><li>similar-to-me bias </li></ul>
  16. Performance Appraisal: Problems and Solutions Avoiding Appraisal Problems Ensure rater awareness of problems Train supervisors to eliminate rating errors Ensure that appraisals are reviewed by the supervisor’s immediate boss
  17. Step 3: Providing Feedback—The Appraisal Interview Appraisal Interview <ul><li>An interview in which the supervisor and </li></ul><ul><li>employee review the appraisal and make </li></ul><ul><li>plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce </li></ul><ul><li>strengths </li></ul>
  18. The Appraisal Interview How to Prepare for the Appraisal Interview <ul><li>assemble the data </li></ul><ul><li>prepare the employee </li></ul><ul><li>choose the time and place </li></ul>
  19. The Appraisal Interview How to Conduct an Appraisal Interview <ul><li>be direct and specific </li></ul><ul><li>focus on job-related behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>encourage the person to talk </li></ul><ul><li>develop an action plan </li></ul>
  20. The Appraisal Interview How to Handle a Defensive Employee <ul><li>recognize that defensive behaviour is normal </li></ul><ul><li>never attack a person’s defenses </li></ul><ul><li>postpone action </li></ul><ul><li>recognize human limitations </li></ul>
  21. The Appraisal Interview <ul><li>constructive criticism within a dignified </li></ul><ul><li>context </li></ul><ul><li>ensure the interview leads to improved </li></ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul><ul><li>consider appropriate use of formal written </li></ul><ul><li>warnings </li></ul>
  22. Legal and Ethical Issues <ul><li>should be the bedrock of a performance </li></ul><ul><li>appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>accurate feedback is based on human rights </li></ul><ul><li>legislation prohibitions </li></ul>
  23. Orienting Employees <ul><li>Provides new employees with basic </li></ul><ul><li>background information about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reality Shock </li></ul><ul><li>discrepancy between new employee’s </li></ul><ul><li>expectations and reality </li></ul>
  24. Orienting Employees <ul><li>better job performance </li></ul><ul><li>reduced turnover </li></ul><ul><li>less disciplinary action </li></ul><ul><li>fewer grievances </li></ul><ul><li>reduced number of workplace injuries </li></ul>Purpose of Orientation Programs
  25. Orienting Employees <ul><li>too much information in a short time </li></ul><ul><li>too many forms to fill out </li></ul><ul><li>little or no orientation </li></ul><ul><li>HR information too broad; supervisory </li></ul><ul><li>information too detailed </li></ul>Problems With Orientation Programs
  26. Orienting Employees Employee reaction Evaluation of Orientation Socialization effects Cost/benefit analysis
  27. The Training Process Step 5. Evaluation and Follow-up Step 4. Implementation Step 3. Validation Step 2. Instructional Design Step 1. Needs Analysis
  28. The Training Process <ul><li>identify required job performance skills </li></ul><ul><li>analyze audience </li></ul><ul><li>develop specific measurable objectives </li></ul>Step 1: Needs Analysis
  29. The Training Process <ul><li>prepare curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>ensure training materials support learning </li></ul><ul><li>objectives </li></ul><ul><li>ensure quality and effectiveness of program </li></ul><ul><li>elements </li></ul>Step 2: Instructional Design
  30. The Training Process <ul><li>validate training using representative audience </li></ul><ul><li>make revisions based on pilot results </li></ul>Step 3: Validation
  31. The Training Process <ul><li>train-the-trainer workshops </li></ul><ul><li>focus on presentation as well as content </li></ul>Step 4: Implementation
  32. The Training Process <ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>document learners’ immediate reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use feedback devices to measure learning </li></ul></ul>Step 5: Evaluation and Follow-up (1 of 2)
  33. The Training Process <ul><li>3. Behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>note supervisory reactions to learners’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance following training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measure improvement in learners’ job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul></ul>Step 5: Evaluation and Follow-up (2 of 2)
  34. Training Needs Analysis <ul><li>Task Analysis (for new employees) </li></ul><ul><li>list tasks </li></ul><ul><li>when and how often performed </li></ul><ul><li>quantity and quality of performance </li></ul><ul><li>conditions under which performed </li></ul><ul><li>competencies required </li></ul><ul><li>where best learned </li></ul>
  35. Training Needs Analysis <ul><li>Performance Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>(for existing employees) </li></ul><ul><li>appraise performance </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish between “can’t do” </li></ul><ul><li>and “won’t do” </li></ul>
  36. Training Techniques <ul><li>on-the-job </li></ul><ul><li>apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>job instruction </li></ul><ul><li>lectures </li></ul><ul><li>videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>programmed learning </li></ul><ul><li>vestibule/simulated </li></ul><ul><li>e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>computer-based </li></ul><ul><li>training (CBT) </li></ul>
  37. Training Techniques 1. Preparation of learner 2. Presentation of the operation 3. Performance tryout 4. Follow-up On-the-Job Training
  38. Training Techniques 1. Present questions, facts or problems to the learner 2. Allow the learner to respond 3. Provide feedback on the accuracy of answers Programmed Learning
  39. Training for Special Purposes International business training Diversity training Customer service training AIDS education Literacy training Training for teamwork and empowerment
  40. Evaluating the Training Effort Reaction Results Learning Behaviour
  41. Management and Executive Development <ul><li>improves managerial performance by: </li></ul><ul><li>imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or </li></ul><ul><li>increasing skills </li></ul><ul><li>may be company-wide, or position-focused </li></ul><ul><li>includes succession planning </li></ul>Management development:
  42. Management and Executive Development <ul><li>Developmental Job Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching/Understudy Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Action Learning </li></ul>On-the-job Management-development techniques:
  43. Management and Executive Development <ul><li>The Case Study Method—Management Games </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Seminars—Role-playing </li></ul><ul><li>College/University-related Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>In-house Development Centres </li></ul>Off-the-job Management-development techniques:

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