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  1. 1. Strategic Planning to Increase Cultural Competence in Organizations Kevin Browne, PhD Midwest Center for Cultural Competence, LLC WI-SHRM Conference, October 12, 2006 [email_address]
  2. 2. Training Goals <ul><li>Understand culture and how it affects organizations and all spheres of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand dimensions of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the cultural competence continuum </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of cultural competence to organizational and global business success </li></ul><ul><li>Understand a Strategic Planning process for developing more culturally competent organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an opportunity to explore your cultural values and beliefs and how they affect your organization. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Culture: What is It? <ul><li>“ Culture is the sum total of life patterns passed on from generation to generation within a group of people and includes institutions, language, religious ideals, habits of thinking, artistic expressions, and patterns of social and interpersonal relationships.” ( Hodge, Struckman, and Trost, 1975) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Culture is man’s medium; there is not one aspect of human life that is not touched and altered by culture. This means personality, how people express themselves, the way they think, how they move, how problems are solved, how their cities are planned and laid out, how transportation systems function and are organized, as well as how economic and government systems are put together and function.” ( Edward Hall, 1976) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Culture <ul><li>Everyone has culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is learned and shared, and always subject to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is localized, created through discrete interactions among specific people. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is evaluative: values are embedded in behaviors and choices </li></ul><ul><li>People often belong to many subcultures at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying cultural values change slowly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Iceberg Theory <ul><li>More Visible Features </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Less Visible Features </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Styles </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lens Exercise <ul><li>People often make assumptions about others in order to understand with whom they are dealing. </li></ul><ul><li>This defining of others is rooted in needs for control in our lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship building is key to cultural competence! </li></ul><ul><li>What is our lens regarding the culture of business/organizations? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dimensions of Diversity <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership status </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic status </li></ul><ul><li>Education level </li></ul><ul><li>Physical appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic location </li></ul><ul><li>Rural/Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Work background </li></ul><ul><li>Parental status </li></ul><ul><li>Family structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive ability </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship status </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cultural Competence <ul><li>A behavior response to cultural difference and diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying where we are on the continuum helps us move toward greater supporting and promoting of cultural competence. </li></ul><ul><li>We are always, inevitably, responding to culture and difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Our basic life position on the continuum represents fundamental beliefs and values. In any given encounter we can move up or down on the continuum. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cultural Competence Continuum <ul><li>Cultural destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Incapacity </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-competence </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural proficiency </li></ul>
  10. 10. CC Continuum <ul><li>Cultural Destructiveness—making conscious efforts to destroy different cultures (“we’re number one”). Belief in cultural superiority; oppresses others. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Incapacity—inability to be helpful to other cultures (“take care of our own”). Paternalistic, ignorant of others, denies equal access </li></ul>
  11. 11. CC Continuum <ul><li>Cultural Denial—belief that dimensions of diversity aren’t important (“everyone’s the same”). Belief that dominant models apply to all, encourages suppression of difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Pre-competence—realizes inadequacy of response to difference, attempts to improve (‘nice policies, limited action”). Dangers: complacency and tokenism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CC Continuum <ul><li>Cultural competence—valuing and embracing difference, self-examination, developing cultural knowledge and skills, commitment to cultural encounters (“mutual adaptation to difference”). </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural proficiency—mindfully engaging in behaviors and beliefs that value dimensions of diversity (“hold culture in high esteem”). Advocate for cultural competence throughout system and community </li></ul>
