Strategic Sport Marketing Management
Strategic Sport Marketing Management <ul><li>Position the organization or product relative to the competition within the m...
Contingency Framework for Strategic Sport Marketing <ul><li>Internal contingencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational vi...
Strategic Sports Marketing Process <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marke...
Strategic Sports Marketing Process <ul><li>Implementing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sta...
Strategic Sports Marketing Process <ul><li>Controlling  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring results  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Making Marketing Resource Allocations <ul><li>Rationality —linked with the probability of gaining the highest returns at t...
<ul><li>Rationality was the highest rated form. </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity of resources influenced the exchange norm used ...
Marketing Resource Allocations <ul><li>Men’s sports receive more monetary and non-monetary marketing resources than do wom...
<ul><li>Assume you are the Marketing Director of a NCAA Division I institution which sponsors 10 men’s teams (football; ba...
Competitive Forces and Profit <ul><li>Threat of new competitors—the  fight for market share drives prices down and decreas...
Starter Corporations (firsts) <ul><li>Bought the rights to use the logos, marks, and colors of professional and collegiate...
The Demise of Starter <ul><li>Threat of new competitors  as due to too many licensees in too many stores </li></ul><ul><li...
Strategic Wheel of Service Performance <ul><li>Market orientation  includes customer orientation, competitor orientation, ...
Customer Relationship Marketing <ul><li>Defined as to establish, develop, and maintain successful relational exchanges.  <...
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Strategic Sport Marketing Management Strategic Sport ...

  1. 1. Strategic Sport Marketing Management
  2. 2. Strategic Sport Marketing Management <ul><li>Position the organization or product relative to the competition within the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a vision and mission </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a SWOT analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a data-based information system </li></ul><ul><li>Establish strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a comprehensive marketing plan </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the marketing plans with resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and evaluate the marketing plan </li></ul>SWOT analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
  3. 3. Contingency Framework for Strategic Sport Marketing <ul><li>Internal contingencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational goals and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External contingencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition—direct; substitute; indirect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal and political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural and social trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Strategic Sports Marketing Process <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market segmentation, target and niche markets, and positioning (and repositioning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing mix—product; price; place; promotions </li></ul></ul>http://www.cstv.com/auto_pdf/p_hotos/s_chools/kan/genrel/auto_pdf/06-strategic-plan
  5. 5. Strategic Sports Marketing Process <ul><li>Implementing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgeting—resource acquisition and allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating and rewarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing information systems and information management </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Strategic Sports Marketing Process <ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial and profitability analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing audit </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Making Marketing Resource Allocations <ul><li>Rationality —linked with the probability of gaining the highest returns at the least cost; is the highest rated by marketers, especially when resources are limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributive justice —fairness will be used as basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Power —the external and internal influence of others will impact decisions (often based on fans and their support for traditional men’s programs and men’s revenue-producing teams). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Rationality was the highest rated form. </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity of resources influenced the exchange norm used to distribute resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior results influenced the exchange norm utilized to distribute resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Power relationships predicted which sports received resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality did not predict which sports received resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers are primarily concerned with maximizing returns rather than being fair. </li></ul><ul><li>When resources are scarce, marketers are likely to focus on accruing the highest value for the lowest cost. Marketers are more likely to be fair when distributing non-monetary resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers are less likely to distribute marketing resources to programs that have not delivered in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of powerful stakeholders tends to shift more resources into men’s sports over women’s sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers will seek the highest returns regardless of the sport’s gender composition. </li></ul>Key Findings Implications
  9. 9. Marketing Resource Allocations <ul><li>Men’s sports receive more monetary and non-monetary marketing resources than do women’s sports. </li></ul><ul><li>High-profile sports receive more monetary and non-monetary marketing resources than do low profile sports. </li></ul><ul><li>When resources are scarce, sport marketers use rationality to justify providing more resources to men’s sports that have been successful in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport marketers use fairness to justify providing more resources to men’s or women’s sports that have been successful in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>When resources are abundant, sport marketers use distributive justice to justify providing more resources to women’s sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport marketers use power to justify giving more resources to men’s sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport marketers are less likely to invest marketing resources in programs that have not delivered in the past. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Assume you are the Marketing Director of a NCAA Division I institution which sponsors 10 men’s teams (football; basketball; baseball; golf; tennis; cross country; indoor track; outdoor track; swimming; wrestling) and 11 women’s teams (volleyball; soccer; basketball; softball; golf; tennis; cross country; indoor track; outdoor track; swimming; rowing). You have a budget of $100,000 to allocate for marketing among these sports. To assist you in making your allocation decisions, please assume the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Football and men’s basketball are the most popular sports and the only revenue-producing sports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the past five years, over 50% of the marketing budget has been allocated to football and men’s basketball with the goal to sell out the stadium and the arena for home games. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseball and women’s basketball are the only teams that have won conference championships within the past three years. The other teams have won between 40%-60% of their competitions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each team in the past has received at least a base budget of $2,000 for marketing even though no measureable results in increased attendance has been achieved at men’s and women’s golf, men’s and women’s tennis, men’s and women’s cross country, indoor track, and outdoor track, men’s and women’s swimming, wrestling, volleyball, soccer, softball, and rowing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The institution does not fully comply with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 in that it allocates 46% of its grants-in-aid, 42% of its operating budget, and 37% of its recruiting budget to women’s sports. The undergraduate enrollment is 52% female. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a marketing resource allocation for monetary and non-monetary resources for the upcoming year based on ? and justify your allocations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Competitive Forces and Profit <ul><li>Threat of new competitors—the fight for market share drives prices down and decreases profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of rivalry among existing competitors leads to price cutting, increased advertising costs, and increased customer services </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of substitute products is hard to identify because is more than sports </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers lowers profits by requiring higher quality or more services </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers squeezes out profits through cost increases </li></ul>
  12. 12. Starter Corporations (firsts) <ul><li>Bought the rights to use the logos, marks, and colors of professional and collegiate teams </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized authentic apparel like worn by players (in contrast to official apparel) </li></ul><ul><li>Placed the Starter logo on the outside of merchandise along with the team’s logo or mark (double branding) </li></ul><ul><li>Used satin, instead of cheaper fabrics </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Demise of Starter <ul><li>Threat of new competitors as due to too many licensees in too many stores </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of rivalry among existing competitors , especially companies like Nike and Reebok with huge resources </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of substitute products saturated the market </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers increased due to store closings and consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers increased due to higher licensing and royalty fees </li></ul><ul><li>Was highly dependent on the professional leagues as its core competency; but, it became a stagnant core </li></ul><ul><li>Also, tried own retail stores, international expansion, and non-team sports </li></ul>
  14. 14. Strategic Wheel of Service Performance <ul><li>Market orientation includes customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-function coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic flexibility includes intent and capabilities for providing superior customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage includes doing the expected in customer service but also doing more by knowing what the customer wants and values </li></ul><ul><li>Service performance includes customer retention and satisfaction </li></ul>
  15. 15. Customer Relationship Marketing <ul><li>Defined as to establish, develop, and maintain successful relational exchanges. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus must be on the customer (retention is more important than capture). </li></ul><ul><li>Companies spend 80% on attracting new customers and only 20% on services existing customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most customers leave or stop making purchases due to service-related reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies lose 10-30% of customers each year (lose on average 50% over 5 years). </li></ul><ul><li>A former customer is more likely to return than is a person who has never purchased. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing customer retention by 5% can increase lifetime profits from an average customer by 25-100%. </li></ul>
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