Social cohesion in singapore


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  • I just wanted to say thank you so much for these slides. My teacher bailed on us and i have major exams on this. It cleared up the policies and other stuffs. Thank you! :)
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Social cohesion in singapore

  1. 1. Social Cohesion In Singapore <ul><li>Multi- Ethnic Societies In Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity Of Peace And Harmony Among Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges Faced by Multi- Ethnic Societies In Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing About Social Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies Adopted To Prevent Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Role Of The Government </li></ul><ul><li>Are The Policies Effective in Bringing About Social Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>
  2. 2. Necessity Of Peace and Harmony In Singapore <ul><li>Singapore is a multi-racial and multi-religious society. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, there is a need to manage the ethnic diversity to ensure that we live in harmony with all Singaporean despite the differences in culture, religion and race. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Singapore’s social cohesion and harmony can be easily destroyed. There are several threats that we have to be careful about. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Challenges Faced By Multi- Ethnic Societies In Singapore <ul><li>Managing perceptions of different religious groups (Maria Hertogh Riots In 1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Managing perceptions of different racial groups (Racial Riots In 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Threats from external forces(Transnational Terrorism) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Maria Hertogh Riot in 1950 <ul><li>Her parents were imprisoned by the Japanese, and put her under care of a Malay lady and Maria is raised as a Muslim and married a Malay teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>After her parents were released they demanded for maria back and court trail gave the custody to the parents and there is unhappiness from the malays. Riots broke out outside the court as Muslims felt that court had been unfair. </li></ul><ul><li>24hr curfew was imposed for 2 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Maria Hertogh riots shows? </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the sensitivity of religious issues and the need to handle them with care. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Racial Riots In 1964 <ul><li>The 1964 Race Riots were a series of riots that took place in Singapore during two separate periods in July and September between Chinese and Malay groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The first incident occurred on 21 July during a Malay procession that marked Muhammad's birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>In total, the violence killed 36 people and injured another 556. </li></ul><ul><li>About 3,000 people were arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Racial Riots show? </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of how easily harmony can be broken with irresponsible media and triggers like racial issues. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Transnational Terrorism <ul><li>Jemaah Islamiah (JI) militant group </li></ul><ul><li>Arrests made in Singapore since 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects arrested in Singapore planned attacks </li></ul><ul><li>on U.S. Navy ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities included fund-raising & purchase of bomb making materials </li></ul><ul><li>Alerted the fact war against terrorism is an on-going thing </li></ul><ul><li>These acts can cause ill-feelings among different ethnic groups and threaten racial & religious harmony </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bringing About Social Cohesion <ul><li>Building a National Identity -Multi Racialism </li></ul><ul><li>-Common Practices </li></ul><ul><li>-Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding the interests of the minority groups -Minority Representation </li></ul><ul><li>-Self Help Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a Common Space </li></ul><ul><li>-Events Organized By Grassroots Organisations </li></ul><ul><li>-Opportunities offered by educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>-Common living space provided by public housing </li></ul><ul><li>-Inter-Racial Confidence Circles (IRCCs) and Harmony Circles (HCs) </li></ul><ul><li>-Shared experience through National Service </li></ul>Strategies Adopted To Prevent Conflicts
  8. 8. Building a National Identity <ul><li>Multi Racialism </li></ul><ul><li>This policy ensures equality among the races, with no special rights given to any group. </li></ul><ul><li>Since everyone is seen as a valued member, a national identity as Singaporeans is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Equality among all races. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Activities carried out together. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.singing the national anthem, the pledge & flag raising ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>These practices foster a common identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Inculcate loyalty and national pride. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Building a National Identity <ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Students to learn English & their Mother Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>As English is a non-native language, no one has an advantage over others </li></ul><ul><li>English is also the language linking all the different races </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Mother Tongue to impart values and cultural traditions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Safeguarding the interests of the minority groups <ul><li>Minority Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Such a policy gives minority groups a say in governance </li></ul><ul><li>To safeguard interests of minority groups </li></ul><ul><li>PCMR (Presidential Council of Minority Right) </li></ul><ul><li>No racial or religious group is disadvantaged </li></ul><ul><li>GRC (Group Representation Constituency) </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that minority race is represented in the parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help groups </li></ul><ul><li>CDAC, SINDA, MENDAKI & Eurasian Association </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in studies of the less privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Gives moral support </li></ul><ul><li>Tuition classes participated by all races (interaction) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Developing A Common Space <ul><li>Events/ Programmes organised by grassroots organisations </li></ul><ul><li>PA – People’s Association </li></ul><ul><li>Create common space through their wide range of programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Home stay opportunity for a student with a host family from another ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Builds respect and friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities offered by educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Open to ALL </li></ul><ul><li>Daily interaction between students provides opportunities for students of different ethnic groups to form strong friendships/ bonds </li></ul><ul><li>CCAs- promote closer bonds between youths of different ethnic groups </li></ul>
  12. 12. Developing A Common Space <ul><li>Common living space provided by public housing </li></ul><ul><li>1980s – too many people from same racial group living in same estates </li></ul><ul><li>Could hinder social bonding </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – ethnic integration policy introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Limits proportion of races in every neighbourhood and block </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure even distribution of races </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Racial Confidence Circles (IRCCs) and Harmony Circles (HCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide common space to foster greater understanding among diff ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Important that these activities are organised for a long-term basis rather than a one-off activity </li></ul><ul><li>To Appreciate and develop respect </li></ul>