  13. 13. Benefits from becoming more culturally competent <ul><li>Competitive advantage in the global marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Higher workplace productivity </li></ul><ul><li>State/Federal compliance </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cultural Intelligence <ul><li>Need to switch off cultural cruise control </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge: specific knowledge of cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness: paying attention to context—be aware on own assumptions and feelings, notice what is apparent about others, see multiple perspectives, use empathy, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Skills: ability to adapt behavior and communication to a range of intercultural situations </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion—what does silence mean? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cultural Ways of Knowing <ul><li>Different cultural priorities: achievement, social harmony (saying no, bad news), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing: analytic, holistic, sensing, etc.—linear thinking not shared worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships or Results </li></ul><ul><li>Is age valued or devalued? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cultural Meanings in Business and Organizations <ul><li>Meanings derive from the worldviews of the different parties—diverge or converge? </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings contractual or relationship-based? </li></ul><ul><li>The context tells us why , which leads to what. </li></ul><ul><li>Contexts are both verbal and non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding meanings requires good communication and relationships. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Culture and Business <ul><li>Most of the world conducts business based on trust and relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Intelligence requires knowledge, flexibility, mindful awareness, behavioral skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Openness and learning from experiences of difference, generalizing the learning. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Intercultural Communication <ul><li>High-Low context: </li></ul><ul><li>High Context: The successful exchange of information depends on applying a shared framework for understanding. Meaning tends to be implicit and less literal. Heavy reliance on voice tone, body posture, facial expressions, eye contact, use of silence, and other non-verbal cues. Context is critical! </li></ul><ul><li>Low Context: Reliance is placed upon explicit meanings, often written. Words are taken literally, and non-verbal communication is often ignored. Documentation is prevalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face vs. e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Are organizations in the U.S. mostly high or low? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Strategic planning I <ul><li>Identified Needs/Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Goals/Objectives/ Desired Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies/Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Target Dates </li></ul><ul><li>Status/Actual Outcomes </li></ul>
  20. 20. Strategic Planning II <ul><li>Product Development/Service Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Community relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Staff/Management development </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
  21. 21. Organizational Environment <ul><li>Physical Environment: is the design conducive to diverse styles and needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and Management: do they take a leadership role in modeling cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and Language: is it respectful of different cultures and styles of communication? </li></ul><ul><li>General Environment: is the organizational tone one of appreciating differences? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Physical Environment <ul><ul><li>Mission/Vision Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility Procedures </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Staff & Management <ul><ul><li>Education and Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal, unit and agency assessments </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Communication and Language <ul><ul><li>Respect Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilingual Capacity </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Dialogue vs. Debate <ul><li>Dialogue: </li></ul><ul><li>Inquire </li></ul><ul><li>Unfold shared meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Uncover and examine assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion/Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Tell, sell, persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Gain agreement on one meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate/select the best </li></ul><ul><li>Justify/defend assumptions </li></ul>
  26. 26. Organizational Cultural Assessment <ul><li>Cultural Audit </li></ul><ul><li>--Surveys of organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>--Qualitative interviews </li></ul>
  27. 27. Coaching for Cultural Competence <ul><li>Individuals and Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Some tools: MBTI, FIRO-B, 360 assessment </li></ul>
  28. 28. Team-Building <ul><li>Teams are increasingly multicultural </li></ul><ul><li>Have to manage process, give feedback, create CQ </li></ul><ul><li>Value of cross-cultural teams— increase range of expertise and performance, reduce errors </li></ul><ul><li>Requires flexible leadership, overcoming “group think” </li></ul><ul><li>Group stages: forming, norming, storming, performing (Tuckman 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Team-building exercises: challenge exercises, appreciative inquiry with teams </li></ul>
  29. 29. Appreciative Inquiry Process <ul><li>A.I. as a change process for building cultural competence in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the organization’s existing culture (inner dialogue) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how this org. culture/dialogue works to resist change </li></ul><ul><li>Change the stories (that anchor the culture) in order to change the inner dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Works with organizations and teams </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cultural Self-Assessment <ul><li>A brief culture assessment (handout) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Poetics of Diversity <ul><li>“ What sets worlds in motion is the interplay of differences, their attractions and repulsions. Life is plurality, death is uniformity. By suppressing differences and peculiarities, by eliminating civilizations and cultures, progress weakens life and favors death. The ideal of a single civilization for everyone, implicit in the cult of progress and technique, impoverishes and mutilates us. Every view of the world that becomes extinct, every culture that disappears, diminishes a possibility of life” Octavio Paz, The Labryinth of Solitude </li></ul>
  32. 32. Selected Resources <ul><li>Midwest Center for Cultural Competence, LLC 608.251.4726 </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Intelligence, by D.C. Thomas and K. Inkson, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace, by L. Beamer and I. Varner, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry Handbook, by D. Cooperrider, D. Whitney and J.M. Stavros, 2003. </li></ul>